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How to Care for Smoketree

Smoketree is a deciduous tree native to Southern Europe and Central China. The flowers of the smoketree are pinkish-purple and long-lasting. They grow in clusters along branches and give a smoky appearance to the tree when in bloom. In China, they are used as important fall decorations due to their foliage turn bright red in the fall.
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purification
Water
Water
Every 1-2 weeks
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Full sun
Toxic to Humans
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Smoketree
care_basic_guide

Basic Care Guide

Cultivation:WaterDetail

How to Water Smoketree?

A young plant will require regular watering to achieve optimum growth. Water your smoketree once a week, or more frequently in hot conditions. Once established, the plant can tolerate drier conditions. It will need moderate watering, meaning every 10 to 14 days, when it is actively growing in the spring and summer. Mulching also helps to conserve moisture in the soil, hence less frequent watering will be needed.
If your smoketree is being grown in a container, it will need irrigation more frequently than an in-ground tree. It’s best to keep the soil moist but not soggy, regardless of where it is planted. As a general rule, water the plant when the top 2.5 cm of soil feels dry.
Cultivation:WaterDetail
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What's the best method to water my Smoketree?
You might want to put a garden hose at the plant base to ensure that you're promoting excellent root development. Avoid directly spraying the leaves, and know that the leaves will require more watering if they are outdoors and facing direct sunlight. You can also use bubblers that you can put on to each plant to moisten the roots. Also, use soaker hoses that can cover the entire garden or bed when adding or removing plants to push the roots deeply. Drain any excess water and wait for the soil to dry before watering. Water at ground level to prevent diseases. On a sunny day, you might want to spray the entire bush with water. Whether potted or in-ground, please remember Smoketree prefers deep watering over light sprinkling.
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What should I do if I water Smoketree too much/too little?
An overwatered Smoketree can start to have leaves that turn yellow, drop off and wilt. The plant can also look dull and unhealthy, with signs of mushy stems. When they are beginning to show these signs, it's best to adjust your schedule whenever possible.
The wilting can also be a sign of under watering as well. You might see that the leaves begin to turn crispy and dry while the overwatered ones will have soft wilted leaves. Check the soil when it is dry and watering is not enough, give it a full watering in time. Enough water will make the Smoketree recover again, but the plant will still appear dry and yellow leaves after a few days due to the damaged root system. Once it return to normal, the leave yellowing will stop .
Always check the moisture levels at the pot when you have the Smoketree indoors. Avoid overwatering indoors and see if there are signs of black spots. If these are present, let the soil dry in the pot by giving it a few days of rest from watering.
Overwatering can lead to root rot being present in your plant. If this is the case, you might want to transfer them into a different pot, especially if you see discolored and slimy roots. Always prevent root rot as much as possible, and don't let the soil become too soggy.
You should dig a little deeper when you plant your Smoketree outdoors. When you check with your fingers and notice that the soil is too dry, it could mean underwatering. Adequate watering is required to help the plant recover.
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How often should I water my Smoketree?
The Smoketree likes deep and infrequent watering. You would want to soak them in a gallon of water each time, especially when they are planted in pots. The water storage of flower pots is limited and the soil will dry out faster. Watering is required every 3 to 5 days when living in a cold region. Water it early in the morning when the soil is dry, outdoors or indoors. You can also determine if watering is needed by checking the soil inside. When the top 2-3 inches of soil is dry, it is time to give the plant a full watering. During hot days, you may need to check the moisture daily, as the heat can quickly dry out the soil in the pot.
Irrigation of the soil is also required if you have a garden. When you live in a hot climate, you might want to water once a week. Only water when you notice that about 2 to 3 inches of soil become too dry outdoors or indoors. Consider the amount of rainwater on the plant and ensure not to add to it to prevent root rot.You may not need additional watering of the plants if there is a lot of rainfall.Smoketree generally grows during spring and fall. When they are outdoors, you need to add mulch about 3 to 4 inches deep to conserve more water.
You need to water the plants more frequently in sandy soil because this type tends to drain faster. However, with the clay one, you need to water this less frequently where you could go for 2-3 days to dry the plant and not develop any root rot. You could mark the date on the calendar whenever you water and when you notice that the leaves are starting to droop. This can mean that you might be a day late.
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How much water do I need to give my Smoketree?
The Smoketree generally needs about a gallon of water each schedule,With the potted plants, you might want to water them deeply until you see that the water is dripping at the bottom of the pot. Then, wait for the soil to dry before watering them again. You can use a water calculator or a moisture meter to determine the amount you've given to your plant in a week. Provide plenty of water, especially in the flowering period, but let the moisture evaporate afterwards to prevent root rot.
If Smoketree is planted outdoor with adequate rainfall, it may not need additional watering. When Smoketree is young or newly planted, make sure it gets 1-2 inches of rain per week. As Smoketree continues to grow, it can survive entirely on rainfall. Only when the weather is too hot, or when there is no rainfall at all for 2-3 weeks, then consider giving Smoketree a full watering during the cooler moment of the day to prevent the plant from suffering from high heat damage. Additional watering will be required during persistent dry spells.
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Should I adjust the watering frequency for my Smoketree according to different seasons or climates?
The Smoketree needs outdoors come from rain, with only persistent dry weather requiring watering. Throughout the spring and fall growing seasons, the soil needs to be kept moist but not soggy, and alternating dry and moist soil conditions will allow the Smoketree to grow well. Throughout the summer, hot weather can cause water to evaporate too quickly, and if there is a lack of rainfall, you will need to water more frequently and extra to keep it moist.
Usually, the Smoketree will need less water during the winter. Since the Smoketree will drop their leaves and go dormant, you can put them into a well-draining but moisture-retentive soil mixture like the terracotta to help the water evaporate quicker. Once your Smoketree growing outdoors begins to leaf out and go dormant, you can skip watering altogether and in most cases Smoketree can rely on the fall and winter rains to survive the entire dormant period.
After the spring, you can cultivate your Smoketree and encourage it to grow and bloom when the temperature becomes warmer.This plant is not generally a fan of ponding or drought when flowering. You must ensure that the drainage is good at all times, especially during the winter.
When the plant is in a pot, the plant has limited root growth. Keep them well-watered, especially if they are planted in pots during summer. They don't like cold and wet roots, so provide adequate drainage, especially if they are still growing.
It's always best to water your Smoketree’s diligently. Get the entire root system into a deep soak at least once or twice a week, depending on the weather. It's best to avoid shallow sprinkles that reach the leaves since they generally encourage the growth of fungi and don't reach deep into the roots. Don't allow the Smoketree’s to dry out completely in the fall or winter, even if they are already dormancy.
Don't drown the plants because they generally don't like sitting in water for too long. They can die during winter if the soil does not drain well. Also, apply mulch whenever possible to reduce stress, conserve water, and encourage healthy blooms.
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What should I be careful with when I water my Smoketree in different seasons, climates, or during different growing periods?
If planting in the ground, Smoketree mostly relies on rain. However, if there is no rainfall for 2-3 weeks, you may need to give proper consideration to giving the plants a deep watering. If watering Smoketree in summer, you should try to do it in the morning. A large temperature difference between the water temperature and the root system can stress the roots. You need to avoid watering the bushes when it's too hot outside. Start mulching them during the spring when the ground is not too cold.
The age of the plants matter. Lack of water is one of the most common reasons the newly planted ones fail to grow. After they are established, you need to ease off the watering schedule.
Reduce watering them during the fall and winter, especially if they have a water-retaining material in the soil. The dry winds in winter can dry them out, and the newly planted ones can be at risk of drought during windy winter, summer, and fall. Windy seasons mean that there's more watering required. The ones planted in the pot tend to dry out faster, so they need more watering. Once you see that they bloom less, the leaves begin to dry up.
Potted plants are relatively complex to water and fluctuate in frequency. Always be careful that the pot-planted plant don't sit in the water. Avoid putting them in containers with saucers, bowls, and trays. Too much watering in the fall can make the foliage look mottled or yellowish. It's always a good idea to prevent overwatering them regardless of the current climate or season that you might have. During the months when Smoketree begins to flower, you might want to increase the watering frequency but give it a rest once they are fully grown.
Give them an adequate amount of water once every 3 to 5 days but don't give them regular schedules. Make sure the soil is dry by sticking your finger in the pot, or use a moisture meter if you're unsure if it's the right time. Too much root rot can cause them to die, so be careful not to overwater or underwater regardless of the climate or season you have in your area.
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Why is watering my Smoketree important?
Watering the Smoketree helps transport the needed nutrients from the soil to the rest of the plant. The moisture will keep this species healthy if you know how much water to give. The watering requirements will depend on the weather in your area and the plant's soil.
The Smoketree thrives on moist soil, but they can't generally tolerate waterlogging. Ensure to provide enough mulch when planted on the ground and never fall into the trap of watering too little. They enjoy a full can of watering where the water should be moist at the base when they are planted in a pot to get the best blooms.
If they are grown as foliage, you need to water them up to a depth of 10 to 20 inches so they will continue to grow. If it's raining, refrain from watering and let them get the nutrients they need from the rainwater.
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Cultivation:FertilizerDetail

How to Fertilize Smoketree?

While fertile soil helps keep the smoketree vigorous, a container-grown tree does not require fertilization during its first two to three years. Established plants, however, benefit from basic annual fertilization in the spring. Nitrogen-rich fertilizers help promote healthy foliage growth. When applying fertilizer, spread it around the plant and not directly on any plant part, to avoid burn.

Fertilizer

It can be somewhat easy for a novice gardener to overlook Smoketree since these plants don't often produce showy flowers. However, the incredible leaf shapes and textures of Smoketree plants can make them as ornamentally appealing as any other plant in your garden. Growing Smoketree outdoors in your garden is not extremely difficult to do, but there are some insights that you must keep in mind while you care for this plant. Within your maintenance routine, correct fertilization will be crucial.
Regardless of which kind of Smoketree you own, regular fertilization will help you grow a plant that has great overall health. The proper supply of nutrients leads to more vigorous growth and can help your Smoketree be more resilient to tough growing conditions while also gaining a better ability to fight off diseases and pests. The foliage of your Smoketree is one of its most attractive features, which is why you should do all you can to keep it intact. Again, this means creating and adhering to a regular fertilization schedule that is specific to your Smoketree. Doing so will prompt your Smoketree to develop leaves with a deep color and a lush overall look.
The first time that you should fertilize your Smoketree is during the late winter or early spring. This type of fertilization gives your Smoketree all the nutrients it needs to resume healthy growth once the weather gets warm enough. It is also beneficial to many Smoketree to provide an additional fertilizer feeding during early fall if you in a warm climate region. Fertilizing in early fall not only adds additional nutrients to the soil, which your Smoketree will use in the following growing season, but it also helps your Smoketree be a bit more hardy and capable of surviving the winter cold without experiencing foliage damage. Earlier fertilisation will ensure that the new branches have enough time to grow to withstand the cold winter.
In most cases, the most important nutrient for a Smoketree is nitrogen, but that does not mean that phosphorus and potassium are unimportant. On the contrary, your Smoketree likely needs a decent amount of all three main nutrients, which is why a balanced fertilizer, such as a 10-10-10, can work well. However, a more nuanced ratio of nutrients often leads to optimal growth for a Smoketree. Often, fertilizers that are a bit higher in nitrogen work a bit better. For example, a ratio of 10-6-4 can often work well. When fertilizing, you can use a granular fertilizer or a liquid-based one. At times, a Smoketree may also need
To fertilize your Smoketree using a granular fertilizer, all you need to do is sprinkle the fertilizer on the soil at the correct time. The slow-release nature of granular fertilizer will release nutrients into the soil slowly over time. As is usually the case, it's best to water your Smoketree, at least lightly, before applying fertilizer. As an alternative, you can use a liquid fertilizer, but this is less common. To use this approach, mix your fertilizer with water, then pour the water onto the soil around the base of your Smoketree. At times, it is beneficial to perform a soil test before fertilizing to see if you will need to alter the pH at all.
Overfertilization is always a risk when you are feeding a Smoketree. Overfertilization is especially likely if you feed this plant at the wrong time of year, feed it too often, or feed it without watering the soil first. When overfertilization takes place, your Smoketree may begin to develop brown leaves. Your Smoketree can also show stunted growth in some cases. On the other hand, it is also possible that too much fertilizer can prompt your Smoketree to rapidly produce too much new growth, much of which will be weak and prone to breaking. Weak new wood can also detract from the overall form and structure of your Smoketree.
There are a few times during the year when you should not fertilize your Smoketree. The first time occurs during the early and mid-winter months, during which time your Smoketree will be dormant and in no need of feeding. It is also unwise to fertilize this plant during the late spring and all of the summer. During that time of year, the weather will likely be hotter and can be much dryer as well. Both conditions make it more likely that your Smoketree will have a very negative response to fertilization. To avoid such issues, stick to a fertilization schedule that involves feeding exclusively during early spring and early fall.
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Cultivation:FertilizerDetail
Why do I need to fertilize my Smoketree?
Regardless of which kind of Smoketree you own, regular fertilization will help you grow a plant that has great overall health. The proper supply of nutrients leads to more vigorous growth and can help your Smoketree be more resilient to tough growing conditions while also gaining a better ability to fight off diseases and pests.
The foliage of your Smoketree is one of its most attractive features, which is why you should do all you can to keep it intact. Again, this means creating and adhering to a regular fertilization schedule that is specific to your Smoketree. Doing so will prompt your Smoketree to develop leaves with a deep color and a lush overall look.
Read More more
When is the best time to fertilize my Smoketree?
The first time that you should fertilize your Smoketree is during the late winter or early spring. This type of fertilization gives your Smoketree all the nutrients it needs to resume healthy growth once the weather gets warm enough.
It is also beneficial to many Smoketree to provide an additional fertilizer feeding during early fall if you in a warm climate region. Fertilizing in early fall not only adds additional nutrients to the soil, which your Smoketree will use in the following growing season, but it also helps your Smoketree be a bit more hardy and capable of surviving the winter cold without experiencing foliage damage. Earlier fertilisation will ensure that the new branches have enough time to grow to withstand the cold winter.
Read More more
When should I avoid fertilizing my Smoketree?
There are a few times during the year when you should not fertilize your Smoketree. The first time occurs during the early and mid-winter months, during which time your Smoketree will be dormant and in no need of feeding.
It is also unwise to fertilize this plant during the late spring and all of the summer. During that time of year, the weather will likely be hotter and can be much dryer as well. Both conditions make it more likely that your Smoketree will have a very negative response to fertilization. To avoid such issues, stick to a fertilization schedule that involves feeding exclusively during early spring and early fall.
Read More more
What type of fertilizer does my Smoketree need?
In most cases, the most important nutrient for a Smoketree is nitrogen, but that does not mean that phosphorus and potassium are unimportant. On the contrary, your Smoketree likely needs a decent amount of all three main nutrients, which is why a balanced fertilizer, such as a 10-10-10, can work well.
However, a more nuanced ratio of nutrients often leads to optimal growth for a Smoketree. Often, fertilizers that are a bit higher in nitrogen work a bit better. For example, a ratio of 10-6-4 can often work well. When fertilizing, you can use a granular fertilizer or a liquid-based one.
Read More more
How do I fertilize my Smoketree?
To fertilize your Smoketree using a granular fertilizer, all you need to do is sprinkle the fertilizer on the soil at the correct time. The slow-release nature of granular fertilizer will release nutrients into the soil slowly over time. As is usually the case, it's best to water your Smoketree, at least lightly, before applying fertilizer.
As an alternative, you can use a liquid fertilizer, but this is less common. To use this approach, mix your fertilizer with water, then pour the water onto the soil around the base of your Smoketree. At times, it is beneficial to perform a soil test before fertilizing to see if you will need to alter the pH at all.
Read More more
What happens if I fertilize my Smoketree too much?
Overfertilization is always a risk when you are feeding a Smoketree. Overfertilization is especially likely if you feed this plant at the wrong time of year, feed it too often, or feed it without watering the soil first.
When overfertilization takes place, your Smoketree may begin to develop brown leaves. Your Smoketree can also show stunted growth in some cases. On the other hand, it is also possible that too much fertilizer can prompt your Smoketree to rapidly produce too much new growth, much of which will be weak and prone to breaking. Weak new wood can also detract from the overall form and structure of your Smoketree.
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Cultivation:SunlightDetail

What Are the Sunlight Requirements for Smoketree?

Smoketree prefers full sun - an area that provides at least 6 hours of full sunlight per day would really benefit the plant, especially the purple-leaved varieties, as ample sunlight makes the foliage more vibrant and encourages blooming. Although it will still grow in partially shaded areas, this will result in sparse leaves and poor flowering.
Cultivation:SunlightDetail
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How much/long should Smoketree get sunlight per day for healthy growth?
For healthy growth, make sure that Smoketree receives at least 3–6 hours of sun each day. This is actually a minimum requirement—most plants that can handle part sun can also thrive in full sun, but because they require less light for photosynthesis, they are more flexible than plants that require full sun or part shade.
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What type of sunlight does Smoketree need?
Smoketree does best with exposure to full or part sun. They will perform best with direct morning light, but in summer they need protection from the strong afternoon sun. In temperate environments, too much hot afternoon sun can burn the leaves, damaging the plant's appearance and health.
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Can sunlight damage Smoketree? How to protect Smoketree from the sun and heat damage?
Smoketree planted indoors can easily be damaged by direct sunlight when it's moved outdoors. The best way to prevent sunburns from overexposure is to move pots gradually from a shaded area to a brighter spot, gradually. But even plants that are acclimated to the summer sun can be damaged by extreme heat. In a heatwave, it is important to keep the soil consistently moist so that plants can cope with excessive levels of heat. Moving plants in containers to areas with afternoon shade or erecting a shade cloth over them can protect sensitive Smoketree during extreme weather events.
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Does Smoketree need to avoid sun exposure? / Should I protect Smoketree from the sun?
While bright morning sun and some full sun exposure can be highly beneficial for Smoketree, the harsh, hot midday sun of summer can be too much to handle.
If planted in the ground, the summer sun will usually ramp up slowly enough through the season for Smoketree to gradually adapt to its intensity. But a potted plant that has been indoors or in a protected location will often suffer injury when placed suddenly into a location where the direct summer sun reaches it in the hottest part of the day.
To protect this plant from the brutal afternoon summer sun, plant or place it in an understory location where it is shaded at midday by taller trees and plants or by a building or landscape feature.
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What will happen if Smoketree gets inadequate sunlight?
When Smoketree receives too little sun, they may become pale green or display drooping, yellow leaves. While some leaf drop is normal, if leaves are dropping but no new ones are growing in to replace them, it is a sign that something is wrong. If Smoketree receiving inadequate light does manage to grow, the new growth is often spindly, pale, and prone to insect infestation. Paying attention to these signs and changing the lighting conditions of the plant will make a significant difference.
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Does Smoketree need special care about sunlight during its different growth stages?
Tender, new leaves are especially sensitive to sunburn. Bearing this in mind, very young Smoketree and when it's in a strong growth phase, such as in late spring and early summer, will be more sensitive to harsh sun and heat than the mature one or those in a more dormant fall growth stage. Smoketree fresh from a nursery is also usually not prepared for strong full sunlight and must be introduced to it slowly.
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Are there any cautions or tips for sunlight and Smoketree?
Recently transplanted Smoketree will often experience a bit of shock and will need to be cared for carefully, either shaded from bright afternoon sun or placed in a protected area. On very hot days, you may see the leaves of Smoketree drooping—this is usually nothing to worry about. Plants will send the water in their leaves down into their roots to protect them from burning. However, if the leaves are still drooping in the evening or the next morning, the plant needs water. Always avoid watering during the hottest times of day, as sunlight can hit wet leaves and scorch them easily.
Smoketree that has been underwatered will be weaker than that with consistently moist soil. This can leave it with weak roots that are unable to protect the leaves on hot, sunny summer days by diverting water away from the leaves. Care for an underwatered plant by giving it a long, deep watering and then allowing the top two inches of soil to dry out before the next watering. Even if it loses its leaves, if cared for properly it will grow new ones.
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Cultivation:PruningDetail

How to Prune Smoketree?

Pruning plays a crucial role in ensuring that your smoketree grows to be healthy and attractive. Ideally, this should be performed in late fall to early spring, when the plant is done blooming. The method of pruning depends on your preference. You can keep it minimal, simply pruning to maintain a healthy form. Alternatively, you can cut the tree back to ground level during its first two years to encourage dramatic foliage and a denser form.
Cultivation:PruningDetail
Does my Smoketree need to be pruned?
While one could technically let the Smoketree go without pruning, the form and health of the Smoketree may suffer, and will end up looking quite shaggy and unorganized. Smoketree is grown for its attractive flowers. While not strictly necessary, many people prefer to prune this plant every year or two to encourage flowering and to maintain an attractive appearance and keep your Smoketree in great shape. Pruning not only helps the Smoketree relieve itself of burdens like dead wood and disease, but it also gives you the creative ability to style the Smoketree in a way that works for you!
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When is the best time to prune my Smoketree?
As Smoketree blooms earlier than normal plants, pruning should also be earlier. What you should do instead is wait until the late spring or early summer to prune if you want to prune your Smoketree on a large scale. The ideal time for pruning takes place at the end or just after this plant’s bloom period. Also, you should avoid pruning late in summer and into fall, pruning at this time may affect the flowering of plants the following year. Finally, you may prefer to just trim off dead or damaged portions of the plant, including deadheading spent flowers, to keep it looking its best. This can be done at any time of year. Diseased or damaged stems should be cut right at the soil line and removed completely. Blooms should be cut off just below the flower head. The plants need to be completely cleaned up after the leaves have fallen to avoid decaying and breeding pests and diseases.
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How can I prune my Smoketree?
To prune the Smoketree, first identify how the Smoketree has grown thus far. It can either look bushy, like a shrub, or it can have one or more trunks that stem up from the ground with foliage in the top quadrant. If you have a bushy Smoketree and you like it that way, then you can simply trim just as you would an average shrub, by removing new growths at equal heights just above a leaf node. For taller Smoketree, there’s a little more to it. Identify the look you want first. If all you’re looking for is a quick prune and done, then all you really need to do is cut back any growth that is growing towards the inside of the canopy, as well as any “suckers”, or stems that grow below the canopy line. In this case, it is necessary to prune in winter, giving priority to the reduction of dead and dry branches. Afterwards, the crossed and parallel branches are pruned off, which increases the space for other branches to grow. In this case, it is necessary to prune in winter, giving priority to the reduction of dead and dry branches. Afterwards, the crossed and parallel branches are pruned off, which will increase the space for other branches to grow. If what you need is to take off some serious area, then more planning is in line. Smoketree branch out in a fan fashion from the center trunk, and each branch will have its own branches that grow from them, as well. Try to take off branches that are pointing downward at their bases, but avoid cutting too much away from each secondary branch. From here, you can do some milder pruning around the areas where you removed branches in order to clean up the look and blend in the newly trimmed sections. Never trim off so much that no secondary branches are left from the main trunk; Smoketree can tolerate this, but it takes years for them to recover fully. All these prunings need to be done after flowering so as not to interfere with Smoketree flowering. Finally, you may prefer to just trim off dead or damaged portions of the plant, including deadheading spent flowers, to keep it looking its best. This can be done at any time of year. Diseased or damaged stems should be cut right at the soil line and removed completely. Blooms should be cut off just below the flower head. The plants need to be completely cleaned up after the leaves have fallen to avoid decaying and breeding pests and diseases.
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What should I do after pruning my Smoketree?
You can take a few extra steps to make sure that your pruning is both successful and healthy. As with most woody, flowering Smoketree, Smoketree should be spoiled with a little extra water over the following week so that it has the means to heal its wounds. Smoketree is a tough cookie, so it can take care of itself for the most part after the annual snipping. You can also fertilize just before or after pruning, which gives Smoketree a little vitamin boost that can provide it the nutrients needed to better protect itself from any nearby pathogens or diseases. If you have other plants or Smoketree nearby that are affected by diseases such as fungi or pests, you can also apply honey to the wounds just after pruning to create a sort of natural bandage.
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What techniques and tips should I use when pruning my Smoketree?
Pruning the Smoketree should be saved until the Smoketree is mature, or has at least one thick stem or trunk that other, smaller branches grow from. That being said, you can train younger Smoketree to grow in a style that you like by snipping off new growths at the base of the Smoketree where it meets the ground. Here’s a general idea of how to get started pruning your Smoketree. Tools For pruning, you’ll of course need some sort of clippers. Loppers are best for thicker branches, while hand pruners will usually get the job done on smaller branches that are less than the thickness of your average pencil. You’ll also need a good pair of gloves, as well as some sort of protective eyewear. Pruning can sometimes get a little pokey, so you want to make sure that none of the stray branches or debris end up in your eyes.
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What are the common issues that I should be aware of when pruning my Smoketree?
One of the most common issues with Smoketree is overgrowth. Once they get unruly, it can be tricky to get them to look their best again. In some situations, it may be best to cut away everything except for secondary branches- those that grow from the main stem or trunk- and henceforth only trim back new branches liberally until your Smoketree regains its shape.
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care_advanced_guide

Advanced Care Guide

Cultivation:WaterAndHardinessDetail

What is the Ideal Temperature Range for Smoketree?

These deciduous shrubs or trees like moderate temperature ranges and average to low humidity. They are hardy to -20 ℃, but expect the shoot tips to die-back in cold temperatures. Established plants can tolerate drought.
Cultivation:WaterAndHardinessDetail
What is the optimal temperature for Smoketree?
The best temperature for Smoketree to thrive is 65~80℉(18~27℃). During the primary growing phase, the highest temperature tolerable would be 95℉(35℃), while the lowest tolerable temperature would be 15℉(-10℃). This species is tolerant of low temperatures and will survive freezing winters. The perfect, highest, and lowest temperature range:
Perfect:65~80℉(18~27℃)
Highest:85~95℉(30~35℃)
Lowest:-5~15℉(-20~-10℃) or below
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Should I adjust the temperature for Smoketree during different growing phases?
Research shows that Smoketree will begin to exhibit signs of stunted growth during prolonged periods of higher temperatures, especially during the development of axillary buds and the growth of main shoots. Keeping the temperatures consistent and cooler, around 65℉(18℃), will encourage vigorous growth after germination or transplanting.
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How can I keep Smoketree warm in cold seasons?
Smoketree can withstand freezing temperatures when planted in the ground in areas that don’t get below of 15℉(-10℃) as an extreme temperature during the winter months. But if planted in pots or containers, then their roots must be protected from the winter cold. Do this by wrapping the container in a blanket or bringing it inside where it will be fully protected from the elements.
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What damage will Smoketree suffer if the temperature is too high/low?
Greater harm will come to Smoketree if the temperature is consistently too high versus too low.
If Smoketree gets too hot, seed germination and photosynthesis efficiency is lessened due to hormone triggers caused by heat stress. The plant will show signs through wilting, leaf browning, and potentially death.
If Smoketree gets too cold, plant functions such as nutrient uptake and photosynthesis will cease, resulting in the possible death of the plant. If a single freezing event occurs during the growing season, then a membrane phase transition might occur, which can cause a cease in plant functions and death of the plant.
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What tips and cautions should I keep in mind when it comes to temperature for Smoketree?
Keeping the soil temperature consistent is one of the most important strategies to keeping Smoketree healthy, which leads to successful budding, flowering, and new growth. Do this by consistently watering, adding mulch to bare soil, and planting in the shade.
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How can I keep Smoketree warm without a heat pad?
Due to the cold tolerance of Smoketree, heating pads will not be necessary if planted outside in the ground. If the plant is in an outdoor pot, then bring it inside a heated house and place it in a sunny window during the winter months.
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How can I provide Smoketree with an adequate temperature condition?
To ensure adequate temperature conditions are present, plant Smoketree in an area with partial shade. If possible, use afternoon shade to provide the best protection during the hottest part of the day. This will also result in lower temperatures in the soil due to increased moisture retention. If Smoketree is planted indoors, then keep the container away from windows and out of direct sunlight during the summer months to prevent the soil temperature from spiking daily.
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How can I save Smoketree from temperature damage?
During the summer or times of high heat, give Smoketree extra shade and water to help cool its leaves, roots, and soil. During cold snaps or growing season freezes, cover sensitive budding vegetation with frost cloth or water using sprinkler systems. If it’s only nearing freezing temperatures for a short period, then water during the day several hours before the freeze. If the temperature is predicted to remain below freezing for an extended period, then keep the sprinkler running until the temperature rises above freezing the following day.
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Should I adjust the temperature for Smoketree in different seasons?
Smoketree is a mid-temperature plant that can easily tolerate the typical fluctuations of the seasons and remain a hardy species when planted in maintained landscapes areas, containers, or indoors. Therefore, adjusting the temperature during the different seasons is unnecessary for primary growth. If flowering is stunted or impeded, then allowing the plant to experience a season of winter freeze could help to revive flowering.
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Under what conditions should I stop adjusting the temperature for Smoketree?
If it becomes too difficult to lower the temperature for an indoor plant during the summer, then plant it outside in the ground or in a container. Make sure to plant Smoketree in a shaded location and water often to keep the soil moist.
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Cultivation:SoilDetail

What Soil is Best for Smoketree?

plants in the Cotinus genus grow well in any soil type as long as it’s fertile and well-draining. The smoketree is no different - it can tolerate various soil conditions, but damp, soggy, and waterlogged soils are an exception. You can grow this plant in loam, clay, and sand soil types and in a wide range of soil pH, from acidic to alkaline.
Cultivation:SoilDetail
Cultivation:PropagationDetail

How to Propagate Smoketree?

Smoketree can be propagated by seeds. However, since its growth may take up to two years, using semi-hardwood stem cuttings is an easier method. Take cuttings that are less than a year old, while avoiding new growth. Prepare to root the cutting by removing the lower leaves, stripping off some bark from the bottom, and dipping it into a rooting hormone. Then, place it in a pot with a moist growing medium. Cover the pot with a plastic bag to retain moisture. Transfer the cutting to a larger pot once it has formed roots.

Propagation

Smoketree provides good landscaping for your garden all year round, which is quite essential for the garden. As your Smoketree grows, you may want to know how to get more of them for free. Or maybe your Smoketree has been damaged by a pest or disease and you’d like to save it and propagate a new plant. This article is about how to propagate your Smoketree. For a simpler procedure, hardwood cuttings is a good choice. Smoketree can be propagated during the dormant season from mid-autumn until late winter. Most people prefer to take cuttings right after leaves drop, but it can be done successfully at other times, provided you avoid taking cuttings during severely cold periods. The beginning and ending of the dormant season are the most likely to be successful.Flash cuttings cannot tolerate the cold environment. If the winter temperatures in your area are low (e.g., below 0 ℉ for an extended period of time), it is recommended that you place the cuttings in a garage or outdoor incubator after cutting. This will help the cuttings to develop roots. When propagating Smoketree, be sure your cutting tool is large enough and sharp enough to cut cleanly through the shoots. Using a dull tool can crush or tear the plant, which can lead to infection and disease.
  1. Sharp garden pruners
  2. Diluted bleach solution or isopropyl alcohol to clean tools
  3. Rooting hormone (optional but recommended)
  4. Deep container(s) with drainage holes for planting
  5. Well-draining planting medium such as pine bark, perlite, or a potting soil mix
Steps: Step 1: Choose healthy shoots that are about as thick as a pencil for your propagation and 6 to 8 inches long, preferably from the previous year’s growth. Once you have identified your cuttings, use disinfected garden pruners to cut off the bud tip and take the remaining branch of the front section about 7-8 inches. If you are not putting them into containers immediately, keep the cuttings moist until you are able to pot them. TIP: Pay attention to which side is up when you are taking cuttings - it can be difficult to tell when there are no leaves Step 2: Prepare your containers by filling them with the planting medium. Adding compost to the soil can facilitate plant rooting. Step 3: Dip the bottom of your Smoketree into rooting hormone, then insert one-third to two-thirds of the cutting into the substrate. Plant them about 2 inches apart. You should be able to plant as many as 10 to 12, depending on your container size. Step 4: Water thoroughly, making sure the potting medium is evenly moist but allowing it to drain. Step 5: Place the containers in a cold, protected location that receives some sunlight. An unheated garage, a porch, or a cold frame work well for this. Leave the Smoketree there throughout the winter. Water occasionally to make sure the soil doesn’t dry out completely, although it can be dryer during the coldest winter months. Start watering more often as days get warmer in the spring. It is recommended that you place the cuttings in a garage or outdoor incubator after cutting if the winter temperatures in your area are low. Step 6: Move the containers outside to a spot that gets partial sun after the last frost. You can expect to see new leaves on your Smoketree around the middle of spring. It’s important to be patient with this process because it is quite slow. In fact, it can take a year or longer for Smoketree to be ready to be transplanted. Luckily there isn’t much maintenance during this time, and the process has a high likelihood of success. Even if your Smoketree is putting out new growth, they may not be ready to be planted into the ground just yet. It is more important that there are plenty of healthy roots growing. The roots should be at least 3 inches long, but many people like to wait until roots start to grow out of the drainage holes to be sure that there is a proper root system. Mound or stool laying is also a common method of propagation, but it’s more complex. Begin the mound or stool layering process in the autumn by cutting back your plant; this will allow the plant to put its energy into growing new roots in the spring. When growth begins in the spring, it's time to start layering dirt over the new growth. Wait one or two months for the roots to sufficiently develop before dividing or propagating the new plants. Mound or stool layering takes time and patience, but the tools you need to accomplish it are minimal. So long as you have your handy shears and trowel, you can get started right away!
  1. Sharp, sanitized scissors or shears
  2. Trowel for covering the plant
  3. Growing medium to cover the plant
Steps: Step 1: Cut the plant back to 4-6 inches from the ground during the dormant season. Or use scissors to circumferentially peel the lower part of the branch at 4-6 inches from the ground. Step 2: As new growth appears above the ground, layer soil over the new growth. Compacted with soil, this will allow the buried new growth shoots to root. Step 3: Make sure the regular growth of the mother plant during the pressing period, especially to keep properly moist to the area where the soil is mounded. Step 4: Dig up the mound of soil after 3-4 months then check the rooting situation. If vigorous roots have grown, cut off the roots along with the branches and plant them as new plants.
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Cultivation:PropagationDetail
Cultivation:PlantingDetail

How to Plant Smoketree?

Planting smoketree is easy; you can start with cuttings or buy a ready-to-plant specimen from garden stores. Prepare a hole ideally double the size of your plant's current pot, and then position your smoketree in the hole so that it sits just slightly above ground level. Loosen the roots to help them grow and spread. Backfill with well-drained soil and water, stopping halfway through to tamp the soil down before finishing up. If your smoketree is a Bush type, it can also be planted in a container.
Cultivation:PlantingDetail
PlantCare:TransplantSummary

How to Transplant Smoketree?

The ideal season for transplanting smoketree is early spring, as it allows the plant to establish its roots before the growing season. Choose a sunny, well-drained location for the transplant, and be gentle when handling the delicate roots. Happy planting!
PlantCare:TransplantSummary
Cultivation:PottingSuggestions

How to Repot Smoketree?

Choose basins according to tree shape.
Cultivation:PottingSuggestions
care_scenes

More Info on Smoketree Growth and Care

Basic Care Guide
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Water
Every 1-2 weeks
Smoketree, or Cotinus coggygria, naturally thrives in regions throughout Southern Europe and Western Asia with moderate rainfall, averaging around 50cm to 75cm annually. This historical habitat, which includes rocky hills and woodlands, indicates a preference for balanced moisture. Consequently, smoketree tends to appreciate regular watering while avoiding over-saturation, aligning with its native regions' moisture patterns. Understanding this could aid in cultivating healthy and thriving smoketree in tended gardens.
Watering Techniques
Lighting
Full sun
Smoketree appreciates exposure to a high degree of sunlight for optimal growth and health. It adjusts well to semi-luminous environments, too. Originating from habitats with abundant solar exposure, smoketree can endure some degree of shade. However, very limited sunlight can hamper its growth.
Best Sunlight Practices
Temperature
-20 43 ℃
Smoketree prefers a temperature range between 41 to 100 ℉ (5 to 38 ℃). It grows in temperate climates and can tolerate both hot and cold temperatures as long as it is not extreme. During winter, it is suggested to protect the plant from freezing temperatures by adding extra mulch around the base.
Temp for Healthy Growth
Transplant
10-15 feet
The ideal season for transplanting smoketree is early spring, as it allows the plant to establish its roots before the growing season. Choose a sunny, well-drained location for the transplant, and be gentle when handling the delicate roots. Happy planting!
Transplant Techniques
Pollination
Normal
Winged pollinators can't resist the allure of smoketree! Its pollination mainly relies on industrious bees, drawn to the tree's vibrant blossoms. Typically, smoketree releases its pollen in sync with the bee's lifecycle, ensuring maximum pollination efficiency. Its fascinating pollination process hinges on straightforward transfer mechanics where pollen adheres to the bee and is transported to the next blossom visited.
Pollination Techniques
Toxic
Highly Toxic to Humans
All parts of the smoketree are toxic when ingested. Extracts, tinctures, essential oils, and other products from smoketree can be fatal if they are consumed. The plant's sap is also toxic to humans when they come into physical contact with it. Contact with the sap generally leads to dermatitis – skin irritation that can be severe and painful. Poisoning from smoketree is most likely to occur from accidental contact.
Toxic Details
Feng shui direction
East
Smoketree can harmonize energy flow, making it an intriguing choice for Feng Shui devotees. Its auspicious vibe is particularly appreciated in East-facing sectors, bringing a sense of growth and renewal, symbolizing vitality and transformation. The compatibility of smoketree with East relies on respecting traditional elemental associations, and requires thoughtful placement to encourage positive, balanced chi.
Fengshui Details
care_seasonal_tips

Seasonal Care Tips

seasonal-tip

Seasonal Precautions

Since smoketree prefers a sunny and warm environment, it may suffer from frost damage during the winter or extremely cold conditions. This can be prevented by placing your potted plant in a protected area throughout the winter period. If necessary, wrap the container or pot with an insulating blanket to give the roots added protection from the cold.
seasonal-tip
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Spring

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Summer

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Fall

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Winter

This plant and other temperate flowering trees, vines, and shrubs often benefit from early spring care.

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Spring care includes pruning to remove dead branches. Be careful not to cut away any buds, it will reduce flowering.
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2
Apply a balanced, all-purpose fertilizer to support healthy growth.
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3
Pay attention to soil moisture levels, and water whenever the top layer of soil is beginning to dry out.
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4
Ensure container plants are receiving enough sunlight. Move the plants to a location receiving around six hours of sunlight a day.

Temperate flowering trees, vines, and shrubs like this plant require more care in the summer.

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Frequent watering in the summer is a must in most climates, especially in the south. Check the soil’s moisture levels daily, watering when it is beginning to dry out.
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2
Stop fertilizing in the summer while the plant is not in bloom.
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3
summer is the ideal time to remove any spent blooms to encourage re-flowering in the fall.
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4
Move container plants out of the bright sunlight.
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Keep an eye out for pests and diseases. Removing plant debris from the area can help with any potential issues.

Your plant needs a bit of care in the autumn months to keep it looking its best and prepare it for winter.

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In the late fall, you can give your plant a good prune. Remove any low-hanging or overcrowding branches, along with energy-sapping suckers, to keep the plant growing strong throughout the season.
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Clean up any fallen leaves around the plant, as these leaves can cause harmful bacteria to grow around the plant.
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Provide it with enough water to keep the soil moist, watering whenever the soil becomes dry.
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Make sure it's exposed to strong sunlight and has some shade in the afternoon.
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Watch out for any pests and diseases, such as mildew that looks like a powdery coating on the plant.

This plant requires some careful care during the winter.

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It's important for your plant to be exposed to cold winter weather during this season, which will help boost its production in the spring, in a process sometimes called “chilling” your plant. Therefore, don't worry about keeping these plants warm or bringing them inside.
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You may want to take this dormant time to prune away overcrowding, dead, or diseased parts, however.
care_pet_and_diseases

Common Pests & Diseases

Common issues for Smoketree based on 10 million real cases
Brown spot
Brown spot Brown spot
Brown spot
This infection can cause brown spots or patches to appear on the plant.
Solutions: In minor cases of brown spot, there isn’t any need to treat the disease. However, if much of the foliage is affected and defoliation occurs, the plant will benefit from getting rid of the infection. It is recommended to start by applying organic treatment options, working up to the more potent synthetic, chemical fungicides if necessary. Organic options won’t kill the fungus, but will prevent it from spreading. Dissolve ½ teaspoon of baking soda and one teaspoon of liquid soap in a gallon of water. Using a spray bottle, spray on tops and bottoms of leaves until the mixture drips off. Repeat every two weeks until existing spots stop enlarging and new spots no longer appear. Spray a copper-based fungicidal soap on the leaves, coating the top and bottom leaf surfaces. Reapply as directed on the product label. Copper penetrates the leaf surface and prevents germination of spores so the fungus cannot spread. Apply an all-purpose fungicide to the entire plant, following the label instructions carefully.
Fruit withering
Fruit withering Fruit withering
Fruit withering
Fungal infection or normal ripening can cause the fruit to dry out.
Solutions: There are a number of appropriate solutions to control fruit withering: Remove any fruit as soon as it shows any signs of infection. Do not compost. Use a fungicide prior to leaf bud and then as per manufacturers instructions throughout the season.
Longhorn beetles
Longhorn beetles Longhorn beetles
Longhorn beetles
The longhorn beetle is a medium- to large-sized insect with very long antennae and strong jaws. Both its adult and larval stages gnaw on tree trunks, leaving small, round holes.
Solutions: Some longhorn beetles species are native insects, and they cause little damage. Therefore, these don't warrant control. Other longhorn beetles species are invasive pests that were recently introduced from other areas. These species can cause a great deal of damage to hardwood trees. Apply an insecticide containing imidacloprid as a soil injection or trunk injection following product instructions. This will enter into new grow and kill adults who feed on foliage. This will not help save trees that are already infested with large amounts of larvae, but it will save trees located near an infested tree. Contact an arborist for best control practices regarding infected trees. To properly control longhorn beetles, all host plants in a given area must be treated. Contact a local extension agent or state agency. Tracking the spread of longhorn beetles is a key component of their control.
Leaf scorch
Leaf scorch Leaf scorch
Leaf scorch
Leaf blight causes leaves to dry out and turn brown starting at their tips.
Solutions: The solution to leaf scorch will depend on the cause, however, in general all cultural care methods that improve plant health and root functionality will reduce symptoms. Mulching the root zone (preferably with wood chip mulch) helps retain moisture, reduce evaporation, and promotes a healthy, functional root environment that is critical for water movement to the leaves. Check the root collar for girdling or circling roots that strangle the trunk and limit water and nutrient movement. Protect trees from severe root damage of nearby construction and excavation. If fertilizer burn is to blame, irrigate the soil deeply to flush out excess fertilizer salts. However, keep in mind that fertilizer runoff is an environmental pollutant. Avoiding excess fertilization in the first place is the best approach. If soil testing has revealed a potassium deficiency, apply a potassium fertilizer and water well. Even if you have enough potassium in the soil, plants will not be able to take it up if the soil is consistently too dry. Severely affected twigs may be removed using a pair of sharp and sanitized pruning shears, as weakened branches are susceptible to secondary infections. If your plant has bacterial leaf scorch, there is no cure. Antibiotic injections applied by a professional can reduce symptoms for a season, however, the above cultural management methods are the best options to reduce symptoms and prolong life. An infected plant will likely die within ten years.
Aged yellow and dry
Aged yellow and dry Aged yellow and dry
Aged yellow and dry
Natural aging can cause leaves to turn yellow and dry out.
Solutions: If the yellowing and drying of leaves and flowers is a natural progression due to age, nothing can be done to slow or stop the process. Once hormones within the plant begin the process of senescence, it’s irreversible.
Leaf rot
Leaf rot Leaf rot
Leaf rot
This pathogen can cause the leaves to rot.
Solutions: Bacterial infections need to be treated quickly to prevent the spread to neighboring, healthy plants, potentially wiping out large sections of your indoor or outdoor garden. In mild cases: Use sterilized (10% bleach solution) pruning shears or scissors to remove any infected plant parts, making sure to dispose of them off site. Use a copper-based bactericide to treat the unaffected foliage, as well as the soil, and neighboring plants. Follow the manufacturer’s rate and timing directions found on the product label. In severe cases, where more than half the leaves are affected: Remove all of the infected plants from the garden, disposing of them off site. Treat the soil and neighboring plants using a copper-based bactericide. Follow the manufacturer’s rate and timing directions found on the product label.
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Brown spot
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Brown spot
This infection can cause brown spots or patches to appear on the plant.
Overview
Overview
Discolored spots on the foliage of plants are one of the most common disease problems people observe. These spots are caused by fungal and bacterial diseases, with most infections related to a fungal pathogen.
Brown spot can occurs on all houseplants, flowering ornamentals, vegetable plants, and leaves of trees, bushes, and shrubs. No plants are resistant to it, and the problem is worse in warm, wet environments. It can occur at any point in the life stage as long as leaves are present.
Small brownish spots appear on the foliage and enlarge as the disease progresses. In severe cases, the plant or tree is weakened when the lesions interrupt photosynthesis or cause defoliation.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
In most cases, brown spot only affects a small percentage of the whole plant, appearing on a small amount of the leaves. A small infection only puts minor stress on the plant. However, if left untreated and the disease progresses over numerous seasons, it will severely impact the health and productivity of the infected specimen.
  • Sporulation begins (reproduction of the fungal spores), and tiny spots appear on leaves.
  • Placement is often random and scattered as diseases are spread through raindrops.
  • May appear on lower leaves and the interior of the plant where humidity is higher.
  • Brown spots enlarge and grow large enough to touch neighboring spots to form a more prominent blotch.
  • Leaf margins may turn yellow.
  • Tiny black dots (fruiting bodies of the fungi) appear in the dead spots.
  • Blotches grow in size until the entire leaf is brown.
  • The leaf falls off the plant.
Severe Symptoms
  • Partial or complete premature defoliation
  • Reduced growth
  • Increased susceptibility to pests and other diseases
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
Brown spot, or leaf spot, is a common descriptive term given to several diseases affecting the leaves of plants and trees. Around 85% of diseases exhibiting leaf spots are due to fungus or fungus-like organisms. Sometimes brown spot is caused by a bacterial infection, or insect activity with similar symptoms.
When conditions are warm and the leaf surfaces are wet, fungal spores being transported by wind or rain land on the surface and cling to it. They do not rupture the cell walls but grow in the space between the plant plasma membrane and the plant cell wall. As the spores reproduce, they release toxins and enzymes that cause necrotic spots (i.e., dead tissue) on the leaves, allowing the fungi to consume the products released when the cells degrade.
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Fruit withering
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Fruit withering
Fungal infection or normal ripening can cause the fruit to dry out.
Overview
Overview
Fruit withering is common on many tree fruits, including apples, pears, peaches, cherries, and plums, as well as fruiting shrubs. It is caused by a fungal pathogen and will result in wrinkled and desiccated fruit.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Here are the most common symptoms in the order that they are likely to occur.
  1. Both leaves and blossom on the tips of branches will go brown and wither.
  2. Gray powdery patches will appear on infected leaves and flowers, and this will be most apparent after rain.
  3. Any fruit that does appear will turn wrinkled and fail to develop.
  4. Branch tips begin to die, progressing back to larger branches, causing general deterioration of the tree or plant.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
The withering is caused by one of two fungal pathogens, one called Monilina laxa and the other called M. fructigen. The spores overwinter on infected plant material and are then spread the following spring by wind, rain, or animal vectors. The problem will start to become noticeable in mid-spring, but will increase in severity as summer progresses and the fungus grows. If not addressed, the disease will intensify and spread to other plants in the vicinity.
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Longhorn beetles
plant poor
Longhorn beetles
The longhorn beetle is a medium- to large-sized insect with very long antennae and strong jaws. Both its adult and larval stages gnaw on tree trunks, leaving small, round holes.
Overview
Overview
Longhorn beetles are characterized by extremely long antennae which are often as long as, or longer, than the beetle's body. Adult longhorn beetles vary in size, shape, and coloration, depending upon the species. They may be 6 to 76 mm long. The larvae are worm-like with a wrinkled, white to yellowish body and a brown head.
Longhorn beetles are active throughout the year, but adults are most active in the summer and fall. Larvae feed on wood throughout the year.
Both larvae and adults feed on woody tissue. Some of the most susceptible species include ash, birch, elm, poplar, and willow.
If left untreated, longhorn beetles can kill trees.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Longhorn beetles are attracted to wounded, dying, or freshly-cut hardwood trees. Adults lay their eggs in the spring, summer, and fall on the bark of greenwood. There may be sap around egg-laying sites.
Once the eggs hatch, larvae called round-headed borers burrow into the trunk to feed. They may tunnel for one to three years depending on the wood's nutritional content. As the larvae feed, they release sawdust-like frass at the base of the tree.
Eventually, the larvae turn into pupae and then adults. When the adults emerge, they leave 1 cm holes in the bark on their way out. Adults feed on leaves, bark, and shoots of trees before laying eggs.
After a few years of being fed upon by longhorn beetles, a tree will begin losing leaves. Eventually, it will die.
Solutions
Solutions
Some longhorn beetles species are native insects, and they cause little damage. Therefore, these don't warrant control.
Other longhorn beetles species are invasive pests that were recently introduced from other areas. These species can cause a great deal of damage to hardwood trees.
  • Apply an insecticide containing imidacloprid as a soil injection or trunk injection following product instructions. This will enter into new grow and kill adults who feed on foliage. This will not help save trees that are already infested with large amounts of larvae, but it will save trees located near an infested tree.
  • Contact an arborist for best control practices regarding infected trees.
  • To properly control longhorn beetles, all host plants in a given area must be treated.
  • Contact a local extension agent or state agency. Tracking the spread of longhorn beetles is a key component of their control.
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Leaf scorch
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Leaf scorch
Leaf blight causes leaves to dry out and turn brown starting at their tips.
Overview
Overview
Leaf scorch refers to two general conditions: physiological leaf scorch and bacterial leaf scorch. It causes leaves to discolor starting along the margins, and eventually die.
Leaf scorch development is most common in the hot, dry season, becoming most noticeable in late summer. However, it can occur at other times of the year. It most often affects young trees and shrubs, but it can also affect flowers, vegetables, and other plants.
Leaf scorch can get progressively worse over multiple seasons. If the root causes are not addressed, leaf scorch can lead to plant death.
While you cannot reverse the damage caused by physiological leaf scorch, you can prevent further damage. With proper management, plants will fully recover. However, there is no cure for bacterial leaf scorch, which is a systemic infection.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
  • Yellow, brown, or blackened leaves starting with the leaf margins
  • Dying twig tips on trees and shrubs as leaves die and fall
  • Often there is a bright yellow border line between the dead and living leaf tissue
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
There are numerous contributing causes of leaf scorch.
Bacterial leaf scorch is caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. The bacteria block the xylem vessels, preventing water movement. Symptoms may vary across species.
Physiological leaf scorch most commonly occurs when a plant cannot take up enough water. Numerous conditions can lead to this issue, particularly an unhealthy root system. Some causes of an unhealthy root system include overly-compacted soil, recent tillage, root compaction and severing due to pavement or other construction, drought, and overly-saturated soils.
Potassium deficiency can contribute to leaf scorch. Since plants need potassium to move water, they cannot properly move water when there is a lack of potassium.
Too much fertilizer can also cause leaf scorch symptoms. The accumulation of salts (including nutrient salts from fertilizers, as well as salt water) accumulate at the leaf margins and may build up to concentrations that burn the tissues.
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Aged yellow and dry
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Aged yellow and dry
Natural aging can cause leaves to turn yellow and dry out.
Overview
Overview
Regardless of the type of plant or where it is grown, at some point, it will begin to aged yellow and dry. This is a natural, unavoidable process that happens when the plant has completed all of the steps in its life.
Annual plants go through this process at the end of a single growing season. Perennial plants live for multiple years, if not tens or hundreds of years, but will still ultimately exhibit these symptoms.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
When plants have progressed through their natural developmental stages and are nearing the end of their lifecycle, they begin showing signs of decline. Leaves will start to yellow and droop, and over time they turn papery brown and dry.
Once completely dry, the leaves begin to fall from the plant until the entire plant has dried out.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
At the end of its life, genetic coding within the plant increases the production of ethylene, a phytohormone that controls senescence or natural aging and death. Cell division stops, and the plant begins catabolizing resources to use in other parts of the plant.
As this happens, the tissues begin yellow and drying until the entire plant is desiccated and perishes.
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Leaf rot
plant poor
Leaf rot
This pathogen can cause the leaves to rot.
Overview
Overview
Leaf rot is very common among both house plants and garden plants. It affects foliage and occurs mainly when the leaves become wet due to rain or misting by the gardener. The cause is fungal disease and this is facilitated by the fungal spores adhering to wet leaves then penetrating the leaf and expanding rapidly. Damp conditions and poor air circulation will increase chances of infection taking place. Another factor are leaves that are damaged or have been penetrated by sap sucking insects that facilitate plant penetration.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
  1. Spores are able to cling to a damp leaf and penetrate, often through an existing wound.
  2. A small dark brown mark appears which expands rapidly as sporulation starts to take place.
  3. Quite quickly these bull's eye like circles can link together and the whole leaf turns dark and loses texture.
  4. Leaf drop occurs.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
These symptoms are caused by a bacterial infection invading the plant. Bacteria from many sources in the environment (air, water, soil, diseased plants) enter a plant through wounds, or in some cases the stomata when they are open. Once inside the leaf tissue, the bacteria feed and reproduce quickly, breaking down healthy leaves.
Bacterial infections threaten most plant species, and are more prominent in wet weather that more easily transfers the bacteria from plant to plant, or from soil to plant.
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Smoketree and Their Toxicity

Highly Toxic to Humans
Highly Toxic to Humans
All parts of the smoketree are toxic when ingested. Extracts, tinctures, essential oils, and other products from smoketree can be fatal if they are consumed. The plant's sap is also toxic to humans when they come into physical contact with it. Contact with the sap generally leads to dermatitis – skin irritation that can be severe and painful. Poisoning from smoketree is most likely to occur from accidental contact.
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Who Is Most at Risk of Plant Poisoning?
Your pets like cats and dogs can be poisoned by them as well!
1
Do not let your lovely pets eat any parts, nor contact with the sap of toxic or unknown plants;
2
It’s better to kill those growing around your house. Wear long-sleeved shirts, pants and gloves with sharp tools to dig it out completely;
3
Clean the tools with rubbing alcohol or soap and water but do not do that with bare hands;
4
Clean your hands and skin once exposed to plants with soap and water;
5
Consider using barrier creams that contain bentoquatam to prevent poison oak, ivy and sumac rashes;
6
Dump it in special trash cans in sealed garbage packages, and do not let your pets reach it;Do not let your lovely pets eat any parts, nor contact with the sap of toxic or unknown plants;
7
If you take your pets to hike with you in the wild, please don’t let them eat any plants that you don’t know;
8
Once your pets eat, touch or inhale anything from toxic plants and act abnormally, please call the doctors for help ASAP!
pets
Pets
Some pets are less likely than children to eat and touch just about everything. This is good, as a pet owner. However, you know your pet best, and it is up to you to keep them safe. There are plenty of poisonous weeds that can grow within the confines of your lawn, which might make your dogs or cats ill or worse if they eat them. Try to have an idea of what toxic plants grow in your area and keep them under control and your pets away from them.
pets
Common Toxic Houseplants
Common Toxic Houseplants
When it comes to decorating a house, there is nothing more refreshing than adding some beautiful houseplants. Some common house plants can also be toxic.

Aloe

aloe
Aloe is famous for its sunburn-soothing properties and its gorgeous desert design. However, many people do not realize that the latex the aloe vera plant produces can be mildly toxic to pets and children.

The latex contains a chemical compound known as saponin. Which when ingested, can cause vomiting, diarrhea, and low blood sugar. This, if left unchecked, can lead to dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. The proper response is to contact poison control or a veterinarian to know what to do in your particular circumstance if either your child or pet consumes aloe.

The latex of the plant is similar to the sap of the tree. It is inside the leaf, but sticks mainly toward the edges. If aloe gel is prepared properly it should be safe for use, but be sure to apply it only topically when treating burns.

Philodendron

Philodendron
Philodendron, also known as sweetheart vine, has become a resident at many houses and even businesses. They are glossy green and the leaves elegantly split, displaying interesting designs. Behind this beauty there is a needle-like toxin called calcium oxalate crystals.

These crystals are held within the plant and only affect you, your pets, or your loved ones if the plant tissue is broken. If ingested, the crystals can cause severe swelling, difficulty breathing, stomach pain, burning and pain. If they are accidentally caught on the skin, they can cause skin irritation.

If anyone accidentally ingests philodendron and they find it difficult to breathe or their tongue starts to swell up, it is important to seek medical attention immediately to avoid suffocation. If you have very young children or pets who have a tendency to tear at plants, keep them away from any philodendrons.

Peace Lily

Peace Lily
Peace lilies produce stunningly white flowers that bring to mind peace and serenity. This is one reason they are invited into our homes and given a place to stay. However, similar to philodendrons, the peace lily contains oxalate crystals known as raphides.

The raphides, once ingested, will cause swelling and burning sensations and can also cause skin irritation. Both pets and humans can get these symptoms so it is important to keep these plants from anyone who is likely to tear or chew it. Symptoms can become dire if the raphides cause the tongue and throat to swell to a point where the person or pet is having difficulty breathing. Seek proper medical attention if this is the case.

Snake Plant

Snake Plant
The snake plant is an interesting and popular house plant. Its stark architecture and wavy coloring has made it a fan favorite. This plant too, however, is toxic when ingested or if the sap touches your skin.

Snake plant sap will cause rashes if it comes into contact with your skin. In addition, it will cause diarrhea and vomiting when ingested. Again these symptoms are very serious and would be best avoided by keeping snake plants out of reach or by choosing a different houseplant.
Common Toxic Garden Plants
Common Toxic Garden Plants

Daffodil

Daffodil
Daffodils are a strikingly colorful flower. This can sometimes bring them much attention not from just onlooking adults but children as well. Since kids are more drawn to colorful objects, they may have a higher chance of just grabbing the flower and eating it. Adults have also been known to accidentally grab daffodil bulbs instead of onions.

Why are these mistakes so dangerous? Daffodils contain lycorine, which can induce nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. It also contains oxalates which can cause swelling and pain. The symptoms can be worse in animals, because if your pets eat daffodils they may experience drowsiness, low blood pressure or even liver damage.

Make sure to call poison control when these symptoms set in. The vomiting and diarrhea have been known to go away after 3 hours, but it is better to be safe than sorry. Ingesting liquids to keep hydration up can be important. If the patient is having difficulty breathing, seek medical attention immediately.

Hydrangea

Hydrangea
Hydrangeas are unique, with their soft blue and pink flowers. They are a great addition to any garden, but should not be snacked on—not that you would want to. Hydrangeas can be especially nasty because they contain compounds known as glycosides. These will release hydrogen cyanide into the bloodstream when consumed. This will block your body’s ability to uptake oxygen to the cells in your body.

The way to combat this kind of poisoning is through getting IVs from the vet or doctor. It is important to contact your medical professional immediately since the symptoms can be fatal within minutes or hours.

Rhododendrons

Rhododendrons
Rhododendron, the state flower of Washington, is also toxic. The multitudinous, pink flowers can be quite dangerous. All parts of this plant are toxic, the leaves and seeds more so than the flowers. However, even the nectar of the flower is toxic and in the Mediterranean, where rhododendrons grow in more dense quantities, the honey from bees who gather rhododendron nectar can be poisonous.

Normally kids and pets do not eat enough to experience the full poisoning effect. However, just eating two leaves is enough to be considered dangerous. The grayanotoxin glycosides within the rhododendron can cause vomiting, diarrhea and irregular heartbeats. Things can get very serious when too much rhododendron is consumed and can lead to necessary medical intervention.

Start by calling poison control first if you suspect anyone has been munching on rhododendrons. The experts there will be able to help guide you through the necessary processes to cure your loved one.

Rhubarb

Rhubarb
Yummy rhubarb has a nasty side to it. While the stems are used in many recipes, including for rhubarb strawberry pie, the leaves are toxic. They contain oxalic acid which is known to blister the mouth, cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and kidney stones. The leaves are known to be more toxic to pets than humans, but in either case, it is important to contact poison control immediately to figure out necessary steps to cure the patient.
Common Toxic Weeds in the Yard
Common Toxic Weeds in the Yard

Bittersweet Nightshade

Bittersweet Nightshade
Nightshade is an invasive, noxious weed that is extremely poisonous. It has been found along the East and West Coast of the U.S. It makes its home in areas with disturbed soil. This could be near your garden or areas that have recently had bushes/trees put in.

These plants are dark green with purple flowers that develop into bright red berries. The whole plant is toxic and should be avoided by pets and children alike. If ingested it can cause nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. The colorful berries are especially enticing to young children. If you see any plants that look similar to tomato or pepper plants that you did not plant in your yard, it is best to just pull them immediately.

Call poison control immediately if you think someone has fallen victim to nightshade.

Buttercups

Buttercups
Buttercups are found throughout the United States, especially in wet areas. The shiny, yellow flowers will pop up in the springtime, accompanying their dandelion friends. However, unlike dandelions, buttercups are not edible.

Buttercups will release a compound called protoanemonin. This toxin is known to cause vomiting, diarrhea, bloody stool, hypersalivation, depression, blisters, and more. These symptoms will affect both humans and animals. The sap may also cause irritation when it comes into contact with skin. These yellow flowers are dangerous and children should be observed cautiously when around them.

Foxgloves

Foxgloves
Foxgloves are beautiful plants that build towers out of vivid purple bell-shaped blossoms. They are very pretty to look at, but they contain a compound known as digoxin. This chemical is used in certain medicines to help people with certain heart conditions. However, the medicine is made by specialists, whereas someone eating foxgloves will receive unregulated amounts of the chemical.

This toxin can make you vomit and lower your heartbeat. This often causes dizziness and faintness. It is extremely important to call poison control immediately to know what to do in the case of foxglove poisoning. Some people have confused the young leaves of foxglove with borage, making adult foragers at risk as well as kids and pets.
How to Tend to or Get Rid of Toxic Plants
How to Tend to or Get Rid of Toxic Plants
Now that you know where to start with toxic plant identification, let us discuss how to either tend to the poisonous plants you decide to keep or get rid of them that plague your yard.

How to Tend to Poisonous Plants

Many plants that are toxic when ingested are also skin irritants. The philodendron is a good example of this. When the sap comes into contact with skin, it can cause a rash to form. To help protect yourself when tending to toxic plants, it is important to wear some sort of gloves.
Tend
Latex gloves may be the best solution due to their disposability. Regular gloves could potentially keep the poisonous sap on their surface. If the gloves aren’t cleaned then you could accidentally touch the irritant or pass it to someone else.

In addition you will want to plan where to keep your deadly beauties. If you have a toxic indoor plant try to keep it up high or out of reach of children and pets. This will keep accidents few and far between. Another idea is keeping your plants in areas that are usually inaccessible to children or pets. Areas such as an office, study room, or guest bedroom could be good locations. If applicable, you could also set up a terrarium for your little plant baby, making it more difficult for curious hands or paws to access.
tend2
If you plan to have outdoor plants, location will be key. You will want to put plants in an area that will be inaccessible to children, pets and even wild animals. You will probably want to avoid planting the plants in the front of your house if kids walk by on a regular basis, just to be cautious. Having the plants behind a fence will be best, but use your discretion when choosing a spot.

How to Get Rid of Poisonous Plants

plants
The easiest but possibly most controversial way to get rid of poisonous plants is by using herbicides. This can be especially easy if you own a grass lawn and use an herbicide that targets broadleaf (non-grass) species. You can find many herbicides meant for yard use by simply searching the term online. Once you have purchased the herbicide you will want to make sure to follow the label posted on the container. If you follow the instructions precisely, then everything should run smoothly for you.

If you don’t plan on using herbicides, there are a few organic methods you can use to try to get rid of toxic plants. You can manually pull the plants out of the ground. This is probably one of the most difficult methods because there is no assurance that you will get the whole plant out this way.

You can also try pouring boiling hot water or spraying white vinegar on the target plants. This may take more time than using a synthetic herbicide, but you can feel a little better about using these products.

You can also try to use wood chips to cover a certain area where you do not want anything to grow. This will not stop all the weeds, but the few that make it through can be easily picked by hand.
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qrcode
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Who Is Most at Risk of Plant Poisoning?
Everyone should keep the following in mind to prevent being poisoned:
1
Do not eat any parts, nor contact with the sap of toxic or unknown plants;
2
If you need to kill it, wear long-sleeved shirts, pants and gloves with sharp tools to dig it out completely;
3
Clean the tools with rubbing alcohol or soap and water but do not do that with bare hands;
4
Clean your hands and skin once exposed to plants with soap and water;
5
Consider using barrier creams that contain bentoquatam to prevent poison oak, ivy and sumac rashes;
6
Dump it in special trash cans in sealed garbage packages;
7
Wear properly when you hiking or working in the wilderness. Long pants, long sleeves, gloves, hiking shoes, etc., that protect you from being hurt by any plants;
8
Once you or your family aren’t feeling well after eating, touching or inhaling anything from toxic plants, please call your doctor for help ASAP!
Outdoor Workers
Outdoor Workers and Recreationalists
Those who enjoy the outdoors either as a hobby or as part of their work will rarely see a plant and decide to munch on it (although the scenario is not unheard of). However, they do tend to deal with moving through and brushing aside plants. These people are more at risk of being poisoned by touching toxic plants than by ingesting them.
Outdoor Workers
Foragers
Foragers
Foraging for food and medicinal plants is a desirable skill among people who want to feel at one with the land. This hobby can be very useful and enjoyable, but if done wrong , it can lead to disastrous effects. People who forage are picking and grabbing plants with the full intention of using those plants, most of the time to ingest them.
Foragers
Children
Children
While outdoor workers are more likely to touch poison and foragers are more likely to ingest poison, children can easily do both. These bundles of joy just love to run around and explore the world. They enjoy touching things and occasionally shoving random stuff in their mouth; this is a terrible combination with toxic plants in the mix.
If you let your children run about, it is important to know what are the local toxic plants that they could accidentally get into. Try to educate the children and steer them away from where the toxic plants are located.
Children
Common Toxic Houseplants
Common Toxic Houseplants
When it comes to decorating a house, there is nothing more refreshing than adding some beautiful houseplants. Some common house plants can also be toxic.

Aloe

aloe
Aloe is famous for its sunburn-soothing properties and its gorgeous desert design. However, many people do not realize that the latex the aloe vera plant produces can be mildly toxic to pets and children.

The latex contains a chemical compound known as saponin. Which when ingested, can cause vomiting, diarrhea, and low blood sugar. This, if left unchecked, can lead to dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. The proper response is to contact poison control or a veterinarian to know what to do in your particular circumstance if either your child or pet consumes aloe.

The latex of the plant is similar to the sap of the tree. It is inside the leaf, but sticks mainly toward the edges. If aloe gel is prepared properly it should be safe for use, but be sure to apply it only topically when treating burns.

Philodendron

Philodendron
Philodendron, also known as sweetheart vine, has become a resident at many houses and even businesses. They are glossy green and the leaves elegantly split, displaying interesting designs. Behind this beauty there is a needle-like toxin called calcium oxalate crystals.

These crystals are held within the plant and only affect you, your pets, or your loved ones if the plant tissue is broken. If ingested, the crystals can cause severe swelling, difficulty breathing, stomach pain, burning and pain. If they are accidentally caught on the skin, they can cause skin irritation.

If anyone accidentally ingests philodendron and they find it difficult to breathe or their tongue starts to swell up, it is important to seek medical attention immediately to avoid suffocation. If you have very young children or pets who have a tendency to tear at plants, keep them away from any philodendrons.

Peace Lily

Peace Lily
Peace lilies produce stunningly white flowers that bring to mind peace and serenity. This is one reason they are invited into our homes and given a place to stay. However, similar to philodendrons, the peace lily contains oxalate crystals known as raphides.

The raphides, once ingested, will cause swelling and burning sensations and can also cause skin irritation. Both pets and humans can get these symptoms so it is important to keep these plants from anyone who is likely to tear or chew it. Symptoms can become dire if the raphides cause the tongue and throat to swell to a point where the person or pet is having difficulty breathing. Seek proper medical attention if this is the case.

Snake Plant

Snake Plant
The snake plant is an interesting and popular house plant. Its stark architecture and wavy coloring has made it a fan favorite. This plant too, however, is toxic when ingested or if the sap touches your skin.

Snake plant sap will cause rashes if it comes into contact with your skin. In addition, it will cause diarrhea and vomiting when ingested. Again these symptoms are very serious and would be best avoided by keeping snake plants out of reach or by choosing a different houseplant.
Common Toxic Garden Plants
Common Toxic Garden Plants

Daffodil

Daffodil
Daffodils are a strikingly colorful flower. This can sometimes bring them much attention not from just onlooking adults but children as well. Since kids are more drawn to colorful objects, they may have a higher chance of just grabbing the flower and eating it. Adults have also been known to accidentally grab daffodil bulbs instead of onions.

Why are these mistakes so dangerous? Daffodils contain lycorine, which can induce nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. It also contains oxalates which can cause swelling and pain. The symptoms can be worse in animals, because if your pets eat daffodils they may experience drowsiness, low blood pressure or even liver damage.

Make sure to call poison control when these symptoms set in. The vomiting and diarrhea have been known to go away after 3 hours, but it is better to be safe than sorry. Ingesting liquids to keep hydration up can be important. If the patient is having difficulty breathing, seek medical attention immediately.

Hydrangea

Hydrangea
Hydrangeas are unique, with their soft blue and pink flowers. They are a great addition to any garden, but should not be snacked on—not that you would want to. Hydrangeas can be especially nasty because they contain compounds known as glycosides. These will release hydrogen cyanide into the bloodstream when consumed. This will block your body’s ability to uptake oxygen to the cells in your body.

The way to combat this kind of poisoning is through getting IVs from the vet or doctor. It is important to contact your medical professional immediately since the symptoms can be fatal within minutes or hours.

Rhododendrons

Rhododendrons
Rhododendron, the state flower of Washington, is also toxic. The multitudinous, pink flowers can be quite dangerous. All parts of this plant are toxic, the leaves and seeds more so than the flowers. However, even the nectar of the flower is toxic and in the Mediterranean, where rhododendrons grow in more dense quantities, the honey from bees who gather rhododendron nectar can be poisonous.

Normally kids and pets do not eat enough to experience the full poisoning effect. However, just eating two leaves is enough to be considered dangerous. The grayanotoxin glycosides within the rhododendron can cause vomiting, diarrhea and irregular heartbeats. Things can get very serious when too much rhododendron is consumed and can lead to necessary medical intervention.

Start by calling poison control first if you suspect anyone has been munching on rhododendrons. The experts there will be able to help guide you through the necessary processes to cure your loved one.

Rhubarb

Rhubarb
Yummy rhubarb has a nasty side to it. While the stems are used in many recipes, including for rhubarb strawberry pie, the leaves are toxic. They contain oxalic acid which is known to blister the mouth, cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and kidney stones. The leaves are known to be more toxic to pets than humans, but in either case, it is important to contact poison control immediately to figure out necessary steps to cure the patient.
Common Toxic Weeds in the Yard
Common Toxic Weeds in the Yard

Bittersweet Nightshade

Bittersweet Nightshade
Nightshade is an invasive, noxious weed that is extremely poisonous. It has been found along the East and West Coast of the U.S. It makes its home in areas with disturbed soil. This could be near your garden or areas that have recently had bushes/trees put in.

These plants are dark green with purple flowers that develop into bright red berries. The whole plant is toxic and should be avoided by pets and children alike. If ingested it can cause nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. The colorful berries are especially enticing to young children. If you see any plants that look similar to tomato or pepper plants that you did not plant in your yard, it is best to just pull them immediately.

Call poison control immediately if you think someone has fallen victim to nightshade.

Buttercups

Buttercups
Buttercups are found throughout the United States, especially in wet areas. The shiny, yellow flowers will pop up in the springtime, accompanying their dandelion friends. However, unlike dandelions, buttercups are not edible.

Buttercups will release a compound called protoanemonin. This toxin is known to cause vomiting, diarrhea, bloody stool, hypersalivation, depression, blisters, and more. These symptoms will affect both humans and animals. The sap may also cause irritation when it comes into contact with skin. These yellow flowers are dangerous and children should be observed cautiously when around them.

Foxgloves

Foxgloves
Foxgloves are beautiful plants that build towers out of vivid purple bell-shaped blossoms. They are very pretty to look at, but they contain a compound known as digoxin. This chemical is used in certain medicines to help people with certain heart conditions. However, the medicine is made by specialists, whereas someone eating foxgloves will receive unregulated amounts of the chemical.

This toxin can make you vomit and lower your heartbeat. This often causes dizziness and faintness. It is extremely important to call poison control immediately to know what to do in the case of foxglove poisoning. Some people have confused the young leaves of foxglove with borage, making adult foragers at risk as well as kids and pets.
How to Tend to or Get Rid of Toxic Plants
How to Tend to or Get Rid of Toxic Plants
Now that you know where to start with toxic plant identification, let us discuss how to either tend to the poisonous plants you decide to keep or get rid of them that plague your yard.

How to Tend to Poisonous Plants

Many plants that are toxic when ingested are also skin irritants. The philodendron is a good example of this. When the sap comes into contact with skin, it can cause a rash to form. To help protect yourself when tending to toxic plants, it is important to wear some sort of gloves.
Tend
Latex gloves may be the best solution due to their disposability. Regular gloves could potentially keep the poisonous sap on their surface. If the gloves aren’t cleaned then you could accidentally touch the irritant or pass it to someone else.

In addition you will want to plan where to keep your deadly beauties. If you have a toxic indoor plant try to keep it up high or out of reach of children and pets. This will keep accidents few and far between. Another idea is keeping your plants in areas that are usually inaccessible to children or pets. Areas such as an office, study room, or guest bedroom could be good locations. If applicable, you could also set up a terrarium for your little plant baby, making it more difficult for curious hands or paws to access.
tend2
If you plan to have outdoor plants, location will be key. You will want to put plants in an area that will be inaccessible to children, pets and even wild animals. You will probably want to avoid planting the plants in the front of your house if kids walk by on a regular basis, just to be cautious. Having the plants behind a fence will be best, but use your discretion when choosing a spot.

How to Get Rid of Poisonous Plants

plants
The easiest but possibly most controversial way to get rid of poisonous plants is by using herbicides. This can be especially easy if you own a grass lawn and use an herbicide that targets broadleaf (non-grass) species. You can find many herbicides meant for yard use by simply searching the term online. Once you have purchased the herbicide you will want to make sure to follow the label posted on the container. If you follow the instructions precisely, then everything should run smoothly for you.

If you don’t plan on using herbicides, there are a few organic methods you can use to try to get rid of toxic plants. You can manually pull the plants out of the ground. This is probably one of the most difficult methods because there is no assurance that you will get the whole plant out this way.

You can also try pouring boiling hot water or spraying white vinegar on the target plants. This may take more time than using a synthetic herbicide, but you can feel a little better about using these products.

You can also try to use wood chips to cover a certain area where you do not want anything to grow. This will not stop all the weeds, but the few that make it through can be easily picked by hand.
Continue reading in our app - it's better
A database of 400000+ plants and unlimited guides at your fingertips...
qrcode
Scan the QR code with your phone camera to download the app
care_more_info

More About Smoketree

Plant Type
Plant Type
Shrub, Tree
Lifespan
Lifespan
Perennial
Spread
Spread
4 m
Bloom Time
Bloom Time
Late spring, Early summer
Flower Color
Flower Color
Yellow
Green
Pink
Red
Leaf Color
Leaf Color
Green
Red
Yellow
Orange
Flower Size
Flower Size
5 to 10 mm
Plant Height
Plant Height
3 to 7 m

Name story

European smoketree||Smoke bush
If you happen to see this plant during the blooming season, you will be attracted to the spectacular blooming view. It is as if the whole tree is covered by a layer of windy smoke, and because of the feathery shaped flowers, the dense flowers create a hazy atmosphere. Hence, it is called smoke bush. Sometimes, it is called European smoketree because it is originated from Europe.

Usages

Environmental Protection Value
Smokebush can purify air and conserve water and soil.
Garden Use
Smoketree is recommended for growing in parks and scenic spots. It is a common choice because it grows well, even in difficult conditions, once it is established. It is often used in xeriscaping or as a screening plant. Prized also for its bright blooms, it is a good fit for rock and Mediterranean gardens. Its companion plants include the Black-eyed Susan for its brightness and ornamental grasses.
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Common Problems

Why are the leaves of my smoketree wilting and yellowing?

more more
Disease infestation and over- or under-watering are some of the common causes of yellowing and wilting leaves. A plant suffering from fungal or bacterial growth often shows curling of the leaves that eventually turn yellow and droop down. The leaves may also exhibit spots, rust, or discoloration. Keeping the plant healthy is one way to address such issues. It’s also best to place your smoketree in a well-lit and well-ventilated area and practice proper watering.

Why is my smoketree not blooming?

more more
The smoketree requires full sunlight. While it can still grow and develop buds under partial shade conditions, the plant needs a sufficient amount of light to flower, which is likely why yours isn't blooming. If there are other plants blocking the light, try to move them to allow more sun in. Fertilizing the plant in early spring when new growth appears may also help.
care_new_plant

Caring for a New Plant

new-plant
The following pictures and instructions for woody plant are aimed to help your plants adapt and thrive in a new environment.
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1
Picking a Healthy Woody Plant
check-health

Check Its Health

part-image-bg part-image
Whole Plant
Symmetrical crown, evenly distributed branches, full and compact shape, no excessive growth, close internodes, and uniform leaf size.
part-image-bg part-image
Branches
The branches are not withered, and the trunk is free of boreholes or damage.
part-image-bg part-image
Leaves
Check the inside of the plant, shaded and overlapping areas, back of leaves. Even colour, no yellowing, no brown spots, no crawling insects, no cobwebs, no deformities, no wilting.
part-image-bg part-image
Stems
No mold, browning or soft rot at the base of the plant.
health-trouble

Health Troubleshooting

Whole Plant
trouble-image
more 1 Asymmetrical crown or missing, uneven branching: prune the weak and slender branches of the larger portion of the asymmetrical crown.
trouble-image
more 2 Internodes are longer in the upper part, leaves are sparse and smaller on top: increase light intensity or duration.
Branches
trouble-image
more 1 Dry branches: check if the branch is still alive by peeling back a small section of bark and trim away any dry branches. Watch out for signs of insect infestation inside the branch.
trouble-image
more 2 Bark with holes: inject insecticide into the holes and apply systemic insecticide to the roots.
trouble-image
more 3 Damaged bark: brush on a wound-healing agent, and avoid getting it wet.
Stems
trouble-image
Mildew, browning, or soft rot at the base: place the plant in a ventilated, dry environment and water with fungicide.
Leaves
trouble-image
more 1 Uneven leaf color and yellowing: prune yellow leaves and check if there are signs of rot at the base of the plant. Spray with fungicide for severe cases.
trouble-image
more 2 Brown spots or small yellow spots: place the plant in a ventilated area and avoid watering the leaves. Spray with fungicide for severe cases.
trouble-image
more 3 Tiny crawling insects on the back of leaves or spider webs between leaves: increase light exposure and spray with insecticide for severe cases.
trouble-image
more 4 Deformations or missing parts on leaves: determine if it's physical damage or pest infestation. Linear or tearing damage is physical, while the rest are pests. Spray with insecticide.
trouble-image
more 5 Wilting leaves: provide partial shade and avoid excessive sun exposure. Remove 1/3 to 1/2 of the leaves for severe cases.
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check-condition

Check Its Growing Conditions

check
Soil Check
Soil should smell fresh like after a rain and no musty odor.
check
Light Check
Check the light requirement of the plant and if it match with planting location.
check
Temperature Check
Check if the current outdoor temperature is too low or too high.
condition-trouble

Condition Troubleshooting

check
Soil
Potting mix soil, Peat moss mix soil
Soil smells musty or foul: check the root system for decay, place the plant in a ventilated, dry environment, and water with fungicide.
check
Ideal Temperature
-10℃ to 35℃
Outdoor temperature is not suitable for the plant: wait until it's a more favorable temperature for growth.
check
Suitable Light
Full sun, Partial sun
Insufficient light: Lack of light can result in fewer leaves and branches, and prevent flowering. Move plant to sunnier spot if possible.
Transplant recovery: After 3 days without severe wilting, slowly increase light to normal levels over a week. If plant droops or sheds leaves, keep it in shade. Once wilting stops, give shade until the plant stands up again. Lots of yellowing and leaf loss mean the light is too low and needs to be increased.
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2
Adapting Your New Woody Plant
Step 1
condition-image
Repotting
Plant your plant promptly in its final location or in a new pot, if conditions are suitable. When transplanting, clean the roots of the plant and keep the root system intact. Prune any blackened or rotten roots, spread out a heavily tangled root system, and mix in some well-rotted organic fertilizer. Use permeable soil and water thoroughly after planting.
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Step 2
condition-image
Pruning
Remove yellow or diseased leaves immediately. If leaves are crowded and appear wilted or falling off, remove some of them. For bare-root plants, cut off at least half of the leaves. Pruning is not typically required.
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Step 3
condition-image
Watering
Increase watering in the first week to keep soil moist. Water when soil is slightly dry, for at least 2 weeks. Avoid over-watering. Do not water when there is water on your fingers after touching the soil.
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Step 4
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Fertilizing
Add a small amount of base fertilizer during transplanting or repotting. No other fertilizer needed for the first month.
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Smoketree
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Repotting
Plant promptly in final location or new pot. Clean roots, use organic fertilizer, permeable soil, and water thoroughly.
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Pruning
Cut off yellow or diseased leaves and crowded leaves that appear wilted or falling.
label-image
Watering
Water new plants more often for 2 weeks. Avoid over/under watering by checking the soil.
label-image
Fertilizing
Add base fertilizer during transplanting. No other fertilizer is needed for the first month.
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Sunlight
Regular sun exposure for indoor plants. Shade after transplanting/repotting, then gradually increase light if there is no wilting. Increase light if yellowing and leaf drop occur.
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main-image
Smoketree
label-image
Repotting
Plant promptly in final location or new pot. Clean roots, use organic fertilizer, permeable soil, and water thoroughly.
label-image
Pruning
Cut off yellow or diseased leaves and crowded leaves that appear wilted or falling.
label-image
Watering
Water new plants more often for 2 weeks. Avoid over/under watering by checking the soil.
label-image
Fertilizing
Add base fertilizer during transplanting. No other fertilizer is needed for the first month.
label-image
Sunlight
Regular sun exposure for indoor plants. Shade after transplanting/repotting, then gradually increase light if there is no wilting. Increase light if yellowing and leaf drop occur.
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Smoketree
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Smoketree
Smoketree
Smoketree

How to Care for Smoketree

Smoketree is a deciduous tree native to Southern Europe and Central China. The flowers of the smoketree are pinkish-purple and long-lasting. They grow in clusters along branches and give a smoky appearance to the tree when in bloom. In China, they are used as important fall decorations due to their foliage turn bright red in the fall.
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Symbolism

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Water
Every 1-2 weeks
Water Water detail
Sunlight
Full sun
Sunlight Sunlight detail
Toxic to Humans
care_basic_guide

Basic Care Guide

Cultivation:WaterDetail

How to Water Smoketree?

Cultivation:WaterDetail
A young plant will require regular watering to achieve optimum growth. Water your smoketree once a week, or more frequently in hot conditions. Once established, the plant can tolerate drier conditions. It will need moderate watering, meaning every 10 to 14 days, when it is actively growing in the spring and summer. Mulching also helps to conserve moisture in the soil, hence less frequent watering will be needed.
If your smoketree is being grown in a container, it will need irrigation more frequently than an in-ground tree. It’s best to keep the soil moist but not soggy, regardless of where it is planted. As a general rule, water the plant when the top 2.5 cm of soil feels dry.
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Cultivation:FertilizerDetail

How to Fertilize Smoketree?

Cultivation:FertilizerDetail
While fertile soil helps keep the smoketree vigorous, a container-grown tree does not require fertilization during its first two to three years. Established plants, however, benefit from basic annual fertilization in the spring. Nitrogen-rich fertilizers help promote healthy foliage growth. When applying fertilizer, spread it around the plant and not directly on any plant part, to avoid burn.
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Fertilizer

It can be somewhat easy for a novice gardener to overlook Smoketree since these plants don't often produce showy flowers. However, the incredible leaf shapes and textures of Smoketree plants can make them as ornamentally appealing as any other plant in your garden. Growing Smoketree outdoors in your garden is not extremely difficult to do, but there are some insights that you must keep in mind while you care for this plant. Within your maintenance routine, correct fertilization will be crucial.
Regardless of which kind of Smoketree you own, regular fertilization will help you grow a plant that has great overall health. The proper supply of nutrients leads to more vigorous growth and can help your Smoketree be more resilient to tough growing conditions while also gaining a better ability to fight off diseases and pests. The foliage of your Smoketree is one of its most attractive features, which is why you should do all you can to keep it intact. Again, this means creating and adhering to a regular fertilization schedule that is specific to your Smoketree. Doing so will prompt your Smoketree to develop leaves with a deep color and a lush overall look.
The first time that you should fertilize your Smoketree is during the late winter or early spring. This type of fertilization gives your Smoketree all the nutrients it needs to resume healthy growth once the weather gets warm enough. It is also beneficial to many Smoketree to provide an additional fertilizer feeding during early fall if you in a warm climate region. Fertilizing in early fall not only adds additional nutrients to the soil, which your Smoketree will use in the following growing season, but it also helps your Smoketree be a bit more hardy and capable of surviving the winter cold without experiencing foliage damage. Earlier fertilisation will ensure that the new branches have enough time to grow to withstand the cold winter.
In most cases, the most important nutrient for a Smoketree is nitrogen, but that does not mean that phosphorus and potassium are unimportant. On the contrary, your Smoketree likely needs a decent amount of all three main nutrients, which is why a balanced fertilizer, such as a 10-10-10, can work well. However, a more nuanced ratio of nutrients often leads to optimal growth for a Smoketree. Often, fertilizers that are a bit higher in nitrogen work a bit better. For example, a ratio of 10-6-4 can often work well. When fertilizing, you can use a granular fertilizer or a liquid-based one. At times, a Smoketree may also need
To fertilize your Smoketree using a granular fertilizer, all you need to do is sprinkle the fertilizer on the soil at the correct time. The slow-release nature of granular fertilizer will release nutrients into the soil slowly over time. As is usually the case, it's best to water your Smoketree, at least lightly, before applying fertilizer. As an alternative, you can use a liquid fertilizer, but this is less common. To use this approach, mix your fertilizer with water, then pour the water onto the soil around the base of your Smoketree. At times, it is beneficial to perform a soil test before fertilizing to see if you will need to alter the pH at all.
Overfertilization is always a risk when you are feeding a Smoketree. Overfertilization is especially likely if you feed this plant at the wrong time of year, feed it too often, or feed it without watering the soil first. When overfertilization takes place, your Smoketree may begin to develop brown leaves. Your Smoketree can also show stunted growth in some cases. On the other hand, it is also possible that too much fertilizer can prompt your Smoketree to rapidly produce too much new growth, much of which will be weak and prone to breaking. Weak new wood can also detract from the overall form and structure of your Smoketree.
There are a few times during the year when you should not fertilize your Smoketree. The first time occurs during the early and mid-winter months, during which time your Smoketree will be dormant and in no need of feeding. It is also unwise to fertilize this plant during the late spring and all of the summer. During that time of year, the weather will likely be hotter and can be much dryer as well. Both conditions make it more likely that your Smoketree will have a very negative response to fertilization. To avoid such issues, stick to a fertilization schedule that involves feeding exclusively during early spring and early fall.
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Cultivation:SunlightDetail

What Are the Sunlight Requirements for Smoketree?

Cultivation:SunlightDetail
Smoketree prefers full sun - an area that provides at least 6 hours of full sunlight per day would really benefit the plant, especially the purple-leaved varieties, as ample sunlight makes the foliage more vibrant and encourages blooming. Although it will still grow in partially shaded areas, this will result in sparse leaves and poor flowering.
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Cultivation:PruningDetail

How to Prune Smoketree?

Cultivation:PruningDetail
Pruning plays a crucial role in ensuring that your smoketree grows to be healthy and attractive. Ideally, this should be performed in late fall to early spring, when the plant is done blooming. The method of pruning depends on your preference. You can keep it minimal, simply pruning to maintain a healthy form. Alternatively, you can cut the tree back to ground level during its first two years to encourage dramatic foliage and a denser form.
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Advanced Care Guide

Cultivation:WaterAndHardinessDetail

What is the Ideal Temperature Range for Smoketree?

Cultivation:WaterAndHardinessDetail
These deciduous shrubs or trees like moderate temperature ranges and average to low humidity. They are hardy to -20 ℃, but expect the shoot tips to die-back in cold temperatures. Established plants can tolerate drought.
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Cultivation:SoilDetail

What Soil is Best for Smoketree?

Cultivation:SoilDetail
plants in the Cotinus genus grow well in any soil type as long as it’s fertile and well-draining. The smoketree is no different - it can tolerate various soil conditions, but damp, soggy, and waterlogged soils are an exception. You can grow this plant in loam, clay, and sand soil types and in a wide range of soil pH, from acidic to alkaline.
Cultivation:PropagationDetail

How to Propagate Smoketree?

Cultivation:PropagationDetail
Smoketree can be propagated by seeds. However, since its growth may take up to two years, using semi-hardwood stem cuttings is an easier method. Take cuttings that are less than a year old, while avoiding new growth. Prepare to root the cutting by removing the lower leaves, stripping off some bark from the bottom, and dipping it into a rooting hormone. Then, place it in a pot with a moist growing medium. Cover the pot with a plastic bag to retain moisture. Transfer the cutting to a larger pot once it has formed roots.
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Propagation

Smoketree provides good landscaping for your garden all year round, which is quite essential for the garden. As your Smoketree grows, you may want to know how to get more of them for free. Or maybe your Smoketree has been damaged by a pest or disease and you’d like to save it and propagate a new plant. This article is about how to propagate your Smoketree. For a simpler procedure, hardwood cuttings is a good choice. Smoketree can be propagated during the dormant season from mid-autumn until late winter. Most people prefer to take cuttings right after leaves drop, but it can be done successfully at other times, provided you avoid taking cuttings during severely cold periods. The beginning and ending of the dormant season are the most likely to be successful.Flash cuttings cannot tolerate the cold environment. If the winter temperatures in your area are low (e.g., below 0 ℉ for an extended period of time), it is recommended that you place the cuttings in a garage or outdoor incubator after cutting. This will help the cuttings to develop roots. When propagating Smoketree, be sure your cutting tool is large enough and sharp enough to cut cleanly through the shoots. Using a dull tool can crush or tear the plant, which can lead to infection and disease.
  1. Sharp garden pruners
  2. Diluted bleach solution or isopropyl alcohol to clean tools
  3. Rooting hormone (optional but recommended)
  4. Deep container(s) with drainage holes for planting
  5. Well-draining planting medium such as pine bark, perlite, or a potting soil mix
Steps: Step 1: Choose healthy shoots that are about as thick as a pencil for your propagation and 6 to 8 inches long, preferably from the previous year’s growth. Once you have identified your cuttings, use disinfected garden pruners to cut off the bud tip and take the remaining branch of the front section about 7-8 inches. If you are not putting them into containers immediately, keep the cuttings moist until you are able to pot them. TIP: Pay attention to which side is up when you are taking cuttings - it can be difficult to tell when there are no leaves Step 2: Prepare your containers by filling them with the planting medium. Adding compost to the soil can facilitate plant rooting. Step 3: Dip the bottom of your Smoketree into rooting hormone, then insert one-third to two-thirds of the cutting into the substrate. Plant them about 2 inches apart. You should be able to plant as many as 10 to 12, depending on your container size. Step 4: Water thoroughly, making sure the potting medium is evenly moist but allowing it to drain. Step 5: Place the containers in a cold, protected location that receives some sunlight. An unheated garage, a porch, or a cold frame work well for this. Leave the Smoketree there throughout the winter. Water occasionally to make sure the soil doesn’t dry out completely, although it can be dryer during the coldest winter months. Start watering more often as days get warmer in the spring. It is recommended that you place the cuttings in a garage or outdoor incubator after cutting if the winter temperatures in your area are low. Step 6: Move the containers outside to a spot that gets partial sun after the last frost. You can expect to see new leaves on your Smoketree around the middle of spring. It’s important to be patient with this process because it is quite slow. In fact, it can take a year or longer for Smoketree to be ready to be transplanted. Luckily there isn’t much maintenance during this time, and the process has a high likelihood of success. Even if your Smoketree is putting out new growth, they may not be ready to be planted into the ground just yet. It is more important that there are plenty of healthy roots growing. The roots should be at least 3 inches long, but many people like to wait until roots start to grow out of the drainage holes to be sure that there is a proper root system. Mound or stool laying is also a common method of propagation, but it’s more complex. Begin the mound or stool layering process in the autumn by cutting back your plant; this will allow the plant to put its energy into growing new roots in the spring. When growth begins in the spring, it's time to start layering dirt over the new growth. Wait one or two months for the roots to sufficiently develop before dividing or propagating the new plants. Mound or stool layering takes time and patience, but the tools you need to accomplish it are minimal. So long as you have your handy shears and trowel, you can get started right away!
  1. Sharp, sanitized scissors or shears
  2. Trowel for covering the plant
  3. Growing medium to cover the plant
Steps: Step 1: Cut the plant back to 4-6 inches from the ground during the dormant season. Or use scissors to circumferentially peel the lower part of the branch at 4-6 inches from the ground. Step 2: As new growth appears above the ground, layer soil over the new growth. Compacted with soil, this will allow the buried new growth shoots to root. Step 3: Make sure the regular growth of the mother plant during the pressing period, especially to keep properly moist to the area where the soil is mounded. Step 4: Dig up the mound of soil after 3-4 months then check the rooting situation. If vigorous roots have grown, cut off the roots along with the branches and plant them as new plants.
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Cultivation:PlantingDetail

How to Plant Smoketree?

Cultivation:PlantingDetail
Planting smoketree is easy; you can start with cuttings or buy a ready-to-plant specimen from garden stores. Prepare a hole ideally double the size of your plant's current pot, and then position your smoketree in the hole so that it sits just slightly above ground level. Loosen the roots to help them grow and spread. Backfill with well-drained soil and water, stopping halfway through to tamp the soil down before finishing up. If your smoketree is a Bush type, it can also be planted in a container.
PlantCare:TransplantSummary

How to Transplant Smoketree?

PlantCare:TransplantSummary
The ideal season for transplanting smoketree is early spring, as it allows the plant to establish its roots before the growing season. Choose a sunny, well-drained location for the transplant, and be gentle when handling the delicate roots. Happy planting!
Cultivation:PottingSuggestions

How to Repot Smoketree?

Cultivation:PottingSuggestions
Choose basins according to tree shape.
care_seasonal_tips

Seasonal Care Tips

seasonal-tip

Seasonal Precautions

Since smoketree prefers a sunny and warm environment, it may suffer from frost damage during the winter or extremely cold conditions. This can be prevented by placing your potted plant in a protected area throughout the winter period. If necessary, wrap the container or pot with an insulating blanket to give the roots added protection from the cold.
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Spring

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Summer

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Fall

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Winter

This plant and other temperate flowering trees, vines, and shrubs often benefit from early spring care.

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Spring care includes pruning to remove dead branches. Be careful not to cut away any buds, it will reduce flowering.
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Apply a balanced, all-purpose fertilizer to support healthy growth.
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Pay attention to soil moisture levels, and water whenever the top layer of soil is beginning to dry out.
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4
Ensure container plants are receiving enough sunlight. Move the plants to a location receiving around six hours of sunlight a day.

Temperate flowering trees, vines, and shrubs like this plant require more care in the summer.

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Frequent watering in the summer is a must in most climates, especially in the south. Check the soil’s moisture levels daily, watering when it is beginning to dry out.
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2
Stop fertilizing in the summer while the plant is not in bloom.
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3
summer is the ideal time to remove any spent blooms to encourage re-flowering in the fall.
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4
Move container plants out of the bright sunlight.
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Keep an eye out for pests and diseases. Removing plant debris from the area can help with any potential issues.

Your plant needs a bit of care in the autumn months to keep it looking its best and prepare it for winter.

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In the late fall, you can give your plant a good prune. Remove any low-hanging or overcrowding branches, along with energy-sapping suckers, to keep the plant growing strong throughout the season.
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Clean up any fallen leaves around the plant, as these leaves can cause harmful bacteria to grow around the plant.
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Provide it with enough water to keep the soil moist, watering whenever the soil becomes dry.
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Make sure it's exposed to strong sunlight and has some shade in the afternoon.
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Watch out for any pests and diseases, such as mildew that looks like a powdery coating on the plant.

This plant requires some careful care during the winter.

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It's important for your plant to be exposed to cold winter weather during this season, which will help boost its production in the spring, in a process sometimes called “chilling” your plant. Therefore, don't worry about keeping these plants warm or bringing them inside.
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You may want to take this dormant time to prune away overcrowding, dead, or diseased parts, however.
care_pet_and_diseases

Common Pests & Diseases

Common issues for Smoketree based on 10 million real cases
Brown spot
Brown spot Brown spot Brown spot
This infection can cause brown spots or patches to appear on the plant.
Solutions: In minor cases of brown spot, there isn’t any need to treat the disease. However, if much of the foliage is affected and defoliation occurs, the plant will benefit from getting rid of the infection. It is recommended to start by applying organic treatment options, working up to the more potent synthetic, chemical fungicides if necessary. Organic options won’t kill the fungus, but will prevent it from spreading. Dissolve ½ teaspoon of baking soda and one teaspoon of liquid soap in a gallon of water. Using a spray bottle, spray on tops and bottoms of leaves until the mixture drips off. Repeat every two weeks until existing spots stop enlarging and new spots no longer appear. Spray a copper-based fungicidal soap on the leaves, coating the top and bottom leaf surfaces. Reapply as directed on the product label. Copper penetrates the leaf surface and prevents germination of spores so the fungus cannot spread. Apply an all-purpose fungicide to the entire plant, following the label instructions carefully.
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Fruit withering
Fruit withering Fruit withering Fruit withering
Fungal infection or normal ripening can cause the fruit to dry out.
Solutions: There are a number of appropriate solutions to control fruit withering: Remove any fruit as soon as it shows any signs of infection. Do not compost. Use a fungicide prior to leaf bud and then as per manufacturers instructions throughout the season.
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Longhorn beetles
Longhorn beetles Longhorn beetles Longhorn beetles
The longhorn beetle is a medium- to large-sized insect with very long antennae and strong jaws. Both its adult and larval stages gnaw on tree trunks, leaving small, round holes.
Solutions: Some longhorn beetles species are native insects, and they cause little damage. Therefore, these don't warrant control. Other longhorn beetles species are invasive pests that were recently introduced from other areas. These species can cause a great deal of damage to hardwood trees. Apply an insecticide containing imidacloprid as a soil injection or trunk injection following product instructions. This will enter into new grow and kill adults who feed on foliage. This will not help save trees that are already infested with large amounts of larvae, but it will save trees located near an infested tree. Contact an arborist for best control practices regarding infected trees. To properly control longhorn beetles, all host plants in a given area must be treated. Contact a local extension agent or state agency. Tracking the spread of longhorn beetles is a key component of their control.
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Leaf scorch
Leaf scorch Leaf scorch Leaf scorch
Leaf blight causes leaves to dry out and turn brown starting at their tips.
Solutions: The solution to leaf scorch will depend on the cause, however, in general all cultural care methods that improve plant health and root functionality will reduce symptoms. Mulching the root zone (preferably with wood chip mulch) helps retain moisture, reduce evaporation, and promotes a healthy, functional root environment that is critical for water movement to the leaves. Check the root collar for girdling or circling roots that strangle the trunk and limit water and nutrient movement. Protect trees from severe root damage of nearby construction and excavation. If fertilizer burn is to blame, irrigate the soil deeply to flush out excess fertilizer salts. However, keep in mind that fertilizer runoff is an environmental pollutant. Avoiding excess fertilization in the first place is the best approach. If soil testing has revealed a potassium deficiency, apply a potassium fertilizer and water well. Even if you have enough potassium in the soil, plants will not be able to take it up if the soil is consistently too dry. Severely affected twigs may be removed using a pair of sharp and sanitized pruning shears, as weakened branches are susceptible to secondary infections. If your plant has bacterial leaf scorch, there is no cure. Antibiotic injections applied by a professional can reduce symptoms for a season, however, the above cultural management methods are the best options to reduce symptoms and prolong life. An infected plant will likely die within ten years.
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Aged yellow and dry
Aged yellow and dry Aged yellow and dry Aged yellow and dry
Natural aging can cause leaves to turn yellow and dry out.
Solutions: If the yellowing and drying of leaves and flowers is a natural progression due to age, nothing can be done to slow or stop the process. Once hormones within the plant begin the process of senescence, it’s irreversible.
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Leaf rot
Leaf rot Leaf rot Leaf rot
This pathogen can cause the leaves to rot.
Solutions: Bacterial infections need to be treated quickly to prevent the spread to neighboring, healthy plants, potentially wiping out large sections of your indoor or outdoor garden. In mild cases: Use sterilized (10% bleach solution) pruning shears or scissors to remove any infected plant parts, making sure to dispose of them off site. Use a copper-based bactericide to treat the unaffected foliage, as well as the soil, and neighboring plants. Follow the manufacturer’s rate and timing directions found on the product label. In severe cases, where more than half the leaves are affected: Remove all of the infected plants from the garden, disposing of them off site. Treat the soil and neighboring plants using a copper-based bactericide. Follow the manufacturer’s rate and timing directions found on the product label.
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Brown spot
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Brown spot
This infection can cause brown spots or patches to appear on the plant.
Overview
Overview
Discolored spots on the foliage of plants are one of the most common disease problems people observe. These spots are caused by fungal and bacterial diseases, with most infections related to a fungal pathogen.
Brown spot can occurs on all houseplants, flowering ornamentals, vegetable plants, and leaves of trees, bushes, and shrubs. No plants are resistant to it, and the problem is worse in warm, wet environments. It can occur at any point in the life stage as long as leaves are present.
Small brownish spots appear on the foliage and enlarge as the disease progresses. In severe cases, the plant or tree is weakened when the lesions interrupt photosynthesis or cause defoliation.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
In most cases, brown spot only affects a small percentage of the whole plant, appearing on a small amount of the leaves. A small infection only puts minor stress on the plant. However, if left untreated and the disease progresses over numerous seasons, it will severely impact the health and productivity of the infected specimen.
  • Sporulation begins (reproduction of the fungal spores), and tiny spots appear on leaves.
  • Placement is often random and scattered as diseases are spread through raindrops.
  • May appear on lower leaves and the interior of the plant where humidity is higher.
  • Brown spots enlarge and grow large enough to touch neighboring spots to form a more prominent blotch.
  • Leaf margins may turn yellow.
  • Tiny black dots (fruiting bodies of the fungi) appear in the dead spots.
  • Blotches grow in size until the entire leaf is brown.
  • The leaf falls off the plant.
Severe Symptoms
  • Partial or complete premature defoliation
  • Reduced growth
  • Increased susceptibility to pests and other diseases
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
Brown spot, or leaf spot, is a common descriptive term given to several diseases affecting the leaves of plants and trees. Around 85% of diseases exhibiting leaf spots are due to fungus or fungus-like organisms. Sometimes brown spot is caused by a bacterial infection, or insect activity with similar symptoms.
When conditions are warm and the leaf surfaces are wet, fungal spores being transported by wind or rain land on the surface and cling to it. They do not rupture the cell walls but grow in the space between the plant plasma membrane and the plant cell wall. As the spores reproduce, they release toxins and enzymes that cause necrotic spots (i.e., dead tissue) on the leaves, allowing the fungi to consume the products released when the cells degrade.
Solutions
Solutions
In minor cases of brown spot, there isn’t any need to treat the disease. However, if much of the foliage is affected and defoliation occurs, the plant will benefit from getting rid of the infection. It is recommended to start by applying organic treatment options, working up to the more potent synthetic, chemical fungicides if necessary.
Organic options won’t kill the fungus, but will prevent it from spreading.
  1. Dissolve ½ teaspoon of baking soda and one teaspoon of liquid soap in a gallon of water. Using a spray bottle, spray on tops and bottoms of leaves until the mixture drips off. Repeat every two weeks until existing spots stop enlarging and new spots no longer appear.
  2. Spray a copper-based fungicidal soap on the leaves, coating the top and bottom leaf surfaces. Reapply as directed on the product label. Copper penetrates the leaf surface and prevents germination of spores so the fungus cannot spread.
  3. Apply an all-purpose fungicide to the entire plant, following the label instructions carefully.
Prevention
Prevention
Like many other diseases, it is easier to prevent brown spot than cure it, and this is done through cultural practices.
  • Clear fall leaves from the ground before winter to minimize places where fungi and bacteria can overwinter.
  • Maintain good air movement between plants through proper plant spacing.
  • Increase air circulation through the center of plants through pruning.
  • Thoroughly clean all pruning tools after working with diseased plants.
  • Never dispose of disease plant material in a compost pile.
  • Avoid overhead watering to keep moisture off of the foliage.
  • Keep plants healthy by providing adequate sunlight, water, and fertilizer.
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Fruit withering
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Fruit withering
Fungal infection or normal ripening can cause the fruit to dry out.
Overview
Overview
Fruit withering is common on many tree fruits, including apples, pears, peaches, cherries, and plums, as well as fruiting shrubs. It is caused by a fungal pathogen and will result in wrinkled and desiccated fruit.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Here are the most common symptoms in the order that they are likely to occur.
  1. Both leaves and blossom on the tips of branches will go brown and wither.
  2. Gray powdery patches will appear on infected leaves and flowers, and this will be most apparent after rain.
  3. Any fruit that does appear will turn wrinkled and fail to develop.
  4. Branch tips begin to die, progressing back to larger branches, causing general deterioration of the tree or plant.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
The withering is caused by one of two fungal pathogens, one called Monilina laxa and the other called M. fructigen. The spores overwinter on infected plant material and are then spread the following spring by wind, rain, or animal vectors. The problem will start to become noticeable in mid-spring, but will increase in severity as summer progresses and the fungus grows. If not addressed, the disease will intensify and spread to other plants in the vicinity.
Solutions
Solutions
There are a number of appropriate solutions to control fruit withering:
  1. Remove any fruit as soon as it shows any signs of infection. Do not compost.
  2. Use a fungicide prior to leaf bud and then as per manufacturers instructions throughout the season.
Prevention
Prevention
Preventative measures include:
  1. Ensuring adequate spacing between plants or trees.
  2. Staking plants that are prone to tumbling to prevent moisture or humidity build up.
  3. Prune correctly so that there is adequate air movement and remove any dead or diseased branches that may carry spores.
  4. Practice good plant hygiene by removing fallen material and destroying it as soon as possible.
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Longhorn beetles
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Longhorn beetles
The longhorn beetle is a medium- to large-sized insect with very long antennae and strong jaws. Both its adult and larval stages gnaw on tree trunks, leaving small, round holes.
Overview
Overview
Longhorn beetles are characterized by extremely long antennae which are often as long as, or longer, than the beetle's body. Adult longhorn beetles vary in size, shape, and coloration, depending upon the species. They may be 6 to 76 mm long. The larvae are worm-like with a wrinkled, white to yellowish body and a brown head.
Longhorn beetles are active throughout the year, but adults are most active in the summer and fall. Larvae feed on wood throughout the year.
Both larvae and adults feed on woody tissue. Some of the most susceptible species include ash, birch, elm, poplar, and willow.
If left untreated, longhorn beetles can kill trees.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Longhorn beetles are attracted to wounded, dying, or freshly-cut hardwood trees. Adults lay their eggs in the spring, summer, and fall on the bark of greenwood. There may be sap around egg-laying sites.
Once the eggs hatch, larvae called round-headed borers burrow into the trunk to feed. They may tunnel for one to three years depending on the wood's nutritional content. As the larvae feed, they release sawdust-like frass at the base of the tree.
Eventually, the larvae turn into pupae and then adults. When the adults emerge, they leave 1 cm holes in the bark on their way out. Adults feed on leaves, bark, and shoots of trees before laying eggs.
After a few years of being fed upon by longhorn beetles, a tree will begin losing leaves. Eventually, it will die.
Solutions
Solutions
Some longhorn beetles species are native insects, and they cause little damage. Therefore, these don't warrant control.
Other longhorn beetles species are invasive pests that were recently introduced from other areas. These species can cause a great deal of damage to hardwood trees.
  • Apply an insecticide containing imidacloprid as a soil injection or trunk injection following product instructions. This will enter into new grow and kill adults who feed on foliage. This will not help save trees that are already infested with large amounts of larvae, but it will save trees located near an infested tree.
  • Contact an arborist for best control practices regarding infected trees.
  • To properly control longhorn beetles, all host plants in a given area must be treated.
  • Contact a local extension agent or state agency. Tracking the spread of longhorn beetles is a key component of their control.
Prevention
Prevention
  • Keeping trees healthy, uninjured, and unstressed will help prevent beetle infestation. Water trees appropriately, giving neither too much nor too little.
  • Check with local tree companies about which tree species have fewer problems.
  • Avoid moving firewood as this can introduce exotic longhorn beetles.
  • Routine spraying of persistent, broad-spectrum insecticides will help prevent re-infestation of previously affected trees or infestation of unaffected trees.
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Leaf scorch
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Leaf scorch
Leaf blight causes leaves to dry out and turn brown starting at their tips.
Overview
Overview
Leaf scorch refers to two general conditions: physiological leaf scorch and bacterial leaf scorch. It causes leaves to discolor starting along the margins, and eventually die.
Leaf scorch development is most common in the hot, dry season, becoming most noticeable in late summer. However, it can occur at other times of the year. It most often affects young trees and shrubs, but it can also affect flowers, vegetables, and other plants.
Leaf scorch can get progressively worse over multiple seasons. If the root causes are not addressed, leaf scorch can lead to plant death.
While you cannot reverse the damage caused by physiological leaf scorch, you can prevent further damage. With proper management, plants will fully recover. However, there is no cure for bacterial leaf scorch, which is a systemic infection.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
  • Yellow, brown, or blackened leaves starting with the leaf margins
  • Dying twig tips on trees and shrubs as leaves die and fall
  • Often there is a bright yellow border line between the dead and living leaf tissue
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
There are numerous contributing causes of leaf scorch.
Bacterial leaf scorch is caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. The bacteria block the xylem vessels, preventing water movement. Symptoms may vary across species.
Physiological leaf scorch most commonly occurs when a plant cannot take up enough water. Numerous conditions can lead to this issue, particularly an unhealthy root system. Some causes of an unhealthy root system include overly-compacted soil, recent tillage, root compaction and severing due to pavement or other construction, drought, and overly-saturated soils.
Potassium deficiency can contribute to leaf scorch. Since plants need potassium to move water, they cannot properly move water when there is a lack of potassium.
Too much fertilizer can also cause leaf scorch symptoms. The accumulation of salts (including nutrient salts from fertilizers, as well as salt water) accumulate at the leaf margins and may build up to concentrations that burn the tissues.
Solutions
Solutions
The solution to leaf scorch will depend on the cause, however, in general all cultural care methods that improve plant health and root functionality will reduce symptoms.
  • Mulching the root zone (preferably with wood chip mulch) helps retain moisture, reduce evaporation, and promotes a healthy, functional root environment that is critical for water movement to the leaves.
  • Check the root collar for girdling or circling roots that strangle the trunk and limit water and nutrient movement.
  • Protect trees from severe root damage of nearby construction and excavation.
  • If fertilizer burn is to blame, irrigate the soil deeply to flush out excess fertilizer salts. However, keep in mind that fertilizer runoff is an environmental pollutant. Avoiding excess fertilization in the first place is the best approach.
  • If soil testing has revealed a potassium deficiency, apply a potassium fertilizer and water well. Even if you have enough potassium in the soil, plants will not be able to take it up if the soil is consistently too dry.
  • Severely affected twigs may be removed using a pair of sharp and sanitized pruning shears, as weakened branches are susceptible to secondary infections.
  • If your plant has bacterial leaf scorch, there is no cure. Antibiotic injections applied by a professional can reduce symptoms for a season, however, the above cultural management methods are the best options to reduce symptoms and prolong life. An infected plant will likely die within ten years.
Prevention
Prevention
  • Physiological leaf scorch is best avoided by making sure your plants have a healthy, functional root system and access to enough water. Water regularly, especially on the mornings of excessively hot, sunny days. Deep, infrequent irrigation is better than shallow, frequent irrigation.
  • Have your soil tested and apply the proper nutrients. Be sure to not over-apply fertilizers.
  • Make sure your plants’ roots have room to expand. Avoid compacted soil as well and avoid paving areas above the root zone. Do not till or disturb the soil where plant roots are growing.
  • Plant new trees and shrubs in the fall, so that they have the maximum amount of time to become established before the environmental stresses of the next summer.
  • Remove any dead or dying plant tissue that may harbor secondary infections.
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Aged yellow and dry
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Aged yellow and dry
Natural aging can cause leaves to turn yellow and dry out.
Overview
Overview
Regardless of the type of plant or where it is grown, at some point, it will begin to aged yellow and dry. This is a natural, unavoidable process that happens when the plant has completed all of the steps in its life.
Annual plants go through this process at the end of a single growing season. Perennial plants live for multiple years, if not tens or hundreds of years, but will still ultimately exhibit these symptoms.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
When plants have progressed through their natural developmental stages and are nearing the end of their lifecycle, they begin showing signs of decline. Leaves will start to yellow and droop, and over time they turn papery brown and dry.
Once completely dry, the leaves begin to fall from the plant until the entire plant has dried out.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
At the end of its life, genetic coding within the plant increases the production of ethylene, a phytohormone that controls senescence or natural aging and death. Cell division stops, and the plant begins catabolizing resources to use in other parts of the plant.
As this happens, the tissues begin yellow and drying until the entire plant is desiccated and perishes.
Solutions
Solutions
If the yellowing and drying of leaves and flowers is a natural progression due to age, nothing can be done to slow or stop the process. Once hormones within the plant begin the process of senescence, it’s irreversible.
Prevention
Prevention
Unfortunately, there is no way to prevent plants from dying of “old age.” To help prolong their life, and put off symptoms of aged yellow and dry for as long as possible, take care of them by giving them enough water, fertilizing them appropriately, and making sure they get enough sunlight.
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Leaf rot
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Leaf rot
This pathogen can cause the leaves to rot.
Overview
Overview
Leaf rot is very common among both house plants and garden plants. It affects foliage and occurs mainly when the leaves become wet due to rain or misting by the gardener. The cause is fungal disease and this is facilitated by the fungal spores adhering to wet leaves then penetrating the leaf and expanding rapidly. Damp conditions and poor air circulation will increase chances of infection taking place. Another factor are leaves that are damaged or have been penetrated by sap sucking insects that facilitate plant penetration.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
  1. Spores are able to cling to a damp leaf and penetrate, often through an existing wound.
  2. A small dark brown mark appears which expands rapidly as sporulation starts to take place.
  3. Quite quickly these bull's eye like circles can link together and the whole leaf turns dark and loses texture.
  4. Leaf drop occurs.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
These symptoms are caused by a bacterial infection invading the plant. Bacteria from many sources in the environment (air, water, soil, diseased plants) enter a plant through wounds, or in some cases the stomata when they are open. Once inside the leaf tissue, the bacteria feed and reproduce quickly, breaking down healthy leaves.
Bacterial infections threaten most plant species, and are more prominent in wet weather that more easily transfers the bacteria from plant to plant, or from soil to plant.
Solutions
Solutions
Bacterial infections need to be treated quickly to prevent the spread to neighboring, healthy plants, potentially wiping out large sections of your indoor or outdoor garden.
In mild cases: Use sterilized (10% bleach solution) pruning shears or scissors to remove any infected plant parts, making sure to dispose of them off site. Use a copper-based bactericide to treat the unaffected foliage, as well as the soil, and neighboring plants. Follow the manufacturer’s rate and timing directions found on the product label.
In severe cases, where more than half the leaves are affected: Remove all of the infected plants from the garden, disposing of them off site. Treat the soil and neighboring plants using a copper-based bactericide. Follow the manufacturer’s rate and timing directions found on the product label.
Prevention
Prevention
  1. Clean up garden debris at the end of the season, especially if it contains any diseased plant tissue. Diseases can overwinter from season to season and infect new plants.
  2. Avoid overhead watering to prevent transferring pathogens from one plant to another, and to keep foliage dry.
  3. Mulch around the base of plants to prevent soil-borne bacteria from splashing up onto uninfected plants.
  4. Sterilize cutting tools using a 10% bleach solution when gardening and moving from one plant to another.
  5. Do not work in your garden when it is wet.
  6. Rotate crops to prevent the buildup of bacteria in one site due to continuous cropping.
  7. Use a copper or streptomycin-containing bactericide in early spring to prevent infection. Read label directions carefully as they are not suitable for all plants.
  8. Ensure plants are well spaced and thin leaves on densely leaved plants so that air circulation is maximised.
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care_toxicity

Smoketree and Their Toxicity

* The judgment on toxicity and danger is for reference only. We DO NOT GUARANTEE any accuracy of such judgment. Therefore, you SHALL NOT rely on such judgment. It is IMPORTANT TO SEEK PROFESSIONAL ADVICE in advance when necessary.
Highly Toxic to Humans
All parts of the smoketree are toxic when ingested. Extracts, tinctures, essential oils, and other products from smoketree can be fatal if they are consumed. The plant's sap is also toxic to humans when they come into physical contact with it. Contact with the sap generally leads to dermatitis – skin irritation that can be severe and painful. Poisoning from smoketree is most likely to occur from accidental contact.
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Who Is Most at Risk of Plant Poisoning?
Your pets like cats and dogs can be poisoned by them as well!
1
Do not let your lovely pets eat any parts, nor contact with the sap of toxic or unknown plants;
2
It’s better to kill those growing around your house. Wear long-sleeved shirts, pants and gloves with sharp tools to dig it out completely;
3
Clean the tools with rubbing alcohol or soap and water but do not do that with bare hands;
4
Clean your hands and skin once exposed to plants with soap and water;
5
Consider using barrier creams that contain bentoquatam to prevent poison oak, ivy and sumac rashes;
6
Dump it in special trash cans in sealed garbage packages, and do not let your pets reach it;Do not let your lovely pets eat any parts, nor contact with the sap of toxic or unknown plants;
7
If you take your pets to hike with you in the wild, please don’t let them eat any plants that you don’t know;
8
Once your pets eat, touch or inhale anything from toxic plants and act abnormally, please call the doctors for help ASAP!
pets
Pets
Some pets are less likely than children to eat and touch just about everything. This is good, as a pet owner. However, you know your pet best, and it is up to you to keep them safe. There are plenty of poisonous weeds that can grow within the confines of your lawn, which might make your dogs or cats ill or worse if they eat them. Try to have an idea of what toxic plants grow in your area and keep them under control and your pets away from them.
pets
Common Toxic Houseplants
Common Toxic Houseplants
When it comes to decorating a house, there is nothing more refreshing than adding some beautiful houseplants. Some common house plants can also be toxic.

Aloe

aloe
Aloe is famous for its sunburn-soothing properties and its gorgeous desert design. However, many people do not realize that the latex the aloe vera plant produces can be mildly toxic to pets and children.

The latex contains a chemical compound known as saponin. Which when ingested, can cause vomiting, diarrhea, and low blood sugar. This, if left unchecked, can lead to dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. The proper response is to contact poison control or a veterinarian to know what to do in your particular circumstance if either your child or pet consumes aloe.

The latex of the plant is similar to the sap of the tree. It is inside the leaf, but sticks mainly toward the edges. If aloe gel is prepared properly it should be safe for use, but be sure to apply it only topically when treating burns.

Philodendron

Philodendron
Philodendron, also known as sweetheart vine, has become a resident at many houses and even businesses. They are glossy green and the leaves elegantly split, displaying interesting designs. Behind this beauty there is a needle-like toxin called calcium oxalate crystals.

These crystals are held within the plant and only affect you, your pets, or your loved ones if the plant tissue is broken. If ingested, the crystals can cause severe swelling, difficulty breathing, stomach pain, burning and pain. If they are accidentally caught on the skin, they can cause skin irritation.

If anyone accidentally ingests philodendron and they find it difficult to breathe or their tongue starts to swell up, it is important to seek medical attention immediately to avoid suffocation. If you have very young children or pets who have a tendency to tear at plants, keep them away from any philodendrons.

Peace Lily

Peace Lily
Peace lilies produce stunningly white flowers that bring to mind peace and serenity. This is one reason they are invited into our homes and given a place to stay. However, similar to philodendrons, the peace lily contains oxalate crystals known as raphides.

The raphides, once ingested, will cause swelling and burning sensations and can also cause skin irritation. Both pets and humans can get these symptoms so it is important to keep these plants from anyone who is likely to tear or chew it. Symptoms can become dire if the raphides cause the tongue and throat to swell to a point where the person or pet is having difficulty breathing. Seek proper medical attention if this is the case.

Snake Plant

Snake Plant
The snake plant is an interesting and popular house plant. Its stark architecture and wavy coloring has made it a fan favorite. This plant too, however, is toxic when ingested or if the sap touches your skin.

Snake plant sap will cause rashes if it comes into contact with your skin. In addition, it will cause diarrhea and vomiting when ingested. Again these symptoms are very serious and would be best avoided by keeping snake plants out of reach or by choosing a different houseplant.
Common Toxic Garden Plants
Common Toxic Garden Plants

Daffodil

Daffodil
Daffodils are a strikingly colorful flower. This can sometimes bring them much attention not from just onlooking adults but children as well. Since kids are more drawn to colorful objects, they may have a higher chance of just grabbing the flower and eating it. Adults have also been known to accidentally grab daffodil bulbs instead of onions.

Why are these mistakes so dangerous? Daffodils contain lycorine, which can induce nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. It also contains oxalates which can cause swelling and pain. The symptoms can be worse in animals, because if your pets eat daffodils they may experience drowsiness, low blood pressure or even liver damage.

Make sure to call poison control when these symptoms set in. The vomiting and diarrhea have been known to go away after 3 hours, but it is better to be safe than sorry. Ingesting liquids to keep hydration up can be important. If the patient is having difficulty breathing, seek medical attention immediately.

Hydrangea

Hydrangea
Hydrangeas are unique, with their soft blue and pink flowers. They are a great addition to any garden, but should not be snacked on—not that you would want to. Hydrangeas can be especially nasty because they contain compounds known as glycosides. These will release hydrogen cyanide into the bloodstream when consumed. This will block your body’s ability to uptake oxygen to the cells in your body.

The way to combat this kind of poisoning is through getting IVs from the vet or doctor. It is important to contact your medical professional immediately since the symptoms can be fatal within minutes or hours.

Rhododendrons

Rhododendrons
Rhododendron, the state flower of Washington, is also toxic. The multitudinous, pink flowers can be quite dangerous. All parts of this plant are toxic, the leaves and seeds more so than the flowers. However, even the nectar of the flower is toxic and in the Mediterranean, where rhododendrons grow in more dense quantities, the honey from bees who gather rhododendron nectar can be poisonous.

Normally kids and pets do not eat enough to experience the full poisoning effect. However, just eating two leaves is enough to be considered dangerous. The grayanotoxin glycosides within the rhododendron can cause vomiting, diarrhea and irregular heartbeats. Things can get very serious when too much rhododendron is consumed and can lead to necessary medical intervention.

Start by calling poison control first if you suspect anyone has been munching on rhododendrons. The experts there will be able to help guide you through the necessary processes to cure your loved one.

Rhubarb

Rhubarb
Yummy rhubarb has a nasty side to it. While the stems are used in many recipes, including for rhubarb strawberry pie, the leaves are toxic. They contain oxalic acid which is known to blister the mouth, cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and kidney stones. The leaves are known to be more toxic to pets than humans, but in either case, it is important to contact poison control immediately to figure out necessary steps to cure the patient.
Common Toxic Weeds in the Yard
Common Toxic Weeds in the Yard

Bittersweet Nightshade

Bittersweet Nightshade
Nightshade is an invasive, noxious weed that is extremely poisonous. It has been found along the East and West Coast of the U.S. It makes its home in areas with disturbed soil. This could be near your garden or areas that have recently had bushes/trees put in.

These plants are dark green with purple flowers that develop into bright red berries. The whole plant is toxic and should be avoided by pets and children alike. If ingested it can cause nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. The colorful berries are especially enticing to young children. If you see any plants that look similar to tomato or pepper plants that you did not plant in your yard, it is best to just pull them immediately.

Call poison control immediately if you think someone has fallen victim to nightshade.

Buttercups

Buttercups
Buttercups are found throughout the United States, especially in wet areas. The shiny, yellow flowers will pop up in the springtime, accompanying their dandelion friends. However, unlike dandelions, buttercups are not edible.

Buttercups will release a compound called protoanemonin. This toxin is known to cause vomiting, diarrhea, bloody stool, hypersalivation, depression, blisters, and more. These symptoms will affect both humans and animals. The sap may also cause irritation when it comes into contact with skin. These yellow flowers are dangerous and children should be observed cautiously when around them.

Foxgloves

Foxgloves
Foxgloves are beautiful plants that build towers out of vivid purple bell-shaped blossoms. They are very pretty to look at, but they contain a compound known as digoxin. This chemical is used in certain medicines to help people with certain heart conditions. However, the medicine is made by specialists, whereas someone eating foxgloves will receive unregulated amounts of the chemical.

This toxin can make you vomit and lower your heartbeat. This often causes dizziness and faintness. It is extremely important to call poison control immediately to know what to do in the case of foxglove poisoning. Some people have confused the young leaves of foxglove with borage, making adult foragers at risk as well as kids and pets.
How to Tend to or Get Rid of Toxic Plants
How to Tend to or Get Rid of Toxic Plants
Now that you know where to start with toxic plant identification, let us discuss how to either tend to the poisonous plants you decide to keep or get rid of them that plague your yard.

How to Tend to Poisonous Plants

Many plants that are toxic when ingested are also skin irritants. The philodendron is a good example of this. When the sap comes into contact with skin, it can cause a rash to form. To help protect yourself when tending to toxic plants, it is important to wear some sort of gloves.
Tend
Latex gloves may be the best solution due to their disposability. Regular gloves could potentially keep the poisonous sap on their surface. If the gloves aren’t cleaned then you could accidentally touch the irritant or pass it to someone else.

In addition you will want to plan where to keep your deadly beauties. If you have a toxic indoor plant try to keep it up high or out of reach of children and pets. This will keep accidents few and far between. Another idea is keeping your plants in areas that are usually inaccessible to children or pets. Areas such as an office, study room, or guest bedroom could be good locations. If applicable, you could also set up a terrarium for your little plant baby, making it more difficult for curious hands or paws to access.
tend2
If you plan to have outdoor plants, location will be key. You will want to put plants in an area that will be inaccessible to children, pets and even wild animals. You will probably want to avoid planting the plants in the front of your house if kids walk by on a regular basis, just to be cautious. Having the plants behind a fence will be best, but use your discretion when choosing a spot.

How to Get Rid of Poisonous Plants

plants
The easiest but possibly most controversial way to get rid of poisonous plants is by using herbicides. This can be especially easy if you own a grass lawn and use an herbicide that targets broadleaf (non-grass) species. You can find many herbicides meant for yard use by simply searching the term online. Once you have purchased the herbicide you will want to make sure to follow the label posted on the container. If you follow the instructions precisely, then everything should run smoothly for you.

If you don’t plan on using herbicides, there are a few organic methods you can use to try to get rid of toxic plants. You can manually pull the plants out of the ground. This is probably one of the most difficult methods because there is no assurance that you will get the whole plant out this way.

You can also try pouring boiling hot water or spraying white vinegar on the target plants. This may take more time than using a synthetic herbicide, but you can feel a little better about using these products.

You can also try to use wood chips to cover a certain area where you do not want anything to grow. This will not stop all the weeds, but the few that make it through can be easily picked by hand.
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Who Is Most at Risk of Plant Poisoning?
Everyone should keep the following in mind to prevent being poisoned:
1
Do not eat any parts, nor contact with the sap of toxic or unknown plants;
2
If you need to kill it, wear long-sleeved shirts, pants and gloves with sharp tools to dig it out completely;
3
Clean the tools with rubbing alcohol or soap and water but do not do that with bare hands;
4
Clean your hands and skin once exposed to plants with soap and water;
5
Consider using barrier creams that contain bentoquatam to prevent poison oak, ivy and sumac rashes;
6
Dump it in special trash cans in sealed garbage packages;
7
Wear properly when you hiking or working in the wilderness. Long pants, long sleeves, gloves, hiking shoes, etc., that protect you from being hurt by any plants;
8
Once you or your family aren’t feeling well after eating, touching or inhaling anything from toxic plants, please call your doctor for help ASAP!
Outdoor Workers
Outdoor Workers and Recreationalists
Those who enjoy the outdoors either as a hobby or as part of their work will rarely see a plant and decide to munch on it (although the scenario is not unheard of). However, they do tend to deal with moving through and brushing aside plants. These people are more at risk of being poisoned by touching toxic plants than by ingesting them.
Outdoor Workers
Foragers
Foragers
Foraging for food and medicinal plants is a desirable skill among people who want to feel at one with the land. This hobby can be very useful and enjoyable, but if done wrong , it can lead to disastrous effects. People who forage are picking and grabbing plants with the full intention of using those plants, most of the time to ingest them.
Foragers
Children
Children
While outdoor workers are more likely to touch poison and foragers are more likely to ingest poison, children can easily do both. These bundles of joy just love to run around and explore the world. They enjoy touching things and occasionally shoving random stuff in their mouth; this is a terrible combination with toxic plants in the mix.
If you let your children run about, it is important to know what are the local toxic plants that they could accidentally get into. Try to educate the children and steer them away from where the toxic plants are located.
Children
Common Toxic Houseplants
Common Toxic Houseplants
When it comes to decorating a house, there is nothing more refreshing than adding some beautiful houseplants. Some common house plants can also be toxic.

Aloe

aloe
Aloe is famous for its sunburn-soothing properties and its gorgeous desert design. However, many people do not realize that the latex the aloe vera plant produces can be mildly toxic to pets and children.

The latex contains a chemical compound known as saponin. Which when ingested, can cause vomiting, diarrhea, and low blood sugar. This, if left unchecked, can lead to dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. The proper response is to contact poison control or a veterinarian to know what to do in your particular circumstance if either your child or pet consumes aloe.

The latex of the plant is similar to the sap of the tree. It is inside the leaf, but sticks mainly toward the edges. If aloe gel is prepared properly it should be safe for use, but be sure to apply it only topically when treating burns.

Philodendron

Philodendron
Philodendron, also known as sweetheart vine, has become a resident at many houses and even businesses. They are glossy green and the leaves elegantly split, displaying interesting designs. Behind this beauty there is a needle-like toxin called calcium oxalate crystals.

These crystals are held within the plant and only affect you, your pets, or your loved ones if the plant tissue is broken. If ingested, the crystals can cause severe swelling, difficulty breathing, stomach pain, burning and pain. If they are accidentally caught on the skin, they can cause skin irritation.

If anyone accidentally ingests philodendron and they find it difficult to breathe or their tongue starts to swell up, it is important to seek medical attention immediately to avoid suffocation. If you have very young children or pets who have a tendency to tear at plants, keep them away from any philodendrons.

Peace Lily

Peace Lily
Peace lilies produce stunningly white flowers that bring to mind peace and serenity. This is one reason they are invited into our homes and given a place to stay. However, similar to philodendrons, the peace lily contains oxalate crystals known as raphides.

The raphides, once ingested, will cause swelling and burning sensations and can also cause skin irritation. Both pets and humans can get these symptoms so it is important to keep these plants from anyone who is likely to tear or chew it. Symptoms can become dire if the raphides cause the tongue and throat to swell to a point where the person or pet is having difficulty breathing. Seek proper medical attention if this is the case.

Snake Plant

Snake Plant
The snake plant is an interesting and popular house plant. Its stark architecture and wavy coloring has made it a fan favorite. This plant too, however, is toxic when ingested or if the sap touches your skin.

Snake plant sap will cause rashes if it comes into contact with your skin. In addition, it will cause diarrhea and vomiting when ingested. Again these symptoms are very serious and would be best avoided by keeping snake plants out of reach or by choosing a different houseplant.
Common Toxic Garden Plants
Common Toxic Garden Plants

Daffodil

Daffodil
Daffodils are a strikingly colorful flower. This can sometimes bring them much attention not from just onlooking adults but children as well. Since kids are more drawn to colorful objects, they may have a higher chance of just grabbing the flower and eating it. Adults have also been known to accidentally grab daffodil bulbs instead of onions.

Why are these mistakes so dangerous? Daffodils contain lycorine, which can induce nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. It also contains oxalates which can cause swelling and pain. The symptoms can be worse in animals, because if your pets eat daffodils they may experience drowsiness, low blood pressure or even liver damage.

Make sure to call poison control when these symptoms set in. The vomiting and diarrhea have been known to go away after 3 hours, but it is better to be safe than sorry. Ingesting liquids to keep hydration up can be important. If the patient is having difficulty breathing, seek medical attention immediately.

Hydrangea

Hydrangea
Hydrangeas are unique, with their soft blue and pink flowers. They are a great addition to any garden, but should not be snacked on—not that you would want to. Hydrangeas can be especially nasty because they contain compounds known as glycosides. These will release hydrogen cyanide into the bloodstream when consumed. This will block your body’s ability to uptake oxygen to the cells in your body.

The way to combat this kind of poisoning is through getting IVs from the vet or doctor. It is important to contact your medical professional immediately since the symptoms can be fatal within minutes or hours.

Rhododendrons

Rhododendrons
Rhododendron, the state flower of Washington, is also toxic. The multitudinous, pink flowers can be quite dangerous. All parts of this plant are toxic, the leaves and seeds more so than the flowers. However, even the nectar of the flower is toxic and in the Mediterranean, where rhododendrons grow in more dense quantities, the honey from bees who gather rhododendron nectar can be poisonous.

Normally kids and pets do not eat enough to experience the full poisoning effect. However, just eating two leaves is enough to be considered dangerous. The grayanotoxin glycosides within the rhododendron can cause vomiting, diarrhea and irregular heartbeats. Things can get very serious when too much rhododendron is consumed and can lead to necessary medical intervention.

Start by calling poison control first if you suspect anyone has been munching on rhododendrons. The experts there will be able to help guide you through the necessary processes to cure your loved one.

Rhubarb

Rhubarb
Yummy rhubarb has a nasty side to it. While the stems are used in many recipes, including for rhubarb strawberry pie, the leaves are toxic. They contain oxalic acid which is known to blister the mouth, cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and kidney stones. The leaves are known to be more toxic to pets than humans, but in either case, it is important to contact poison control immediately to figure out necessary steps to cure the patient.
Common Toxic Weeds in the Yard
Common Toxic Weeds in the Yard

Bittersweet Nightshade

Bittersweet Nightshade
Nightshade is an invasive, noxious weed that is extremely poisonous. It has been found along the East and West Coast of the U.S. It makes its home in areas with disturbed soil. This could be near your garden or areas that have recently had bushes/trees put in.

These plants are dark green with purple flowers that develop into bright red berries. The whole plant is toxic and should be avoided by pets and children alike. If ingested it can cause nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. The colorful berries are especially enticing to young children. If you see any plants that look similar to tomato or pepper plants that you did not plant in your yard, it is best to just pull them immediately.

Call poison control immediately if you think someone has fallen victim to nightshade.

Buttercups

Buttercups
Buttercups are found throughout the United States, especially in wet areas. The shiny, yellow flowers will pop up in the springtime, accompanying their dandelion friends. However, unlike dandelions, buttercups are not edible.

Buttercups will release a compound called protoanemonin. This toxin is known to cause vomiting, diarrhea, bloody stool, hypersalivation, depression, blisters, and more. These symptoms will affect both humans and animals. The sap may also cause irritation when it comes into contact with skin. These yellow flowers are dangerous and children should be observed cautiously when around them.

Foxgloves

Foxgloves
Foxgloves are beautiful plants that build towers out of vivid purple bell-shaped blossoms. They are very pretty to look at, but they contain a compound known as digoxin. This chemical is used in certain medicines to help people with certain heart conditions. However, the medicine is made by specialists, whereas someone eating foxgloves will receive unregulated amounts of the chemical.

This toxin can make you vomit and lower your heartbeat. This often causes dizziness and faintness. It is extremely important to call poison control immediately to know what to do in the case of foxglove poisoning. Some people have confused the young leaves of foxglove with borage, making adult foragers at risk as well as kids and pets.
How to Tend to or Get Rid of Toxic Plants
How to Tend to or Get Rid of Toxic Plants
Now that you know where to start with toxic plant identification, let us discuss how to either tend to the poisonous plants you decide to keep or get rid of them that plague your yard.

How to Tend to Poisonous Plants

Many plants that are toxic when ingested are also skin irritants. The philodendron is a good example of this. When the sap comes into contact with skin, it can cause a rash to form. To help protect yourself when tending to toxic plants, it is important to wear some sort of gloves.
Tend
Latex gloves may be the best solution due to their disposability. Regular gloves could potentially keep the poisonous sap on their surface. If the gloves aren’t cleaned then you could accidentally touch the irritant or pass it to someone else.

In addition you will want to plan where to keep your deadly beauties. If you have a toxic indoor plant try to keep it up high or out of reach of children and pets. This will keep accidents few and far between. Another idea is keeping your plants in areas that are usually inaccessible to children or pets. Areas such as an office, study room, or guest bedroom could be good locations. If applicable, you could also set up a terrarium for your little plant baby, making it more difficult for curious hands or paws to access.
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If you plan to have outdoor plants, location will be key. You will want to put plants in an area that will be inaccessible to children, pets and even wild animals. You will probably want to avoid planting the plants in the front of your house if kids walk by on a regular basis, just to be cautious. Having the plants behind a fence will be best, but use your discretion when choosing a spot.

How to Get Rid of Poisonous Plants

plants
The easiest but possibly most controversial way to get rid of poisonous plants is by using herbicides. This can be especially easy if you own a grass lawn and use an herbicide that targets broadleaf (non-grass) species. You can find many herbicides meant for yard use by simply searching the term online. Once you have purchased the herbicide you will want to make sure to follow the label posted on the container. If you follow the instructions precisely, then everything should run smoothly for you.

If you don’t plan on using herbicides, there are a few organic methods you can use to try to get rid of toxic plants. You can manually pull the plants out of the ground. This is probably one of the most difficult methods because there is no assurance that you will get the whole plant out this way.

You can also try pouring boiling hot water or spraying white vinegar on the target plants. This may take more time than using a synthetic herbicide, but you can feel a little better about using these products.

You can also try to use wood chips to cover a certain area where you do not want anything to grow. This will not stop all the weeds, but the few that make it through can be easily picked by hand.
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More About Smoketree

Plant Type
Plant Type
Shrub, Tree
Lifespan
Lifespan
Perennial
Spread
Spread
4 m
Bloom Time
Bloom Time
Late spring, Early summer
Flower Color
Flower Color
Yellow
Green
Pink
Red
Leaf Color
Leaf Color
Green
Red
Yellow
Orange
Flower Size
Flower Size
5 to 10 mm
Plant Height
Plant Height
3 to 7 m

Name story

European smoketree||Smoke bush
If you happen to see this plant during the blooming season, you will be attracted to the spectacular blooming view. It is as if the whole tree is covered by a layer of windy smoke, and because of the feathery shaped flowers, the dense flowers create a hazy atmosphere. Hence, it is called smoke bush. Sometimes, it is called European smoketree because it is originated from Europe.

Usages

Environmental Protection Value
Smokebush can purify air and conserve water and soil.
Garden Use
Smoketree is recommended for growing in parks and scenic spots. It is a common choice because it grows well, even in difficult conditions, once it is established. It is often used in xeriscaping or as a screening plant. Prized also for its bright blooms, it is a good fit for rock and Mediterranean gardens. Its companion plants include the Black-eyed Susan for its brightness and ornamental grasses.
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Common Problems

Why are the leaves of my smoketree wilting and yellowing?

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Disease infestation and over- or under-watering are some of the common causes of yellowing and wilting leaves. A plant suffering from fungal or bacterial growth often shows curling of the leaves that eventually turn yellow and droop down. The leaves may also exhibit spots, rust, or discoloration. Keeping the plant healthy is one way to address such issues. It’s also best to place your smoketree in a well-lit and well-ventilated area and practice proper watering.

Why is my smoketree not blooming?

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The smoketree requires full sunlight. While it can still grow and develop buds under partial shade conditions, the plant needs a sufficient amount of light to flower, which is likely why yours isn't blooming. If there are other plants blocking the light, try to move them to allow more sun in. Fertilizing the plant in early spring when new growth appears may also help.
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Caring for a New Plant

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The following pictures and instructions for woody plant are aimed to help your plants adapt and thrive in a new environment.
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1
Picking a Healthy Woody Plant
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Check Its Health

part
Whole Plant
Symmetrical crown, evenly distributed branches, full and compact shape, no excessive growth, close internodes, and uniform leaf size.
part
Branches
The branches are not withered, and the trunk is free of boreholes or damage.
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Leaves
Check the inside of the plant, shaded and overlapping areas, back of leaves. Even colour, no yellowing, no brown spots, no crawling insects, no cobwebs, no deformities, no wilting.
part
Stems
No mold, browning or soft rot at the base of the plant.
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Health Troubleshooting

Whole Plant
Branches
Stems
Leaves
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more 1 Asymmetrical crown or missing, uneven branching: prune the weak and slender branches of the larger portion of the asymmetrical crown.
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more 2 Internodes are longer in the upper part, leaves are sparse and smaller on top: increase light intensity or duration.
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more 1 Dry branches: check if the branch is still alive by peeling back a small section of bark and trim away any dry branches. Watch out for signs of insect infestation inside the branch.
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more 2 Bark with holes: inject insecticide into the holes and apply systemic insecticide to the roots.
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more 3 Damaged bark: brush on a wound-healing agent, and avoid getting it wet.
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Mildew, browning, or soft rot at the base: place the plant in a ventilated, dry environment and water with fungicide.
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more 1 Uneven leaf color and yellowing: prune yellow leaves and check if there are signs of rot at the base of the plant. Spray with fungicide for severe cases.
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more 2 Brown spots or small yellow spots: place the plant in a ventilated area and avoid watering the leaves. Spray with fungicide for severe cases.
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more 3 Tiny crawling insects on the back of leaves or spider webs between leaves: increase light exposure and spray with insecticide for severe cases.
more
more 4 Deformations or missing parts on leaves: determine if it's physical damage or pest infestation. Linear or tearing damage is physical, while the rest are pests. Spray with insecticide.
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more 5 Wilting leaves: provide partial shade and avoid excessive sun exposure. Remove 1/3 to 1/2 of the leaves for severe cases.
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Check Its Growing Conditions

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Soil Check
Soil should smell fresh like after a rain and no musty odor.
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Light Check
Check the light requirement of the plant and if it match with planting location.
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Temperature Check
Check if the current outdoor temperature is too low or too high.
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Condition Troubleshooting

Soil
Ideal Temperature
Suitable Light
check
Potting mix soil, Peat moss mix soil
Soil
Soil smells musty or foul: check the root system for decay, place the plant in a ventilated, dry environment, and water with fungicide.
check
-10℃ to 35℃
Ideal Temperature
Outdoor temperature is not suitable for the plant: wait until it's a more favorable temperature for growth.
check
Full sun, Partial sun
Suitable Light
Insufficient light: Lack of light can result in fewer leaves and branches, and prevent flowering. Move plant to sunnier spot if possible.
Transplant recovery: After 3 days without severe wilting, slowly increase light to normal levels over a week. If plant droops or sheds leaves, keep it in shade. Once wilting stops, give shade until the plant stands up again. Lots of yellowing and leaf loss mean the light is too low and needs to be increased.
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2
Adapting Your New Woody Plant
Step 1
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Repotting
Plant your plant promptly in its final location or in a new pot, if conditions are suitable. When transplanting, clean the roots of the plant and keep the root system intact. Prune any blackened or rotten roots, spread out a heavily tangled root system, and mix in some well-rotted organic fertilizer. Use permeable soil and water thoroughly after planting.
Step 2
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Pruning
Remove yellow or diseased leaves immediately. If leaves are crowded and appear wilted or falling off, remove some of them. For bare-root plants, cut off at least half of the leaves. Pruning is not typically required.
Step 3
condition-image
Watering
Increase watering in the first week to keep soil moist. Water when soil is slightly dry, for at least 2 weeks. Avoid over-watering. Do not water when there is water on your fingers after touching the soil.
Step 4
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Fertilizing
Add a small amount of base fertilizer during transplanting or repotting. No other fertilizer needed for the first month.
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Water
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Smoketree Watering Instructions
Smoketree, or Cotinus coggygria, naturally thrives in regions throughout Southern Europe and Western Asia with moderate rainfall, averaging around 50cm to 75cm annually. This historical habitat, which includes rocky hills and woodlands, indicates a preference for balanced moisture. Consequently, smoketree tends to appreciate regular watering while avoiding over-saturation, aligning with its native regions' moisture patterns. Understanding this could aid in cultivating healthy and thriving smoketree in tended gardens.
When Should I Water My Smoketree?
Introduction
Proper and timely watering plays a crucial role in maintaining the overall health and development of the smoketree. It contributes to its optimal growth, vibrant leaf coloration, and resistance against diseases. Therefore, understanding the appropriate signals indicating when the plant should be watered is essential.
Soil Moisture
Description: Check the moisture level in the soil by touching it at a depth of 1-2 inches around the plant's base.
Interpretation: If the top 1 to 2 inches of soil feels dry to the touch, it indicates that the plant needs watering.
Leaf Condition
Description: Observe the leaves of smoketree.
Interpretation: If the leaves appear wilted, lackluster, or show signs of color fading or yellowing, it indicates under-watering and the need for watering.
Pre-Flowering Stage
Description: Observe the growth stage of smoketree.
Interpretation: During the pre-flowering or bud formation stage, smoketree requires a sufficient water supply. A lack of water during this stage may result in bud drop and hinder flowering.
Temperature And Sunlight Exposure
Description: Evaluate the prevailing environmental factors.
Interpretation: During warm temperatures and periods of high sunlight exposure, smoketree has a higher water requirement. Observe watering accordingly during these conditions.
Early Watering Risks
Description: Caution against watering too early.
Interpretation: Watering smoketree when the soil is still moist poses risks of root rot, fungal infestation, and other root diseases due to over-watering.
Late Watering Risks
Description: Caution against watering too late.
Interpretation: Watering smoketree when it has been excessively dry for an extended period risks temporary wilting and stunted growth. In extreme cases, it can lead to plant death due to dehydration.
Conclusion
Understanding these signs is critical to effectively manage the watering schedule for the smoketree. Proper water management not only encourages its growth and development but also prolongs its life span and maintains plant health.
How Should I Water My Smoketree?
Unique Watering Requirements of smoketree
Smoketree is a very hardy shrub that's drought-tolerant once established. It does not require too much water and is sensitive to overwatering, which can cause root rot.
Recommended Watering Technique
Watering can with a thin spout works well for smoketree. This method allows you to aim and control the quantity of water you want to deliver to the plant. The aim should be to water deeply at the base of the plant once, rather than repetitive shallow waterings. This helps in promoting root growth and establishment of the plant in the long run.
Special Equipment for Watering
Consideration could be given to use a moisture meter. This handy tool helps in determining how dry or wet the soil around your smoketree plant is. It assists in avoiding overwatering or underwatering the plant, thereby ensuring optimal hydration.
Areas of Focus While Watering
While watering your smoketree, concentrate on the base of the plant and avoid foliage as much as possible. Wet foliage could lead to the development of fungal diseases. More importantly, smoketree is best watered at root level, which promotes deeper, healthier and drought-resistant roots.
Cautions when Watering
Take care to not overwater smoketree, as it may lead to root rot and other diseases. It is beneficial to always check the moisture content of the soil before any watering session, to ascertain the need for watering. Watering in the early morning or late in the evening can ensure less evaporation and maximum absorption.
How Much Water Does Smoketree Really Need?
Introduction
Smoketree's hydration needs are reflective of its natural habitat in southern Europe and central China, where the plant typically thrives in stony hillsides. Here, it often experiences periods of drought, therefore is resistant to some water stress, but for optimal growth, stable, regular watering is advisable.
Water quantity
The right amount of water for smoketree depends greatly on its size, pot size, and root depth. A young plant may only require about 1-2 cups of water per week, while an established outdoor smoketree can drink up many gallons depending on its size. A rule of thumb for smoketree is to water when the top inch of soil dries out. Importantly, smoketree's roots, which can extend several feet into the ground, should reach the moisture, therefore, a long but infrequent watering regime is preferred.
Watering conditions
When the smoketree has received the right amount of water, its leaves will show a vibrant, purplish hue. If overwatered, the plant will display wilting or yellowing leaves. Underwatering, on the other hand, might result in dry, falling leaves. The ideal watering conditions for smoketree include well-drained soil and when the top layer of the soil feels dry to the touch.
Implications of incorrect watering
Overwatering smoketree can easily cause root rot, which can be fatal for the plant. On the other hand, prolonged water stress from insufficient watering can stunt growth and cause leaf drop, impairing the overall health and appearance of the plant.
How Often Should I Water Smoketree?
Every 1-2 weeks
Watering Frequency
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Just like people, each plant has its own preferences and needs. Devote time to understanding your plants so you can nurture them properly. Observe your plants attentively, learning from their growth patterns, and becoming more in tune with their needs as you grow together. Keep a watchful eye on new plants and seedlings, as they are sensitive to both overwatering and underwatering. Shower them with gentle love and attention, fostering their growth and strength. Let the rhythm of your local climate guide your watering habits, adapting your schedule to the changing weather and the needs of your plants.
What Kind of Water is Best for Smoketree?
Ideal Water Source for smoketree
Rainwater and tap water are generally suitable but distilled or filtered water can also be used if tap water has high levels of chlorine or certain minerals.
Chlorine Sensitivity for smoketree
Smoketree is not particularly sensitive to chlorine, though it's always better if you ensure your water has a low content of it, hence, letting tap water sit overnight to allow chlorine to evaporate could be beneficial.
Fluoride Sensitivity for smoketree
Fluoride is not typically a concern for this plant, although excessively fluoridated water could potentially inhibit its growth.
Mineral Sensitivity for smoketree
Smoketree isn't known for being sensitive to specific minerals. However, water with extremely high mineral content (like 'hard water') could potentially harm its health as it can lead to mineral deposits in the soil.
Water Treatment for smoketree
Water treatments aren't usually necessary for smoketree if the water source is already safe (chlorine and mineral content is decent). However, if you notice signs of stress, changing the water source or using a water conditioning product might be helpful.
Water Temperature for smoketree
Smoketree doesn’t have a specific preference for water temperature, but it is generally advisable to avoid giving plants extremely cold or hot water. Room temperature is usually optimal.
How Do Smoketree's Watering Needs Change with the Seasons?
How to Water smoketree in Spring?
During spring, smoketree starts a new growth cycle. As the temperatures rise, the plant's metabolic processes speed up and more water is needed. Yet, the foliage is not fully developed and transpiration is limited. Thus, ensure to water the plant thoroughly, letting the topsoil dry out between waterings to avoid overwatering and ensure root health.
How to Water smoketree in Summer?
in summer, the smoketree plant is in full foliage and reaches the peak of its growth. The hot temperatures and increased sunlight can cause the soil to dry out faster. Therefore, you need to maintain consistent moisture levels in the soil, but avoid waterlogging. Deep, infrequent waterings are recommended, allowing the water to reach the deep roots and encouraging them to grow deeper. Yet, be watchful of the signs of over or underwatering.
How to Water smoketree in Autumn?
Smoketree's watering needs decrease in Autumn as the plant begins preparations for winter dormancy; growth slows and less water is lost through transpiration. Water the plant thoroughly but less frequently, allowing the topsoil to dry out completely between waterings. More importantly, prevent waterlogging as the plant may become more susceptible to root diseases in cooler, moister conditions.
How to Water smoketree in Winter?
During winter, smoketree enters a period of dormancy. Watering should be significantly reduced during this time as the plant's water consumption is at its lowest. Water only when the soil is dry to touch. Avoid overwatering as it holds a risk of causing root rot since the water is not readily absorbed.
What Expert Tips Can Enhance Smoketree Watering Routine?
Soil Moisture Probe
Using a soil moisture probe can help assess smoketree's moisture levels beyond the surface. Insert the probe into the soil near the plant's roots to determine whether watering is necessary.
Morning Watering
Water smoketree in the morning to allow time for the soil to absorb the water before high temperatures and evaporation rates of the day. This also helps prevent fungal diseases by giving the plant's foliage a chance to dry.
Avoid Overwatering
Overwatering is a common mistake with smoketree. Ensure that the plant's soil is mostly dry before the next watering. This plant prefers well-drained soil, and excessive moisture can lead to root rot.
Thirst Indicators
Watch for signs of thirst in smoketree such as drooping or wilting leaves, loss of color, or dryness in the top inch of soil. Respond to these signs by providing a thorough watering.
Assessing Watering Needs
Check the soil moisture at a depth of 2-3 inches with your finger. If the soil is dry at that depth, it's time to water. If it's still moist, hold off on watering.
Adjusting Watering in Extreme Conditions
During a heatwave, smoketree may require additional water to cope with increased transpiration. Monitor soil moisture and increase watering frequency if needed. During extended periods of rain, reduce or stop watering to prevent waterlogged soil. When smoketree is stressed (e.g., from transplanting or pruning), provide extra water to help it recover.
Considering Hydroponics? How to Manage a Water-Grown Smoketree?
Overview of Hydroponics
Smoketree can be successfully grown using hydroponics, which is a method of cultivating plants without soil. Instead, the plant's roots are submerged in a nutrient-rich water solution that provides all the necessary elements for growth and development.
Specific Hydroponic System
For smoketree, a deep water culture system is best suited. In this setup, the plant's roots are suspended in a nutrient solution with constant aeration, promoting oxygen uptake and preventing root rot.
Nutrient Solution Requirements
Smoketree prefers a balanced nutrient solution, with an ideal concentration of 1000-1500 ppm (parts per million). The pH level of the solution should be maintained between 5.8-6.2 for optimal nutrient uptake. The nutrient solution should be changed every 1-2 weeks to avoid nutrient imbalances and ensure proper plant nutrition.
Challenges and Issues
One common challenge faced when growing smoketree hydroponically is the risk of root rot. To prevent this, it's important to maintain good aeration in the nutrient solution and avoid waterlogging. Additionally, smoketree has specific light requirements, needing at least 6-8 hours of bright, indirect light per day for healthy growth.
Monitoring Plant Health
In a hydroponic setup, it's crucial to monitor smoketree's health closely. Signs of stress or nutrient deficiencies may include yellowing or browning of leaves, stunted growth, or wilting. Regularly checking and adjusting the nutrient solution, pH levels, and providing adequate light will help maintain optimal plant health.
Adjusting Hydroponic Environment
As smoketree progresses through different growth stages, adjustments to the hydroponic environment may be necessary. For example, during the flowering stage, increasing the phosphorus concentration in the nutrient solution can promote blooming and fruit set. Regular pruning may also be required to manage the plant's size and shape.
Key-Value Format
Nutrient Solution: smoketree prefers a balanced nutrient solution with a pH of 5.8-6.2 for optimal growth.
Hydroponic System: A deep water culture system is best suited for smoketree due to its need for constant aeration and prevention of root rot.
Light Requirements: smoketree requires at least 6-8 hours of bright, indirect light per day for healthy growth.
Watering Technique: Bottom-watering is an effective method to provide adequate moisture to smoketree's roots without over-saturating the surface.
Root Rot Prevention: Maintaining good aeration in the nutrient solution and avoiding waterlogging helps prevent root rot in smoketree.
Important Symptoms
Overwatering
Smoketree is more susceptible to developing disease symptoms when overwatered because it prefers a soil environment with moderate humidity. Symptoms of overwatering include yellowing leaves, root rot, leaf drop...
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(Symptom details and solutions)
Yellowing leaves
When plants receive too much water, the roots become oxygen deprived and the bottom leaves of the plant gradually turn yellow.
Root rot
Excess water in the soil can lead to the growth of harmful fungi and bacteria, causing the roots to rot and eventually kill the plant.
Leaf drop
When plants are overwatered, they may shed their leaves as a response to stress, even if the leaves appear green and healthy.
Mold and mildew
Overwatered plants create a damp environment that can encourage the growth of mold and mildew on soil.
Increased susceptibility diseases
Overwatering plants may become more susceptible and diseases as their overall health declines, weakening their natural defenses.
Solutions
1. Adjust watering frequency based on seasons and soil dryness. Wait for soil to dry before watering.2. Increase soil aeration by loosening surface and gently stirring with a wooden stick or chopstick.3. Optimize environment with good ventilation and warmth to enhance water evaporation and prevent overwatering.
Underwatering
Smoketree is more susceptible to plant health issues when lacking watering, as it can only tolerate short periods of drought. Symptoms of dehydration include wilting, yellowing leaves, leaf drop...
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(Symptom details and solutions)
Wilting
Due to the dry soil and insufficient water absorption by the roots, the leaves of the plant will appear limp, droopy, and lose vitality.
Root damage
Prolonged underwatering can cause root damage, making it difficult for the plant to absorb water even when it is available.
Dry stems
Due to insufficient water, plant stems may become dry or brittle, making the branches easy to break.
Dying plant
If underwatering continues for an extended period, the plant may ultimately die as a result of severe water stress and an inability to carry out essential functions.
Solutions
1. Thoroughly saturate soil with slow ring watering to ensure uniform and sufficient moisture for plants. 2. Increase air humidity with water trays or misting to slow leaf water evaporation. 3. Watering according to the recommended frequency.Adjust watering frequency based on seasons and soil dryness.
Watering Troubleshooting for Smoketree
Why is the smoketree rotting at the base?
Rotting at the base could be due to overwatering which induces a condition known as root rot. To solve this, ensure to water the smoketree sparingly and only when it dries out sufficiently. Remember, smoketree prefers dry conditions.
My smoketree has yellowing leaves, what could be the issue?
Yellowing leaves can signal overwatering. The smoketree prefers well-drained soil and doesn't like soggy or waterlogged conditions. Try reducing your watering schedule, ensuring the plant's potting mix is dry before watering again.
The leaves of my smoketree appears to be wilting. What could be the problem?
Wilting leaves could be a sign of underwatering. While it's true smoketree is drought-tolerant, a prolonged lack of water can cause its leaves to wilt. Water your plant thoroughly and then wait until the soil is dry to the touch before watering again.
I've noticed the color of the smoketree foliage is becoming dull and faded. What could be the cause?
Dull and faded foliage can be a result of both underwatering and overwatering. Either of those conditions results in stress for the plant, impacting its vibrancy and overall health. Adjust your watering practices accordingly, ensuring the soil is fully dried out before watering again but don't leave it dry for too long.
Why is my smoketree losing its leaves?
Leaf drop is often a symptom of overwatering in the smoketree. Reduce your watering frequency and ensure the soil is properly drained. The smoketree prefers dry to average moisture levels in soil.
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Lighting
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Indoor
Indoor
Outdoor
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Requirements
Full sun
Ideal
Above 6 hours sunlight
Partial sun
Tolerance
About 3-6 hours sunlight
Watch how sunlight gracefully moves through your garden, and choose spots that provide the perfect balance of light and shade for your plants, ensuring their happiness.
Essentials
Smoketree appreciates exposure to a high degree of sunlight for optimal growth and health. It adjusts well to semi-luminous environments, too. Originating from habitats with abundant solar exposure, smoketree can endure some degree of shade. However, very limited sunlight can hamper its growth.
Preferred
Tolerable
Unsuitable
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Artificial lighting
Indoor plants require adequate lighting for optimal growth. When natural sunlight is insufficient, particularly in winter or in less sunny spaces, artificial lights offer a vital solution, promoting faster, healthier growth.
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Indoor plants require adequate lighting for optimal growth. When natural sunlight is insufficient, particularly in winter or in less sunny spaces, artificial lights offer a vital solution, promoting faster, healthier growth.
1. Choose the right type of artificial light: LED lights are a popular choice for indoor plant lighting because they can be customized to provide the specific wavelengths of light that your plants need.
Full sun plants need 30-50W/sq ft of artificial light, partial sun plants need 20-30W/sq ft, and full shade plants need 10-20W/sq ft.
2. Determine the appropriate distance: Place the light source 12-36 inches above the plant to mimic natural sunlight.
3. Determine the duration: Mimic the length of natural daylight hours for your plant species. most plants need 8-12 hours of light per day.
Important Symptoms
Insufficient light
Smoketree thrives in full sunlight but is sensitive to heat. As a plant commonly grown outdoors with abundant sunlight, it may exhibit subtle symptoms of light deficiency when placed in rooms with suboptimal lighting.
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Small leaves
New leaves may grow smaller in size compared to the previous ones once they have matured.
Leggy or sparse growth
The spaces between leaves or stems of your smoketree may become longer, resulting in a thin and stretched-out appearance. This can make the plant look sparse and weak, and it may easily break or lean due to its own weight.
Faster leaf drop
When plants are exposed to low light conditions, they tend to shed older leaves early to conserve resources. Within a limited time, these resources can be utilized to grow new leaves until the plant's energy reserves are depleted.
Slower or no new growth
Smoketree enters a survival mode when light conditions are poor, which leads to a halt in leaf production. As a result, the plant's growth becomes delayed or stops altogether.
Lighter-colored new leaves
Insufficient sunlight can cause leaves to develop irregular color patterns or appear pale. This indicates a lack of chlorophyll and essential nutrients.
Solutions
1. To ensure optimal growth, gradually move plants to a sunnier location each week, until they receive at least 6 hours of direct sunlight daily. Use a south-facing window and keep curtains open during the day for maximum sunlight exposure and nutrient accumulation.2. To provide additional light for your plant, consider using artificial light if it's large or not easily movable. Keep a desk or ceiling lamp on for at least 8 hours daily, or invest in professional plant grow lights for ample light.
Excessive light
Smoketree thrives in full sun exposure but is sensitive to heat. Although sunburn symptoms occasionally occur, they are unable to withstand intense sunlight in high-temperature environments.
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(Symptom details and solutions)
Chlorosis
Chlorosis is a condition where the plant's leaves lose their green color and turn yellow. This is due to the breakdown of chlorophyll from excessive sunlight, which negatively affects the plant's ability to photosynthesize.
Sunscald
Sunscald occurs when the plant's leaves or stems are damaged by intense sunlight exposure. It appears as pale, bleached, or necrotic areas on the plant tissue and can reduce the plant's overall health.
Leaf Curling
Leaf curling is a symptom where leaves curl or twist under extreme sunlight conditions. This is a defense mechanism used by the plant to reduce its surface area exposed to sunlight, minimizing water loss and damage.
Wilting
Wilting occurs when a plant loses turgor pressure and its leaves and stems begin to droop. Overexposure to sunlight can cause wilting by increasing the plant's water loss through transpiration, making it difficult for the plant to maintain adequate hydration.
Leaf Scorching
Leaf scorching is a symptom characterized by the appearance of brown, dry, and crispy edges or patches on leaves due to excessive sunlight. This can lead to a reduction in photosynthetic capacity and overall plant health.
Solutions
1. Move your plant to the optimal position where it can receive abundant sunlight but also have some shade. An east-facing window is an ideal choice as the morning sunlight is gentler. This way, your plant can enjoy ample sunlight while reducing the risk of sunburn.2. It is recommended to trim off any completely dehydrated or withered parts of the plant.
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Temperature
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Requirements
Ideal
Tolerable
Unsuitable
Just like people, each plant has its own preferences. Learn about your plants' temperature needs and create a comforting environment for them to flourish. As you care for your plants, your bond with them will deepen. Trust your intuition as you learn about their temperature needs, celebrating the journey you share. Lovingly monitor the temperature around your plants and adjust their environment as needed. A thermometer can be your ally in this heartfelt endeavor. Be patient and gentle with yourself as you explore your plants' temperature needs. Cherish your successes, learn from challenges, and nurture your garden with love, creating a haven that reflects the warmth of your care.
Essentials
Smoketree prefers a temperature range between 41 to 100 ℉ (5 to 38 ℃). It grows in temperate climates and can tolerate both hot and cold temperatures as long as it is not extreme. During winter, it is suggested to protect the plant from freezing temperatures by adding extra mulch around the base.
Regional wintering strategies
Smoketree has strong cold resistance, so special frost protection measures are usually not necessary during winter. However, if the winter temperatures are expected to drop below {Limit_growth_temperature}, it is still important to provide cold protection. This can be achieved by wrapping the trunk and branches with materials such as non-woven fabric or cloth. Before the first freeze in autumn, it is recommended to water the plant abundantly, ensuring the soil remains moist and enters a frozen state. This helps prevent drought and water scarcity for the plant during winter and early spring.
Important Symptoms
Low Temperature
Smoketree is cold-tolerant and thrives best when the temperature is above {Suitable_growth_temperature_min}. During winter, it should be kept above {Tolerable_growing_temperature_min}. When the temperature falls below {Limit_growth_temperature}, although there may not be any noticeable changes during winter, the branches may become brittle and dry during springtime, and no new shoots will emerge.
Solutions
In spring, prune away any dead branches that have failed to produce new leaves.
High Temperature
During summer, Smoketree should be kept below {Suitable_growth_temperature_max}. When the temperature exceeds {Tolerable_growing_temperature_max}, the leaves of the plant may become lighter in color, the tips may become dry and withered, and the plant becomes more susceptible to sunburn.
Solutions
Trim away the sunburned and dried-up parts. Move the plant to a location that provides shade from the midday and afternoon sun, or use a shade cloth to create shade. Water the plant in the morning and evening to keep the soil moist.
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Transplant
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How to Successfully Transplant Smoketree?
The ideal season for transplanting smoketree is early spring, as it allows the plant to establish its roots before the growing season. Choose a sunny, well-drained location for the transplant, and be gentle when handling the delicate roots. Happy planting!
What Preparations are Needed Before Transplanting Smoketree?
What is the Ideal Time for Transplanting Smoketree?
Ideally, smoketree transplanting should occur in the rejuvenating period of early spring. This timing presents smoketree with ample chances to establish before summer's heat. Opting for this period will ensure your smoketree thrives, settling easily by soaking up moisture from spring showers.
How Much Space Should You Leave Between Smoketree Plants?
When transplanting smoketree, it's important to give it room to grow. We recommend spacing the plants about 10-15 feet (3-4.5 meters) apart so they can spread their wings and flourish.
What is the Best Soil Mix for Smoketree Transplanting?
For smoketree, well-drained soil with a slightly acidic to neutral pH (6-7) is ideal. A good base fertilizer to prepare the soil could be balanced organic compost, ensuring the plant gets all the nutrients it needs.
Where Should You Relocate Your Smoketree?
When transplanting smoketree, select a spot that receives full sun to partial shade, as these plants enjoy sunlight. Ensure the location offers at least 6 hours of daily sun exposure to encourage healthy growth.
What Equipments Should You Prepare Before Transplantation Smoketree?
Gardening Gloves
To protect your hands while working with the plant and soil.
Shovel or Garden Spade
To dig the hole for the transplant and to remove smoketree from its original location.
Gardening Trowel
To help with smaller digging tasks and handle the plant's root more delicately.
Wheelbarrow
To transport the smoketree to its new location.
Garden Hose or Watering Can
To water the smoketree in both its original and new location.
Pruning Shears
To trim any dead or damaged roots and branches of smoketree.
How Do You Remove Smoketree from the Soil?
From Ground: Initially, water the smoketree to dampen the soil around it. Using a shovel, dig a trench around the plant's circumference, ensuring that the root ball remains undisturbed. Gradually work the spade under the root ball, then carefully lift the plant from its original spot.
From Pot: Start by watering the plant to make the soil moist. After this, tilt the pot sideways and lightly tap to loosen the soil. Pull the plant gently without damaging the root system. If the plant is stuck, you may need to cut the pot away.
From Seedling Tray: Water the tray before you begin. Use a gardening trowel to gently scoop the seedling, ensuring to keep as much soil around the roots as possible. If the roots have grown through the bottom, cut them neatly with a pair of pruning shears.
Step-by-Step Guide for Transplanting Smoketree
Step1 Prepare the Plant
Before moving smoketree from its original place, water the plant but do not overwater. Prune out dead or damaged parts if necessary.
Step2 Prepare the Hole
Dig a hole at the new location which is twice as wide but not deeper than the root ball. Make sure the bottom of the hole is firm to prevent smoketree from sinking.
Step3 Plant the smoketree
Carefully place smoketree in the hole, ensuring the top of the root ball is level with the soil surface. Refill the hole with soil and firm it gently.
Step4 Watering
After planting, water generously and make sure the plant is stable.
Step5 Monitoring
For the initial few days, monitor the plant to make sure it's taking well to its new location.
How Do You Care For Smoketree After Transplanting?
Watering
During the first few weeks, water the smoketree deeply at regular intervals to encourage root establishment, but make sure not to overwater.
Pruning
Avoid any immediate heavy pruning; it may stress the plant. Trim lightly only if necessary.
Mulching
To conserve moisture and keep the root cool, apply a layer of mulch around the plant but avoid direct contact with the stem.
Protection
Depending on the season, you may need to protect smoketree from frosts or extreme sunlight until the plant gets established.
Troubleshooting Common Issues with Smoketree Transplantation.
When is the best time to transplant my smoketree?
The ideal time to transplant your smoketree is early spring. This is when the plant has the best chance for establishing a healthy root system.
What is the recommended spacing for smoketree when transplanting?
When you're transplanting, it's best to space smoketree plants about 10-15 feet (3-4.5 meters) apart. This gives each plant enough room to grow properly.
What should I do if my smoketree isn't growing after being transplanted?
Ensure your smoketree is in an area that isn’t overly windy and has good drainage, sufficient sunlight, and soil rich in organic matter.
Where should I place my smoketree after transplanting?
Ideally, smoketree enjoys full sun to partial shade. Choose a spot with at least 4-6 hours of sunlight daily for the best growth.
How deep should I plant my smoketree during transplantation?
The transplant hole should be about twice the width of the root ball. The top of the root ball should be level or slightly below ground level.
What happens if I did not space my smoketree properly while transplanting?
Incorrect spacing might result in overcrowding, which could stunt growth and provoke disease due to poor air circulation. Maintaining ideal spacing is key for healthy growth.
What should I do if my transplanted smoketree leaves turn brown?
Brown leaves may be an indication of inadequate watering, pests, disease or a shock from transplantation. Assess these factors and adjust care accordingly.
Why is my smoketree wilting after being transplanted?
If your smoketree wilts after transplantation, it may be suffering from transplant shock. Keep the soil moist, not soggy, and ensure the plant is in the proper sunlight.
What care should I provide for my smoketree post-transplant?
Post-transplant, ensure that your smoketree gets regular watering, especially during the first season. Use a balanced, slow-release fertilizer to promote root growth.
Could moving my smoketree to a different location after transplantation be harmful?
Yes. Repeated shifts in location can cause transplant shock and hinder the plant's establishment. Try to pick a suitable location for the first transplant.
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Toxic
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Summarization
Highly Toxic to Humans
Human
Sap/Juice
Toxic parts
Swallowed
Effect methods
Is Smoketree toxic to human?
All parts of the smoketree are toxic when ingested. Extracts, tinctures, essential oils, and other products from smoketree can be fatal if they are consumed. The plant's sap is also toxic to humans when they come into physical contact with it. Contact with the sap generally leads to dermatitis – skin irritation that can be severe and painful. Poisoning from smoketree is most likely to occur from accidental contact.
How to identify Smoketree
* The judgment on toxicity and danger is for reference only. We DO NOT GUARANTEE any accuracy of such judgment. Therefore, you SHALL NOT rely on such judgment. It is IMPORTANT TO SEEK PROFESSIONAL ADVICE in advance when necessary.
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