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How to Care for Japanese Persimmon

The japanese persimmon tree adds interest and flavor to your edible landscape. These deciduous trees are easy to grow, but do not tolerate very cold temperatures. Blooms appear in mid-spring, and the distinctive persimmon fruit and brightly colored foliage last through the fall. Japanese persimmon fruit can be eaten raw or cooked. They have been cultivated for over 2,000 years in China.
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Symbolism

Changing sex, Healing, Luck
Water
Water
Every 1-2 weeks
Sunlight
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Full sun
Japanese persimmon
Japanese persimmon
Japanese persimmon
Japanese persimmon
Japanese persimmon
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Basic Care Guide

Cultivation:WaterDetail

How to Water Japanese persimmon?

Watering is key at 4 different points throughout the year: pre-germination, the new branch growth period, the fruit expansion period, and before the soil freezes. You will also need to irrigate the soil during dry spells. Don't forget to pay attention to drainage during the rainy season; this is important to prevent waterlogging and to keep the moisture content of the soil relatively stable.
Cultivation:WaterDetail
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What's the best method to water my Japanese persimmon?
You might want to put a garden hose at the plant base to ensure that you're promoting excellent root development. Avoid directly spraying the leaves, and know that the leaves will require more watering if they are outdoors and facing direct sunlight. You can also use bubblers that you can put on to each plant to moisten the roots. Also, use soaker hoses that can cover the entire garden or bed when adding or removing plants to push the roots deeply. Drain any excess water and wait for the soil to dry before watering. Water at ground level to prevent diseases. On a sunny day, you might want to spray the entire bush with water. Whether potted or in-ground, please remember Japanese persimmon prefers deep watering over light sprinkling.
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What should I do if I water Japanese persimmon too much/too little?
An overwatered Japanese persimmon can start to have leaves that turn yellow, drop off and wilt. The plant can also look dull and unhealthy, with signs of mushy stems. When they are beginning to show these signs, it's best to adjust your schedule whenever possible.
The wilting can also be a sign of under watering as well. You might see that the leaves begin to turn crispy and dry while the overwatered ones will have soft wilted leaves. Check the soil when it is dry and watering is not enough, give it a full watering in time. Enough water will make the Japanese persimmon recover again, but the plant will still appear dry and yellow leaves after a few days due to the damaged root system. Once it return to normal, the leave yellowing will stop .
Always check the moisture levels at the pot when you have the Japanese persimmon indoors. Avoid overwatering indoors and see if there are signs of black spots. If these are present, let the soil dry in the pot by giving it a few days of rest from watering.
Overwatering can lead to root rot being present in your plant. If this is the case, you might want to transfer them into a different pot, especially if you see discolored and slimy roots. Always prevent root rot as much as possible, and don't let the soil become too soggy.
You should dig a little deeper when you plant your Japanese persimmon outdoors. When you check with your fingers and notice that the soil is too dry, it could mean underwatering. Adequate watering is required to help the plant recover.
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How often should I water my Japanese persimmon?
The Japanese persimmon likes deep and infrequent watering. You would want to soak them in a gallon of water each time, especially when they are planted in pots. The water storage of flower pots is limited and the soil will dry out faster. Watering is required every 3 to 5 days when living in a cold region. Water it early in the morning when the soil is dry, outdoors or indoors. You can also determine if watering is needed by checking the soil inside. When the top 2-3 inches of soil is dry, it is time to give the plant a full watering. During hot days, you may need to check the moisture daily, as the heat can quickly dry out the soil in the pot.
Irrigation of the soil is also required if you have a garden. When you live in a hot climate, you might want to water once a week. Only water when you notice that about 2 to 3 inches of soil become too dry outdoors or indoors. Consider the amount of rainwater on the plant and ensure not to add to it to prevent root rot.You may not need additional watering of the plants if there is a lot of rainfall.Japanese persimmon generally grows during spring and fall. When they are outdoors, you need to add mulch about 3 to 4 inches deep to conserve more water.
You need to water the plants more frequently in sandy soil because this type tends to drain faster. However, with the clay one, you need to water this less frequently where you could go for 2-3 days to dry the plant and not develop any root rot. You could mark the date on the calendar whenever you water and when you notice that the leaves are starting to droop. This can mean that you might be a day late.
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How much water do I need to give my Japanese persimmon?
The Japanese persimmon generally needs about a gallon of water each schedule,With the potted plants, you might want to water them deeply until you see that the water is dripping at the bottom of the pot. Then, wait for the soil to dry before watering them again. You can use a water calculator or a moisture meter to determine the amount you've given to your plant in a week. Provide plenty of water, especially in the flowering period, but let the moisture evaporate afterwards to prevent root rot.
If Japanese persimmon is planted outdoor with adequate rainfall, it may not need additional watering. When Japanese persimmon is young or newly planted, make sure it gets 1-2 inches of rain per week. As Japanese persimmon continues to grow, it can survive entirely on rainfall. Only when the weather is too hot, or when there is no rainfall at all for 2-3 weeks, then consider giving Japanese persimmon a full watering during the cooler moment of the day to prevent the plant from suffering from high heat damage. Additional watering will be required during persistent dry spells.
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Should I adjust the watering frequency for my Japanese persimmon according to different seasons or climates?
The Japanese persimmon needs outdoors come from rain, with only persistent dry weather requiring watering. Throughout the spring and fall growing seasons, the soil needs to be kept moist but not soggy, and alternating dry and moist soil conditions will allow the Japanese persimmon to grow well. Throughout the summer, hot weather can cause water to evaporate too quickly, and if there is a lack of rainfall, you will need to water more frequently and extra to keep it moist.
Usually, the Japanese persimmon will need less water during the winter. Since the Japanese persimmon will drop their leaves and go dormant, you can put them into a well-draining but moisture-retentive soil mixture like the terracotta to help the water evaporate quicker. Once your Japanese persimmon growing outdoors begins to leaf out and go dormant, you can skip watering altogether and in most cases Japanese persimmon can rely on the fall and winter rains to survive the entire dormant period.
After the spring, you can cultivate your Japanese persimmon and encourage it to grow and bloom when the temperature becomes warmer.This plant is not generally a fan of ponding or drought when flowering. You must ensure that the drainage is good at all times, especially during the winter.
When the plant is in a pot, the plant has limited root growth. Keep them well-watered, especially if they are planted in pots during summer. They don't like cold and wet roots, so provide adequate drainage, especially if they are still growing.
It's always best to water your Japanese persimmon’s diligently. Get the entire root system into a deep soak at least once or twice a week, depending on the weather. It's best to avoid shallow sprinkles that reach the leaves since they generally encourage the growth of fungi and don't reach deep into the roots. Don't allow the Japanese persimmon’s to dry out completely in the fall or winter, even if they are already dormancy.
Don't drown the plants because they generally don't like sitting in water for too long. They can die during winter if the soil does not drain well. Also, apply mulch whenever possible to reduce stress, conserve water, and encourage healthy blooms.
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What should I be careful with when I water my Japanese persimmon in different seasons, climates, or during different growing periods?
If planting in the ground, Japanese persimmon mostly relies on rain. However, if there is no rainfall for 2-3 weeks, you may need to give proper consideration to giving the plants a deep watering. If watering Japanese persimmon in summer, you should try to do it in the morning. A large temperature difference between the water temperature and the root system can stress the roots. You need to avoid watering the bushes when it's too hot outside. Start mulching them during the spring when the ground is not too cold.
The age of the plants matter. Lack of water is one of the most common reasons the newly planted ones fail to grow. After they are established, you need to ease off the watering schedule.
Reduce watering them during the fall and winter, especially if they have a water-retaining material in the soil. The dry winds in winter can dry them out, and the newly planted ones can be at risk of drought during windy winter, summer, and fall. Windy seasons mean that there's more watering required. The ones planted in the pot tend to dry out faster, so they need more watering. Once you see that they bloom less, the leaves begin to dry up.
Potted plants are relatively complex to water and fluctuate in frequency. Always be careful that the pot-planted plant don't sit in the water. Avoid putting them in containers with saucers, bowls, and trays. Too much watering in the fall can make the foliage look mottled or yellowish. It's always a good idea to prevent overwatering them regardless of the current climate or season that you might have. During the months when Japanese persimmon begins to flower, you might want to increase the watering frequency but give it a rest once they are fully grown.
Give them an adequate amount of water once every 3 to 5 days but don't give them regular schedules. Make sure the soil is dry by sticking your finger in the pot, or use a moisture meter if you're unsure if it's the right time. Too much root rot can cause them to die, so be careful not to overwater or underwater regardless of the climate or season you have in your area.
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Why is watering my Japanese persimmon important?
Watering the Japanese persimmon helps transport the needed nutrients from the soil to the rest of the plant. The moisture will keep this species healthy if you know how much water to give. The watering requirements will depend on the weather in your area and the plant's soil.
The Japanese persimmon thrives on moist soil, but they can't generally tolerate waterlogging. Ensure to provide enough mulch when planted on the ground and never fall into the trap of watering too little. They enjoy a full can of watering where the water should be moist at the base when they are planted in a pot to get the best blooms.
If they are grown as foliage, you need to water them up to a depth of 10 to 20 inches so they will continue to grow. If it's raining, refrain from watering and let them get the nutrients they need from the rainwater.
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Cultivation:FertilizerDetail

How to Fertilize Japanese persimmon?

Base fertilizer: Mainly based on decomposed organic fertilizer and supplemented with a chemical fertilizer. For best results, mix with an appropriate amount of a phosphorus and potassium fertilizer. The amount of base fertilizer applied should account for more than 80% of the total fertilization for the whole year.
Topdressing: A nitrogen fertilizer should be applied when new branches are growing on young trees, and a combination of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers should be applied during the fruit swelling period. Phosphorus and potassium fertilizers are mainly applied during the fruit coloring period. If conditions permit, some soil should be collected for composition analysis, so that the fertilizer ratio provided to the plant can be prepared according to the soil report.
Foliar feeding: When new shoots appear, spray them 3-4 times during their growing period. You can also combine this with pest and disease control measures. Spray a 300-fold dilution of urea during the early growth stage of the fruit, and a 300-500-fold dilution of monopotassium phosphate or others at the later stage.

Fertilizer

Japanese persimmon is generally grown in order to produce edible fruit, and requires ample nutrients to be able to yield the most fruit with the best flavor. Without enough nutrients, the leaves and flowers may be underdeveloped, and the Japanese persimmon fails to thrive overall. This is why many gardeners prefer to fertilize.
The growth of plants continues to deplete the soil of nutrients, especially those of the fast growing types. So regular fertilization to give Japanese persimmon some extra supply of nutrients will not only help it stay healthy, but will also allow it to grow more and more delicious fruit.
Plants may face many problems if they have not been fertilized for a long time. Nutrient deficiency can cause foliage issues, most commonly yellow leaves. Leaves may also develop a reddish color, shape deformities, withered tips, or dieback across large portions of the plant. Some types of nutrient deficiency can cause bark disorders, slow growth, poor shoot development, and a lack of fruit production.
The best time to fertilize is in the early spring, before the buds emerge. As Japanese persimmon energes from winter dormancy, it uses the reserves that were stored up over the winter to put out new growth. Lots of energy will be needed to support the development of blooms, so fertilizing about 2 to 4 weeks before you expect it to bloom provides enough time for the nutrients to soak into the soil and then be absorbed and dispersed throughout the plant.You can continue to feed Japanese persimmon during the spring, but it is best not to fertilize in the autumn because this can cause too much foliage to develop late in the season. That makes the leaves susceptible to damage in winter.
Usually the use of some fertilizer with balanced nutrition (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) can bring many benefits. The main nutrients that plants need are nitrogen for leaf growth and chlorophyll. Phosphorus supports the root system as well as to produce blossoms, fruits, and seeds. Potassium develops the systems used for photosynthesis and transporting water and nutrients throughout the plant.You may choose to use a commercial fertilizer specialized for a certain type of tree, or you can use organic nitrogen sources such as manure, feather meal, or blood meal. Conducting a soil test can help you get a good idea of the condition of your soil and apply fertilizer more precisely. For commercial fertilizers, you could use a balanced granular fertilizer with an NPK of 10-10-10 or similar if your soil does not have sufficient phosphorus and potassium according to your soil test. In most cases the nitrogen in the soil is continuously lost with rainfall. If your soil has sufficient levels of phosphorus and potassium, a high-nitrogen fertilizer with a ratio of 6-2-1 or 10-2-2 would be more suitable.Always follow directions for the specific type of fertilizer and do research on how to use it for the Japanese persimmon you are growing.
Granular fertilizers and organic fertilizers such as blood meal are applied by sprinkling the substance around the base of the tree all the way to the drip line (the space below the farthest-reaching branches) but do not let fertilizer come in contact with the trunk. Over time, the granules break down and filter into the soil to be absorbed into the roots. After fertilizing, spread an inch-deep layer of compost around the base of the tree and water thoroughly.
It is far better to under-fertilize than over-fertilize, since you can always add more but you cannot easily take away excess fertilizer. Over-fertilizing your Japanese persimmon may cause brown leaf tips and edges, yellowing, wilting leaves, and possibly a visible crust of fertilizer salts on the surface of the soil around the plant. This condition is called fertilizer burn and results from too many accumulated salts in the plant’s cells. If excess nitrogen is the issue, the Japanese persimmon will produce a lot of leaves but won’t grow much fruit since nitrogen supports foliage growth.
Avoid fertilizing Japanese persimmon at all in the first year of growth, and be cautious about providing fertilizer if it is not necessary. You also should not fertilize if you pruned 20% of the plant or more the previous year. Hold off on fertilizing plants that are diseased or damaged, as this can do more harm than good. Remember that fertilizer is not medicine, and instead get to the root cause of the issue before you think about feeding the plant again.Do not fertilize after the peak of summer, which can cause too much growth just before winter. Also, Japanese persimmon should not be fertilized during hot and dry times of year, since dry soil does not deliver fertilizer as effectively as moist soil. Fertilizing at this time can also stimulate growth which in turn needs more water that may not be available. It is best to keep fertilizer for earlier in the season when temperatures are cooler. Finally, remember that Japanese persimmon can absorb fertilizer that has been applied to nearby plants or lawns, so be cautious about inadvertently giving plants a double-dose of fertilizer.
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Cultivation:FertilizerDetail
Why do I need to fertilize my Japanese persimmon?
The growth of plants continues to deplete the soil of nutrients, especially those of the fast growing types. So regular fertilization to give Japanese persimmon some extra supply of nutrients will not only help it stay healthy, but will also allow it to grow more and more delicious fruit. Plants may face many problems if they have not been fertilized for a long time. Nutrient deficiency can cause foliage issues, most commonly yellow leaves. Leaves may also develop a reddish color, shape deformities, withered tips, or dieback across large portions of the plant. Some types of nutrient deficiency can cause bark disorders, slow growth, poor shoot development, and a lack of fruit production.
Read More more
When is the best time to fertilize my Japanese persimmon?
The best time to fertilize is in the early spring, before the buds emerge. As Japanese persimmon energes from winter dormancy, it uses the reserves that were stored up over the winter to put out new growth. Lots of energy will be needed to support the development of blooms, so fertilizing about 2 to 4 weeks before you expect it to bloom provides enough time for the nutrients to soak into the soil and then be absorbed and dispersed throughout the plant.
You can continue to feed Japanese persimmon during the spring, but it is best not to fertilize in the autumn because this can cause too much foliage to develop late in the season. That makes the leaves susceptible to damage in winter.
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When should I avoid fertilizing my Japanese persimmon?
Avoid fertilizing Japanese persimmon at all in the first year of growth, and be cautious about providing fertilizer if it is not necessary. You also should not fertilize if you pruned 20% of the plant or more the previous year. Hold off on fertilizing plants that are diseased or damaged, as this can do more harm than good. Remember that fertilizer is not medicine, and instead get to the root cause of the issue before you think about feeding the plant again.
Do not fertilize after the peak of summer, which can cause too much growth just before winter. Also, Japanese persimmon should not be fertilized during hot and dry times of year, since dry soil does not deliver fertilizer as effectively as moist soil. Fertilizing at this time can also stimulate growth which in turn needs more water that may not be available. It is best to keep fertilizer for earlier in the season when temperatures are cooler.
Finally, remember that Japanese persimmon can absorb fertilizer that has been applied to nearby plants or lawns, so be cautious about inadvertently giving plants a double-dose of fertilizer.
Read More more
What type of fertilizer does my Japanese persimmon need?
Usually the use of some fertilizer with balanced nutrition (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) can bring many benefits. The main nutrients that plants need are nitrogen for leaf growth and chlorophyll. Phosphorus supports the root system as well as to produce blossoms, fruits, and seeds. Potassium develops the systems used for photosynthesis and transporting water and nutrients throughout the plant.You may choose to use a commercial fertilizer specialized for a certain type of tree, or you can use organic nitrogen sources such as manure, feather meal, or blood meal.
Conducting a soil test can help you get a good idea of the condition of your soil and apply fertilizer more precisely. For commercial fertilizers, you could use a balanced granular fertilizer with an NPK of 10-10-10 or similar if your soil does not have sufficient phosphorus and potassium according to your soil test. In most cases the nitrogen in the soil is continuously lost with rainfall. If your soil has sufficient levels of phosphorus and potassium, a high-nitrogen fertilizer with a ratio of 6-2-1 or 10-2-2 would be more suitable.
Read More more
How do I fertilize my Japanese persimmon?
Always follow directions for the specific type of fertilizer and do research on how to use it for the Japanese persimmon you are growing. It is important not to over-fertilize your Japanese persimmon, so determining the correct amount to use is crucial, especially for fruit trees. The usual rule of thumb is to use the age of the tree (if known) or the diameter of the trunk to understand how much fertilizer should be used. Estimate a one-tenth of a pound of fertilizer per year or per inch of trunk, with a maximum of one pound. Note that a Japanese persimmon should not be fertilized for the first few years.
Granular fertilizers and organic fertilizers such as blood meal are applied by sprinkling the substance around the base of the tree all the way to the drip line (the space below the farthest-reaching branches) but do not let fertilizer come in contact with the trunk. Over time, the granules break down and filter into the soil to be absorbed into the roots. After fertilizing, spread an inch-deep layer of compost around the base of the tree and water thoroughly.
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What happens if I fertilize my Japanese persimmon too much?
It is far better to under-fertilize than over-fertilize, since you can always add more but you cannot easily take away excess fertilizer. Over-fertilizing your Japanese persimmon may cause brown leaf tips and edges, yellowing, wilting leaves, and possibly a visible crust of fertilizer salts on the surface of the soil around the plant. This condition is called fertilizer burn and results from too many accumulated salts in the plant’s cells. If excess nitrogen is the issue, the Japanese persimmon will produce a lot of leaves but won’t grow much fruit since nitrogen supports foliage growth.
If you have overfertilized, you could try removing the top layer of soil under the Japanese persimmon to remove the most concentrated area of fertilizer. Then flush the area by watering heavily to try to get rid of fertilizer around the roots.
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Cultivation:SunlightDetail

What Are the Sunlight Requirements for Japanese persimmon?

Japanese persimmon prefers a sunny environment and should be planted on sun-facing slopes that receive plenty of light. If there is insufficient light, the fruits and flowers will fall early. This will also cause a thick and rough rind, lowered sugar content, and poor quality fruit. With enough light, the branches will develop fully and have a strong branching ability, while flower buds will form easily, giving you more flowers and a high fruiting rate. Sufficient light will give you good quality fruit with a thin skin and sweet flesh.
Cultivation:SunlightDetail
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How much/long should Japanese persimmon get sunlight per day for healthy growth?
For healthy growth, make sure that Japanese persimmon receives at least 3–6 hours of sun each day. This is actually a minimum requirement—most plants that can handle part sun can also thrive in full sun, but because they require less light for photosynthesis, they are more flexible than plants that require full sun or part shade.
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What type of sunlight does Japanese persimmon need?
Japanese persimmon does best with exposure to full or part sun. They will perform best with direct morning light, but in summer they need protection from the strong afternoon sun. In temperate environments, too much hot afternoon sun can burn the leaves, damaging the plant's appearance and health.
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Can sunlight damage Japanese persimmon? How to protect Japanese persimmon from the sun and heat damage?
Japanese persimmon planted indoors can easily be damaged by direct sunlight when it's moved outdoors. The best way to prevent sunburns from overexposure is to move pots gradually from a shaded area to a brighter spot, gradually. But even plants that are acclimated to the summer sun can be damaged by extreme heat. In a heatwave, it is important to keep the soil consistently moist so that plants can cope with excessive levels of heat. Moving plants in containers to areas with afternoon shade or erecting a shade cloth over them can protect sensitive Japanese persimmon during extreme weather events.
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Does Japanese persimmon need to avoid sun exposure? / Should I protect Japanese persimmon from the sun?
While bright morning sun and some full sun exposure can be highly beneficial for Japanese persimmon, the harsh, hot midday sun of summer can be too much to handle.
If planted in the ground, the summer sun will usually ramp up slowly enough through the season for Japanese persimmon to gradually adapt to its intensity. But a potted plant that has been indoors or in a protected location will often suffer injury when placed suddenly into a location where the direct summer sun reaches it in the hottest part of the day.
To protect this plant from the brutal afternoon summer sun, plant or place it in an understory location where it is shaded at midday by taller trees and plants or by a building or landscape feature.
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What will happen if Japanese persimmon gets inadequate sunlight?
When Japanese persimmon receives too little sun, they may become pale green or display drooping, yellow leaves. While some leaf drop is normal, if leaves are dropping but no new ones are growing in to replace them, it is a sign that something is wrong. If Japanese persimmon receiving inadequate light does manage to grow, the new growth is often spindly, pale, and prone to insect infestation. Paying attention to these signs and changing the lighting conditions of the plant will make a significant difference.
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Does Japanese persimmon need special care about sunlight during its different growth stages?
Tender, new leaves are especially sensitive to sunburn. Bearing this in mind, very young Japanese persimmon and when it's in a strong growth phase, such as in late spring and early summer, will be more sensitive to harsh sun and heat than the mature one or those in a more dormant fall growth stage. Japanese persimmon fresh from a nursery is also usually not prepared for strong full sunlight and must be introduced to it slowly.
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Are there any cautions or tips for sunlight and Japanese persimmon?
Recently transplanted Japanese persimmon will often experience a bit of shock and will need to be cared for carefully, either shaded from bright afternoon sun or placed in a protected area. On very hot days, you may see the leaves of Japanese persimmon drooping—this is usually nothing to worry about. Plants will send the water in their leaves down into their roots to protect them from burning. However, if the leaves are still drooping in the evening or the next morning, the plant needs water. Always avoid watering during the hottest times of day, as sunlight can hit wet leaves and scorch them easily.
Japanese persimmon that has been underwatered will be weaker than that with consistently moist soil. This can leave it with weak roots that are unable to protect the leaves on hot, sunny summer days by diverting water away from the leaves. Care for an underwatered plant by giving it a long, deep watering and then allowing the top two inches of soil to dry out before the next watering. Even if it loses its leaves, if cared for properly it will grow new ones.
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Cultivation:PruningDetail

How to Prune Japanese persimmon?

Pruning is best carried out in the late winter, when the plant is still dormant, but additional pruning may also be needed during the growing season. When pruning in the winter, focus on thinning out branches, keeping fruit-producing limbs evenly spaced out. Remove dead branches, as well as those growing at improper angles, and cut off any suckers too. This is also the time to cut back tall branches to make fruit-harvesting easier - any new shoots will grow below where the branch was cut. Additional pruning will depend on the shape and style of tree you are going for.
A central leader system is the most common way to train japanese persimmon. Choose a healthy shoot at the center of the tree, and then remove any others that grow near it. In the winter, cut your central leader back by a third, and tie back any competing branches.
A trellis encourages productive growth, with shoots trained over frames to help support the weight of the fruit. Pruning each branch isn't necessary when using a trellis, but you will need to bend branches in the direction you want them to grow.
Cultivation:PruningDetail
Do I need to prune my Japanese persimmon?
Unkempt, wild Japanese persimmon have a hard time bearing fruit, and for good reason. When Japanese persimmon isn’t pruned, they have issues ranging from sunlight, weight distribution, and even fungi and other pests. Pruning does a lot to help remedy these issues, as well as to provide for the aesthetic appeal of the trees themselves. Pruning is also a basic necessity surrounding the general growth of Japanese persimmon. If Japanese persimmon get too large, they begin to fall apart fairly quickly. Losing branches to weight distribution issues can be fatal for Japanese persimmon, especially those in drier climates. Pruning helps to reaffirm the crown’s structure and provide support to key branches.
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When should I prune my Japanese persimmon?
Japanese persimmon should be pruned in the late winter, when there are no signs of any new growth yet. During this time, Japanese persimmon is dormant, and therefore can sustain itself better without extra growth to maintain. During this time, you can cut away the branches that are most cumbersome. During the summer months, when new growth shoots are sprouting up every which way, lots of the green shoots will need to be trimmed. While some of them may prove to be useful, most of the weak and thin branches that come out before fruiting season will need to be cut away in order to produce better fruit on established branches.
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How can I prune my Japanese persimmon?
In order to properly prune the Japanese persimmon, you need a basic set of tools and skills. Fortunately, most of the Japanese persimmon are pruned more or less the same; for this reason, getting the hang of Japanese persimmon pruning is fairly easy and time-efficient. It boils down to timing, selection, and methodology. Tools Before you start cutting away at your Japanese persimmon, first determine which kind of tools you’re working with. Most of the Japanese persimmon can be pruned with hand shears or loppers, but some may require a pole saw (for extra tall or hard-to-reach areas). Don’t neglect the open wounds where you prune, either; larger cuts should be covered with honey or pine sap to help deter common Japanese persimmon diseases and pests. How to Prune To prune the Japanese persimmon, you’ll need your shears to be clean and sharp. Disinfect them with either warm, soapy water or a disinfectant like rubbing alcohol to remove any possible pathogens that may be hitching a ride on the surface of your shears. This is the first and easiest step to prevent plant infections from spreading. Then, you can start to cut away branches. First, trim away any obviously dead, dying or diseased branches. After that, trim off those grows upward towards the top of the crown or downward towards the ground. These branches will grow to become a nuisance, and restrict both airflow and sunlight to the inner branches where fruit will suffocate. Remove any suckers that grow from the base of the trunk, as well. Try to leave larger branches and remove smaller ones that cross over or intercept larger branches in any way. Instead of shortening branches, remove entire branches from their bases so that they won’t continue to grow in the way. Use pine sap or honey to close off wounds where branches have been cut to help the tree heal faster.
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What should I do after pruning my Japanese persimmon?
Check the tree to be sure that you have pruned away any branches that might grow into an issue in the future. Snip away any excess stragglers that you may have missed, then be sure to remove all of the fallen debris from the tree’s area to prevent undergrowth from taking over. It’s a good idea to use gloves, as Japanese persimmon bark can be rough in places.
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How can I train my Japanese persimmon seedling?
To train the Japanese persimmon from a seedling size into a mature tree, you’ll need to plan out which branches to keep and which to lose in order to maintain a good balance of branches that stem up and out at an angle of at least 45 degrees. Trim away any branches that grow vertically in any direction as the seedling grows. Branches that grow horizontally will produce more fruits, while those that grow vertically will not carry much fruit and will impede the growth of important branches. Over time, the branches you choose in the beginning will grow up to become key branches that support most of the tree’s fruiting and further branching efforts! Also to note is that some of the Japanese persimmon may split down the road if they’re not properly trained as seedlings. If there is a “Y” division early on, it’s best to choose the thicker side of the split to keep, then cut away the thinner side of the split back to the base.
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Advanced Care Guide

Cultivation:WaterAndHardinessDetail

What is the Ideal Temperature Range for Japanese persimmon?

Most of the plants in the Diospyros genus grow happily with the ideal temperature for growth being 13 to 19 ℃. During dormancy, the plant can tolerate the cold, withstanding a temperature of -14 ℃ for a short period of time. When the winter temperature drops below -15 ℃ to -20 ℃ , the tops of the branches will be susceptible to frost damage, and the whole plant could even freeze to death.
The plants prefer a humid climate and can be cultivated in areas with an annual precipitation of 40 to 150 cm. The root system of japanese persimmon is large and widely distributed, with a strong capacity for water absorption and a relatively high tolerance for drought. Attention should be paid to drainage during the rainy season, and irrigation should be carried out during dry spells in the summer and fall.
Cultivation:WaterAndHardinessDetail
What is the optimal temperature for Japanese persimmon?
The best temperature for Japanese persimmon to thrive is 65~80℉(18~27℃). During the primary growing phase, the highest temperature tolerable would be 95℉(35℃), while the lowest tolerable temperature would be 15℉(-10℃). This species is tolerant of low temperatures and will survive freezing winters. The perfect, highest, and lowest temperature range:
Perfect:65~80℉(18~27℃)
Highest:85~95℉(30~35℃)
Lowest:-5~15℉(-20~-10℃) or below
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Should I adjust the temperature for Japanese persimmon during different growing phases?
Research shows that Japanese persimmon will begin to exhibit signs of stunted growth during prolonged periods of higher temperatures, especially during the development of axillary buds and the growth of main shoots. Keeping the temperatures consistent and cooler, around 65℉(18℃), will encourage vigorous growth after germination or transplanting.
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How can I keep Japanese persimmon warm in cold seasons?
Japanese persimmon can withstand freezing temperatures when planted in the ground in areas that don’t get below of 15℉(-10℃) as an extreme temperature during the winter months. But if planted in pots or containers, then their roots must be protected from the winter cold. Do this by wrapping the container in a blanket or bringing it inside where it will be fully protected from the elements.
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What damage will Japanese persimmon suffer if the temperature is too high/low?
Greater harm will come to Japanese persimmon if the temperature is consistently too high versus too low.
If Japanese persimmon gets too hot, seed germination and photosynthesis efficiency is lessened due to hormone triggers caused by heat stress. The plant will show signs through wilting, leaf browning, and potentially death.
If Japanese persimmon gets too cold, plant functions such as nutrient uptake and photosynthesis will cease, resulting in the possible death of the plant. If a single freezing event occurs during the growing season, then a membrane phase transition might occur, which can cause a cease in plant functions and death of the plant.
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What tips and cautions should I keep in mind when it comes to temperature for Japanese persimmon?
Keeping the soil temperature consistent is one of the most important strategies to keeping Japanese persimmon healthy, which leads to successful budding, flowering, and new growth. Do this by consistently watering, adding mulch to bare soil, and planting in the shade.
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How can I keep Japanese persimmon warm without a heat pad?
Due to the cold tolerance of Japanese persimmon, heating pads will not be necessary if planted outside in the ground. If the plant is in an outdoor pot, then bring it inside a heated house and place it in a sunny window during the winter months.
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How can I provide Japanese persimmon with an adequate temperature condition?
To ensure adequate temperature conditions are present, plant Japanese persimmon in an area with partial shade. If possible, use afternoon shade to provide the best protection during the hottest part of the day. This will also result in lower temperatures in the soil due to increased moisture retention. If Japanese persimmon is planted indoors, then keep the container away from windows and out of direct sunlight during the summer months to prevent the soil temperature from spiking daily.
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How can I save Japanese persimmon from temperature damage?
During the summer or times of high heat, give Japanese persimmon extra shade and water to help cool its leaves, roots, and soil. During cold snaps or growing season freezes, cover sensitive budding vegetation with frost cloth or water using sprinkler systems. If it’s only nearing freezing temperatures for a short period, then water during the day several hours before the freeze. If the temperature is predicted to remain below freezing for an extended period, then keep the sprinkler running until the temperature rises above freezing the following day.
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Should I adjust the temperature for Japanese persimmon in different seasons?
Japanese persimmon is a mid-temperature plant that can easily tolerate the typical fluctuations of the seasons and remain a hardy species when planted in maintained landscapes areas, containers, or indoors. Therefore, adjusting the temperature during the different seasons is unnecessary for primary growth. If flowering is stunted or impeded, then allowing the plant to experience a season of winter freeze could help to revive flowering.
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Under what conditions should I stop adjusting the temperature for Japanese persimmon?
If it becomes too difficult to lower the temperature for an indoor plant during the summer, then plant it outside in the ground or in a container. Make sure to plant Japanese persimmon in a shaded location and water often to keep the soil moist.
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Cultivation:SoilDetail

What Soil is Best for Japanese persimmon?

Deep sandy soil, loam, or low-lying land with good drainage is ideal for growing japanese persimmon. Flat terrain is also preferred, as is a soil pH of 6.5-7.5 with medium fertility.
Cultivation:SoilDetail
Cultivation:PropagationDetail

How to Propagate Japanese persimmon?

Grafting period and method: Branch or bud grafting should be carried out when the rootstock germinates in the spring. Management of grafted seedlings: Remove newly sprouted buds immediately after grafting. Grafted seedlings should be regularly watered during their rapid growth period (usually late spring) when the soil is dry and a nitrogen fertilizer along with a phosphorus and potassium fertilizer should be applied at the same time. Towards the end of the summer control the supply of fertilizer and water. Carry out a foliar application of a phosphorus and potassium fertilizer 2-3 times in fall to prevent seedlings from spindling. In areas prone to frost damage remove the top buds of new shoots.

Propagation

Grafting is the most common way to propagate fruit trees, which can help you get plants with good flavor and yield in the shortest possible time.
While the precise timing for when you should graft a plant will vary based on the type of plant in question, it is generally best to graft most plants from late winter to early spring. It is also crucial to ensure that the plant onto which you are attaching your scion is in a stage of active growth. The seedlings that have just started to grow cannot be grafted until it's 2 years old.
Anyone who wants to graft a plant will be wise to set themselves up with the best tools for the job before they get started. Here is a quick list of the items you’ll need to graft a plant.
What you will need:
  1. A sharp cutting tool, preferably a grafting knife
  2. Diluted bleach solution or isopropyl alcohol to clean tools
  3. Grafting wax
  4. Twine or string
  5. Grafting tape
Steps:
The size of the understock determines which of the two basic types of grafting teachniques should be used in propagation. A graft may be made to join a nearly equal sized scion and understock together, or several small scions to a larger understock as in cleft or bark grafting.
Grafts with similar scion and understock sizes
Step 1: Remove a branch with a few healthy buds on it as scions. The understock needs to be selected from seedlings of good varieties. The scion and the understock should be of the similar size of thickness.
Step 2: Cutting the stock and scion. Create similar slanted cuts at the bottom of the scion and the top of stock. Split the incision along the longitudinal direction in the middle of the bevel of the understock and scion body for better contact of the incision.
Step 3: Match up the cuts on the scion and the rootstock.
Step 4: Use your twine to secure the connection between the branch and the rootstock. Consider applying grafting wax to protect the wounds.
Grafts with small scions and large understocks
Step 1: Remove a branch with a few healthy buds on it as scions. The understock needs to be selected from seedlings of good varieties and needs to be larger than the the scion. The scion should preferably be a branch over one year old.
Step 2: After removing the leaves and buds from the understock seedling stem. Use a razor blade to make avertical cut from the stem cross-section from the tip. The bottom of the scion should be cut in the shape of a wedge. A slight outward tilt of the scion facilitates wound contact. Leaving a maximum of 3 buds at the end and cut off excess buds on the top.
Step 3: Match up the cuts on the grafted branch and the rootstock.
Step 4: Consider applying grafting wax to protect the wounds.
Step 5: Wrap the graft with grafting tape to protect it while it heals.
Caution: Grafting between the same species is usually successful. Grafting between different genera is occasionally successful. And grafting between families usually cannot be performed.
It can also be propagated by the means of layering.
Pay attention to the age of the branch you want to propagate to know when to start air layering. If you're working with a branch that is old-growth, preferably from the previous year’s growth, spring is the best time for layering. If your chosen branch is new growth, mid-summer is your best bet. These warm months are the best time to encourage new root growth in your plants. A pencil-thick branch could be a good choice.
Since air layering is a little more complicated than other types of layering, you’ll need a few extra tools before you begin the process. Make sure you have everything on hand and then begin!
  1. A sharp, sanitized knife
  2. Peat moss for wrapping
  3. Plastic wrap for wrapping
  4. Rubber bands or twist ties
  5. (optional) aluminum foil
  6. (optional) plant growth hormones
Steps:
Step 1: Choose a thick upper stem and clear off the leaves around a chosen node.
Step 2: Below this node, ring peel the plant to a length of 0.5 to 1 inches, completely stripping the bark of the plant. It is necessary to pay attention to safety of the plant when ring stripping.
Step 3: Apply moist (not wet) peat moss to the cut area. Hold the moss in place by tightly wrapping the area with plastic wrap and ties. Apply an extra layer of aluminum foil for sun protection if needed.
Step 4: Remove the stem for propagation once the peat moss is visibly filled with roots. Make sure the wrapped moss is moist during rooting. Use a syringe to inject water if you find that the peat moss is already dry.
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Cultivation:PropagationDetail
Cultivation:PlantingDetail

How to Plant Japanese persimmon?

Early spring is the ideal planting time for japanese persimmon. In the fall, collect mature fruits that are pure, well-developed, and have no pests and diseases. Remove their flesh and impurities, and then wash and dry the seeds. The following spring, store the seeds in a dry environment or in sand (stratification) before planting. Once the seeds are completely dry, place them in wooden boxes or cloth bags, and store in a cool, ventilated and dry environment. Seeds that are stored in sand should be kept at temperatures of 3 to 9 ℃ for 60-90 days.
Sowing should be carried out when the temperature of the soil reaches 8 to 10 ℃. Before sowing, seeds that have been stored in a dry environment should be soaked in warm water (about 65 ℃) for 5 minutes, and stirred thoroughly. Then, the seeds should be soaked in clean water until they have fully swollen. Seeds that have been stored in sand can be sown directly. Row spacing should be 30 cm, with a depth of 2 to 3 cm. After covering with soil, flatten the soil slightly and layer on a mulch.
Transplant seedlings after they have grown 5 leaves. The length, width, and depth of the planting holes should not be less than 80 cm. Thoroughly mix the soil with an organic fertilizer, and then apply this to each hole. Then, fill a portion of the hole with soil and plant the seedlings after irrigating. When transplanting, ensure that the root system is fully stretched, and the seedlings are upright. After transplanting, compact the soil slightly, water it, and then seal and cover the holes with a plastic film. The roots of the seedlings should be level with the ground.
Cultivation:PlantingDetail
Cultivation:HarvestDetail

How to Harvest Japanese persimmon?

Once the fruit is at the most suitable level of maturity or reaches the inherent color and hardness of its variety, it can be harvested. Begin picking from the outer crown, before moving on to the inner crown. Always start with the lower layer before the upper layer. Cut the entire fruit stem when harvesting, and try to keep the fruit intact.
Cultivation:HarvestDetail
PlantCare:TransplantSummary

How to Transplant Japanese persimmon?

For optimal growth, transplant japanese persimmon during the rejuvenating period of early spring, as this helps prevent transplant shock. Choose a sunny location with well-draining soil. Gently tease the roots when transplanting, to encourage healthy root development.
PlantCare:TransplantSummary
care_scenes

More Info on Japanese Persimmon Growth and Care

Basic Care Guide
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Lighting
Full sun
Japanese persimmon's growth thrives when exposed to abundant daily sunlight. Sufficient light promotes its healthy development and fruiting. In its native environment, it is accustomed to basks in generous sun. However, it can also manage well with a relative degree of sun exposure, though it may impact growth and yield. Both excessive or inadequate light can stress the plant.
Best Sunlight Practices
Temperature
-15 43 ℃
The japanese persimmon prefers temperatures ranging from 50 to 100 ℉ (10 to 38 ℃), which is similar to its native growth environment. It is a temperate woody plant that can tolerate seasonal temperature changes. In winter, it can withstand mild freezing up to 15 ℉ (-9.4 ℃).
Temp for Healthy Growth
Transplant
20 feet
For optimal growth, transplant japanese persimmon during the rejuvenating period of early spring, as this helps prevent transplant shock. Choose a sunny location with well-draining soil. Gently tease the roots when transplanting, to encourage healthy root development.
Transplant Techniques
Feng shui direction
Southwest
The japanese persimmon carries significant compatibility with Southwest-facing areas. With its nurturing energies, it resonates with the earth element dominant in this quadrant, promoting harmony, unity, and stability. However, Feng Shui's magic is an artful dance of many subtle factors, thus interpretation may vary grounded on personal insights and experiences.
Fengshui Details
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Seasonal Care Tips

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Spring

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Summer

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Fall

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Winter

This plant and other temperate fruiting trees and shrubs require care in the early spring.

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Prune back old growth but wait until after the last frost.
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Spring is also the best time for planting, but do not fertilize new plants. Mature specimens will benefit from a monthly application of organic fertilizer.
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Water the plant deeply every couple of weeks.
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4
Container plants require sunlight in the spring. Move the container to a location receiving several hours of sunlight a day.

Fruiting temperate trees and shrubs like this plant benefit from care during the summer.

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A monthly application of organic fertilizer throughout the summer helps to support growth and encourage fruiting.
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Keep an eye on soil moisture, watering whenever the soil is beginning to dry out.
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Remove any dead and dying leaves from the plant and around the base to help avoid issues with pests and diseases.
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Prune back old growth to help avoid potential issues with broken branches.
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5
Move container plants to a partially shady location if they are in a consistently sunny area.

You should provide frequent care to your plant throughout the fall.

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Up until your plant reaches dormancy in the cold winter months, continue to water it in cases of little to no rainfall to ensure the soil stays moist and the plant stays productive.
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Make sure it received plenty of direct sun as well.
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Fertilize it once at the beginning of fall, with a citrus fertilizer, then stop fertilizing and pruning during this season, especially as winter approaches. This will help your plant enter winter dormancy more easily.
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Rake up any fallen fall foliage to deter pests and diseases, as bacteria can easily grow in the fallen leaves at the base of the plant.

While your plant is dormant in the winter, let it rest. You’ll need to provide only minimal care at this time.

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Water your plant infrequently, providing it with water it only after the soil dries out to avoid waking it up.
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At the very end of winter, before new growth begins, prune away dead, diseased, or overcrowded branches to jumpstart fresh growth in the spring.
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If you have a potted variety, you can overwinter it indoors in bright sunlight, and you can possibly enjoy the harvest from your plant throughout the season.
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Common Pests & Diseases

Common issues for Japanese persimmon based on 10 million real cases
Brown spot
Brown spot Brown spot
Brown spot
This infection can cause brown spots or patches to appear on the plant.
Solutions: In minor cases of brown spot, there isn’t any need to treat the disease. However, if much of the foliage is affected and defoliation occurs, the plant will benefit from getting rid of the infection. It is recommended to start by applying organic treatment options, working up to the more potent synthetic, chemical fungicides if necessary. Organic options won’t kill the fungus, but will prevent it from spreading. Dissolve ½ teaspoon of baking soda and one teaspoon of liquid soap in a gallon of water. Using a spray bottle, spray on tops and bottoms of leaves until the mixture drips off. Repeat every two weeks until existing spots stop enlarging and new spots no longer appear. Spray a copper-based fungicidal soap on the leaves, coating the top and bottom leaf surfaces. Reapply as directed on the product label. Copper penetrates the leaf surface and prevents germination of spores so the fungus cannot spread. Apply an all-purpose fungicide to the entire plant, following the label instructions carefully.
Black spot
Black spot Black spot
Black spot
Infection by the black spot pathogen causes black spots or patches to appear on leaves.
Solutions: Some steps to take to address black spot include: Prune away any infected leaves, cleaning the pruners between plants with a 10% bleach solution so that the fungus does not spread to healthy leaves. Don't compost pruned plant parts as the spores can linger in the soil for a long period of time - instead, dispose of them in the trash. Use an approved fungicide such as Trifloxystrobin, Chlorothalonil, Maneb, or Myclobutanil. Use a spreader in the fungicide spray to ensure better coverage.
Leaf beetles
Leaf beetles Leaf beetles
Leaf beetles
Leaf beetles are a class of colored insects 1 to 2 cm in size. They gnaw on leaves and petals resulting in small, round holes scattered over the surface.
Solutions: For less serious cases: Remove beetles, nymphs, and eggs. Remove all life stages of the beetles and kill them by placing them in a bucket of warm, soapy water. This can be done more easily by placing the bucket under affected leaves and shaking the plant. This method is most effective in the afternoon when leaf beetles are more active. Always dispose of insects in a sealed bag or container to avoid escape and spread. To treat more serious infestations: Apply organic insecticides. Use naturally-derived insecticides before moving on to synthetic insecticides. Neem oil and pyrethrum are naturally-derived insecticides that should be applied following label instructions. Apply synthetic insecticides. Examples of insecticides effective for leaf beetles include carbaryl, permethrin, and bifenthrin. Apply insecticides according to label instructions.
Caterpillars
Caterpillars Caterpillars
Caterpillars
Caterpillars are fleshy moth or butterfly larvae that come in an array of colors, patterns, and even hairstyles. They chew on leaves and flower petals, creating large, irregular holes.
Solutions: Even though caterpillars are diverse, they all chew on plant parts and can cause significant damage if present in large numbers. For severe cases: Apply insecticide. For an organic solution, spray plants with a Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), which specifically affects the larval stage of moths and butterflies. Be sure to coat plants, since caterpillars need to ingest Bt for it to be effective. This will not harm other insects. Spray a chili extract. Chili seeds can be cooked in water to make a spicy spray that caterpillars don't like. Spray this mixture on the plants, but be aware it will also be spicy to humans. Introduce beneficial insects. Release beneficial insects to the garden that eat caterpillars, such as parasitic wasps. For less severe cases: Hand pick. Using gloves, pick off caterpillars on plants and dispose of them in a bucket of soapy water. Dust plants with diatomaceous earth. This powder is harmless to humans but irritates caterpillars. Therefore, it will make it difficult for caterpillars to move and eat.
Aged yellow and dry
Aged yellow and dry Aged yellow and dry
Aged yellow and dry
Natural aging can cause leaves to turn yellow and dry out.
Solutions: If the yellowing and drying of leaves and flowers is a natural progression due to age, nothing can be done to slow or stop the process. Once hormones within the plant begin the process of senescence, it’s irreversible.
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Brown spot
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Brown spot
This infection can cause brown spots or patches to appear on the plant.
Overview
Overview
Discolored spots on the foliage of plants are one of the most common disease problems people observe. These spots are caused by fungal and bacterial diseases, with most infections related to a fungal pathogen.
Brown spot can occurs on all houseplants, flowering ornamentals, vegetable plants, and leaves of trees, bushes, and shrubs. No plants are resistant to it, and the problem is worse in warm, wet environments. It can occur at any point in the life stage as long as leaves are present.
Small brownish spots appear on the foliage and enlarge as the disease progresses. In severe cases, the plant or tree is weakened when the lesions interrupt photosynthesis or cause defoliation.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
In most cases, brown spot only affects a small percentage of the whole plant, appearing on a small amount of the leaves. A small infection only puts minor stress on the plant. However, if left untreated and the disease progresses over numerous seasons, it will severely impact the health and productivity of the infected specimen.
  • Sporulation begins (reproduction of the fungal spores), and tiny spots appear on leaves.
  • Placement is often random and scattered as diseases are spread through raindrops.
  • May appear on lower leaves and the interior of the plant where humidity is higher.
  • Brown spots enlarge and grow large enough to touch neighboring spots to form a more prominent blotch.
  • Leaf margins may turn yellow.
  • Tiny black dots (fruiting bodies of the fungi) appear in the dead spots.
  • Blotches grow in size until the entire leaf is brown.
  • The leaf falls off the plant.
Severe Symptoms
  • Partial or complete premature defoliation
  • Reduced growth
  • Increased susceptibility to pests and other diseases
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
Brown spot, or leaf spot, is a common descriptive term given to several diseases affecting the leaves of plants and trees. Around 85% of diseases exhibiting leaf spots are due to fungus or fungus-like organisms. Sometimes brown spot is caused by a bacterial infection, or insect activity with similar symptoms.
When conditions are warm and the leaf surfaces are wet, fungal spores being transported by wind or rain land on the surface and cling to it. They do not rupture the cell walls but grow in the space between the plant plasma membrane and the plant cell wall. As the spores reproduce, they release toxins and enzymes that cause necrotic spots (i.e., dead tissue) on the leaves, allowing the fungi to consume the products released when the cells degrade.
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Black spot
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Black spot
Infection by the black spot pathogen causes black spots or patches to appear on leaves.
Overview
Overview
Black spot is a fungus that largely attacks leaves on a variety of ornamental plants, leaving them covered in dark spots ringed with yellow, and eventually killing them. The fungus is often simply unsightly, but if it infects the whole plant it can interfere with photosynthesis by killing too many leaves. Because of this, it is important to be aware of the best methods for preventing and treating this diseases should it occur in the garden.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Here are a few of the most common symptoms of black spot:
  • The plant has developed small black spots along the leaves.
  • These spots be small, circular, and clustered together, or they may have a splotchy appearance and take up large portions of the leaves.
  • The fungus may also affect plant canes, where lesions start purple and then turn black.
  • The plant may suffer premature leaf drop.
Though most forms of black spot fungus pose little risk to a plant's overall health, many gardeners find them unsightly. Severe cases can also weaken a plant, so it becomes more susceptible to other pathogens and diseases.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
Black spot is spread by various types of fungi, which differ slightly depending on whether they are in their sexual or asexual stages.
The fungal spores linger over the winter in fallen leaves and lesions on canes. In the spring, the spores are splashed up onto the leaves, causing infection within seven hours of moisture and when temperatures range between 24 to 29 ℃ with a high relative humidity.
In just two weeks, thousands of additional spores are produced, making it easy for the disease to infect nearby healthy plants as well.
There are several factors that could make a plant more likely to suffer a black spot infection. Here are some of the most common:
  • Exposure to infected plants or mulch (the fungus overwinters on dead leaves)
  • Weakening from physical damage, pest infestation or other infections.
  • Increased periods of wet, humid, warm weather – or exposure to overhead watering
  • Plants growing too close together
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Leaf beetles
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Leaf beetles
Leaf beetles are a class of colored insects 1 to 2 cm in size. They gnaw on leaves and petals resulting in small, round holes scattered over the surface.
Overview
Overview
Leaf beetles range in size from 1.5 mm to 2 cm. Both adult beetles and their larvae eat the leaves of many different types of plants. There are over 35,000 different species of leaf beetles, in a variety of colors including gold, green, yellow-striped, and red striped. Some of these have been mistaken for ladybirds because of their shape and coloring. They can be oval, round, or elongated in shape. These insect pests are most active in spring and summer.
If not controlled, leaf beetles can do a lot of damage to vegetable crops and ornamental plants. They feed on the leaves, flowers, stems, roots, and fruits of different plants. They can fly, which means it's easy for them to move from one plant to another. Some species of leaf beetles only target one specific crop, while others will target many different types of plants. Although a lot of the damage that they cause is cosmetic, an infestation can weaken a plant and leave it prone to other more problematic diseases.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
The first signs of a leaf beetles infestation are small visible holes in leaves. Leaves then become discolored and dark beetle droppings can be seen. As the leaves turn yellow and brown, they will drop off the plant onto the ground. Some leaves will appear skeletonized with only the veins still remaining.
Infestation begins in spring, when the adult beetles emerge from the soil and lay their eggs on the leaves of plants. When these eggs hatch, the young nymphs start munching on the leaves as they grow up. Once leaf beetles are large and mature, they'll fall to the ground and pupate in the soil over winter before starting the cycle all over again.
Leaf beetles also eat holes in fruits and vegetables. These can be seen as small round holes that sometimes have a larger brown area surrounding them.
Solutions
Solutions
For less serious cases:
  1. Remove beetles, nymphs, and eggs. Remove all life stages of the beetles and kill them by placing them in a bucket of warm, soapy water. This can be done more easily by placing the bucket under affected leaves and shaking the plant. This method is most effective in the afternoon when leaf beetles are more active. Always dispose of insects in a sealed bag or container to avoid escape and spread.
To treat more serious infestations:
  1. Apply organic insecticides. Use naturally-derived insecticides before moving on to synthetic insecticides. Neem oil and pyrethrum are naturally-derived insecticides that should be applied following label instructions.
  2. Apply synthetic insecticides. Examples of insecticides effective for leaf beetles include carbaryl, permethrin, and bifenthrin. Apply insecticides according to label instructions.
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Caterpillars
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Caterpillars
Caterpillars are fleshy moth or butterfly larvae that come in an array of colors, patterns, and even hairstyles. They chew on leaves and flower petals, creating large, irregular holes.
Overview
Overview
Caterpillars can cause problems for home gardeners. If not managed, these insects can defoliate a plant in just a matter of days. However, home gardeners face a challenge because these caterpillars eventually turn into beautiful butterflies and moths, which are important for pollination and the general ecosystem.
There are thousands of different species of caterpillars and many will only target certain plants. If caterpillars are posing a problem, they can be removed by hand, or gardeners can use insect-proof netting to protect their valuable plants.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Caterpillars are the larvae of butterflies and moths. During the warmer months, butterflies and moths that visit gardens will lay their eggs on the underside of leaves.
When the tiny eggs hatch, the young larvae emerge and start feeding on the leaves of the plant. Depending on how many larvae have hatched, they can easily defoliate the plant in a very short period of time. Caterpillars will shed their skin as they grow, around 4 or 5 times during this feeding cycle.
Symptoms of caterpillars eating plants appear as holes in the leaves. The edges of the leaves may be eaten away as well, and flowers can be affected as well.
Some are easy to see, but others need to be searched for. This is because their bodies are often camouflaged to look like part of the plant. Gardeners need to look carefully along the stems of the plant as well as under the leaves. Also, look for tiny white, yellow, or brown eggs that can be found in groups on the underside of leaves.
Once the caterpillar is fully grown, it transforms into a pupa or chrysalis. Then, after a period of time that varies according to the species, a butterfly or moth will emerge from the pupa and the cycle begins again.
Solutions
Solutions
Even though caterpillars are diverse, they all chew on plant parts and can cause significant damage if present in large numbers.
For severe cases:
  1. Apply insecticide. For an organic solution, spray plants with a Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), which specifically affects the larval stage of moths and butterflies. Be sure to coat plants, since caterpillars need to ingest Bt for it to be effective. This will not harm other insects.
  2. Spray a chili extract. Chili seeds can be cooked in water to make a spicy spray that caterpillars don't like. Spray this mixture on the plants, but be aware it will also be spicy to humans.
  3. Introduce beneficial insects. Release beneficial insects to the garden that eat caterpillars, such as parasitic wasps.
For less severe cases:
  1. Hand pick. Using gloves, pick off caterpillars on plants and dispose of them in a bucket of soapy water.
  2. Dust plants with diatomaceous earth. This powder is harmless to humans but irritates caterpillars. Therefore, it will make it difficult for caterpillars to move and eat.
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Aged yellow and dry
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Aged yellow and dry
Natural aging can cause leaves to turn yellow and dry out.
Overview
Overview
Regardless of the type of plant or where it is grown, at some point, it will begin to aged yellow and dry. This is a natural, unavoidable process that happens when the plant has completed all of the steps in its life.
Annual plants go through this process at the end of a single growing season. Perennial plants live for multiple years, if not tens or hundreds of years, but will still ultimately exhibit these symptoms.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
When plants have progressed through their natural developmental stages and are nearing the end of their lifecycle, they begin showing signs of decline. Leaves will start to yellow and droop, and over time they turn papery brown and dry.
Once completely dry, the leaves begin to fall from the plant until the entire plant has dried out.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
At the end of its life, genetic coding within the plant increases the production of ethylene, a phytohormone that controls senescence or natural aging and death. Cell division stops, and the plant begins catabolizing resources to use in other parts of the plant.
As this happens, the tissues begin yellow and drying until the entire plant is desiccated and perishes.
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More About Japanese Persimmon

Plant Type
Plant Type
Tree
Lifespan
Lifespan
Perennial
Spread
Spread
10 to 13 m
Bloom Time
Bloom Time
Late spring, Early summer, Mid summer
Flower Color
Flower Color
Yellow
Cream
Leaf Color
Leaf Color
Green
Yellow
Red
Orange
Flower Size
Flower Size
2 to 2.5 cm
Plant Height
Plant Height
10 to 14 m

Name story

Japanese persimmon
The genus name, Diospyros, is a mashup of Greek words meaning "divine wheat" or "divine grain," and is meant to highlight the fruit's heavenly flavor. "Kaki," the word used as the specific epithet when japanese persimmon was given its scientific name, is simply the Japanese word for the plant.

Usages

Garden Use
Japanese persimmon is a deciduous fruit and ornamental tree famous and widely grown for its oval, vibrantly orange, edible fruits. Besides the fruit, it is cultivated for its ornamental value - its finely shaped canopy has elongated, dark green leaves that turn yellow, orange, and reddish-purple in the autumn. There are separate male and female japanese persimmon trees in most cases, so make sure you have both in your garden or neighborhood if you plan on collecting fruits.
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Common Problems

Why is japanese persimmon prone to having its flowers and fruits fall off early? What preventative measures can I take?

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The variety you are growing can influence this. However, it could also be related to certain cultivation and care conditions, such as poor soil and infrequent fertilization. These can cause the tree to become weak, with its flowering organs under-developing. Your climate can play a part too, as can pests and diseases.
Control measures include improving the management of fertilizer and water, thinning in the summer, stripping the skin of the main branch, and spraying gibberellic acid during its flowering period. You can also spray treatment agents to eliminate pests and diseases.

Why do the leaves of japanese persimmon turn yellow, with burnt edges?

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This is often due to poor light transmission. When leaves and branches are too dense during the growth process, the leaves receive insufficient light. The branches can be thinned to maintain permeability. A lack of fertilizer can also cause the leaves to turn yellow. Make sure that you are applying a nitrogen fertilizer at the right time, as well as topping this up with a phosphorus and potassium fertilizer in appropriate amounts.
The plant is susceptible to anthracnose, persimmon angular spot, powdery mildew, and a number of other diseases, all of which can also cause the yellowing of leaves and burnt edges. Additionally, if the plant is in a dry state for a long time, meaning that it hasn't been given enough water, the leaves will also turn yellow with burnt edges. Try to keep the soil consistently moist to prevent this.
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Caring for a New Plant

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The following pictures and instructions for fruit plant are aimed to help your plants adapt and thrive in a new environment.
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1
Picking a Healthy Fruit Plant
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Check Its Health

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Whole Plant
Symmetrical crown, evenly distributed branches, full and compact shape, no excessive growth, close internodes, and uniform leaf size.
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Fruits
The fruit is closely attached and does not fall off easily when shaken. No disease spots.
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Branches
The branches are not withered, and the trunk is free of boreholes or damage.
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Stems
No mold, browning or soft rot at the base of the plant.
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Leaves
Check the inside of the plant, shaded and overlapping areas, back of leaves. Even colour, no yellowing, no brown spots, no crawling insects, no cobwebs, no deformities, no wilting.
health-trouble

Health Troubleshooting

Whole Plant
trouble-image
more 1 Asymmetrical crown or missing, uneven branching: prune the weak and slender branches of the larger portion of the asymmetrical crown, then trim the overgrown larger branches.
trouble-image
more 2 Internodes are longer in the upper part, leaves are sparse and smaller on top: increase light intensity or duration.
Fruits
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more 1 Fruit drops easily: provide the plant with adequate light, but avoid direct sunlight during the afternoon. Be careful not to over-water or allow the soil to become too dry.
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more 2 Spots or disease on the fruit: avoid getting water on the fruit. When watering, avoid wetting the fruit as much as possible.
Branches
trouble-image
more 1 Dry branches: check if the branch is still alive by peeling back a small section of bark and trim away any dry branches. Watch out for signs of insect infestation inside the branch.
trouble-image
more 2 Bark with holes: inject insecticide into the holes and apply systemic insecticide to the roots.
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more 3 Damaged bark: brush on a wound-healing agent, and avoid getting it wet.
Stems
trouble-image
Mildew, browning, or soft rot at the base: place the plant in a ventilated, dry environment and water with fungicide.
Leaves
trouble-image
more 1 Uneven leaf color and yellowing: prune yellow leaves and check if there are signs of rot at the base of the plant. Spray with fungicide for severe cases.
trouble-image
more 2 Brown spots or small yellow spots: place the plant in a ventilated area and avoid watering the leaves. Spray with fungicide for severe cases.
trouble-image
more 3 Tiny crawling insects on the back of leaves or spider webs between leaves: increase light exposure and spray with insecticide for severe cases.
trouble-image
more 4 Deformations or missing parts on leaves: determine if it's physical damage or pest infestation. Linear or tearing damage is physical, while the rest are pests. Spray with insecticide.
trouble-image
more 5 Wilting leaves: provide partial shade and avoid excessive sun exposure. Remove 1/3 to 1/2 of the leaves for severe cases.
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Check Its Growing Conditions

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Soil Check
Soil should smell fresh like after a rain and no musty odor.
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Light Check
Check the light requirement of the plant and if it match with planting location.
check
Ventilation Check
Ensure good ventilation.
check
Temperature Check
Ensure outdoor temperature is suitable for plants.
condition-trouble

Condition Troubleshooting

check
Soil
Potting mix soil, Peat moss mix soil
Soil smells musty or foul: check the root system for decay, place the plant in a ventilated, dry environment, and water with fungicide.
check
Ideal Temperature
-10℃ to 35℃
Temperature is too low: Temporarily move the plants indoors and then to outdoors when temperature is suitable.
check
Ventilation
Well Ventilated
Non-ventilated environment: can lead to root rot, diseases, and flower/fruit drop. Place the plants in an airy location avoiding dead spots.
check
Suitable Light
Full sun, Partial sun
Insufficient light: reduce light appropriately during flowering period but not a fully shaded environment. After flowering, move to normal cultivation environment. For plants with long flowering and fruiting periods, provide normal light to avoid shortening.
Transplant recovery: After transplanting, pot plants should be temporarily shaded, then moved to normal light after a week if no abnormal drop or wilting. In-ground plants, shade for a week and then transfer to normal light or just pay attention to watering.
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2
Adapting Your New Fruit Plant
Step 1
condition-image
Repotting
Potted plants - Wait until flowering and fruiting stage is over before changing pots. In-ground plants - Plant directly taking care not to harm root system or remove soil.
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Step 2
condition-image
Pruning
Prune residual flowers, yellow/dead leaves. No other pruning at this time.
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Step 3
condition-image
Watering
Water appropriately. Water more frequently for newly transplanted or purchased plants to keep the soil consistently moist for at least 2 weeks. Avoid overwatering, do not water when there is water on your finger after touching the soil. Both underwatering and overwatering can cause plants to drop their flowers or fruit.
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Step 4
condition-image
Fertilizing
Don't fertilize just after purchase. Fertilize after 2 weeks using half concentration.
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main-image
Japanese Persimmon
label-image
Repotting
Repotting potted plants: Wait until flowering/fruiting ends. Repotting in-ground plants: Be careful not to harm roots/soil.
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Pruning
Prune residual flowers, and yellow/dead leaves. No other pruning at this time.
label-image
Watering
Water new plants more often for 2 weeks. Avoid over/under watering by checking the soil.
label-image
Fertilizing
Don't fertilize just after purchase. Fertilize after 2 weeks using half concentration.
label-image
Sunlight
Long flowering/fruiting plants need normal light. Shade transplants for a week, then move to normal light.
label
main-image
Japanese Persimmon
label-image
Repotting
Repotting potted plants: Wait until flowering/fruiting ends. Repotting in-ground plants: Be careful not to harm roots/soil.
label-image
Pruning
Prune residual flowers, and yellow/dead leaves. No other pruning at this time.
label-image
Watering
Water new plants more often for 2 weeks. Avoid over/under watering by checking the soil.
label-image
Fertilizing
Don't fertilize just after purchase. Fertilize after 2 weeks using half concentration.
label-image
Sunlight
Long flowering/fruiting plants need normal light. Shade transplants for a week, then move to normal light.
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Japanese persimmon
Japanese persimmon
Japanese persimmon
Japanese persimmon
Japanese persimmon

How to Care for Japanese Persimmon

The japanese persimmon tree adds interest and flavor to your edible landscape. These deciduous trees are easy to grow, but do not tolerate very cold temperatures. Blooms appear in mid-spring, and the distinctive persimmon fruit and brightly colored foliage last through the fall. Japanese persimmon fruit can be eaten raw or cooked. They have been cultivated for over 2,000 years in China.
symbolism

Symbolism

Changing sex, Healing, Luck
Water
Every 1-2 weeks
Water
Sunlight
Full sun
Sunlight Sunlight detail
care_basic_guide

Basic Care Guide

Cultivation:WaterDetail

How to Water Japanese persimmon?

Cultivation:WaterDetail
Watering is key at 4 different points throughout the year: pre-germination, the new branch growth period, the fruit expansion period, and before the soil freezes. You will also need to irrigate the soil during dry spells. Don't forget to pay attention to drainage during the rainy season; this is important to prevent waterlogging and to keep the moisture content of the soil relatively stable.
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What's the best method to water my Japanese persimmon?
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How much water do I need to give my Japanese persimmon?
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Cultivation:FertilizerDetail

How to Fertilize Japanese persimmon?

Cultivation:FertilizerDetail
Base fertilizer: Mainly based on decomposed organic fertilizer and supplemented with a chemical fertilizer. For best results, mix with an appropriate amount of a phosphorus and potassium fertilizer. The amount of base fertilizer applied should account for more than 80% of the total fertilization for the whole year.
Topdressing: A nitrogen fertilizer should be applied when new branches are growing on young trees, and a combination of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers should be applied during the fruit swelling period. Phosphorus and potassium fertilizers are mainly applied during the fruit coloring period. If conditions permit, some soil should be collected for composition analysis, so that the fertilizer ratio provided to the plant can be prepared according to the soil report.
Foliar feeding: When new shoots appear, spray them 3-4 times during their growing period. You can also combine this with pest and disease control measures. Spray a 300-fold dilution of urea during the early growth stage of the fruit, and a 300-500-fold dilution of monopotassium phosphate or others at the later stage.
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Fertilizer

Japanese persimmon is generally grown in order to produce edible fruit, and requires ample nutrients to be able to yield the most fruit with the best flavor. Without enough nutrients, the leaves and flowers may be underdeveloped, and the Japanese persimmon fails to thrive overall. This is why many gardeners prefer to fertilize.
The growth of plants continues to deplete the soil of nutrients, especially those of the fast growing types. So regular fertilization to give Japanese persimmon some extra supply of nutrients will not only help it stay healthy, but will also allow it to grow more and more delicious fruit.
Plants may face many problems if they have not been fertilized for a long time. Nutrient deficiency can cause foliage issues, most commonly yellow leaves. Leaves may also develop a reddish color, shape deformities, withered tips, or dieback across large portions of the plant. Some types of nutrient deficiency can cause bark disorders, slow growth, poor shoot development, and a lack of fruit production.
The best time to fertilize is in the early spring, before the buds emerge. As Japanese persimmon energes from winter dormancy, it uses the reserves that were stored up over the winter to put out new growth. Lots of energy will be needed to support the development of blooms, so fertilizing about 2 to 4 weeks before you expect it to bloom provides enough time for the nutrients to soak into the soil and then be absorbed and dispersed throughout the plant.You can continue to feed Japanese persimmon during the spring, but it is best not to fertilize in the autumn because this can cause too much foliage to develop late in the season. That makes the leaves susceptible to damage in winter.
Usually the use of some fertilizer with balanced nutrition (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) can bring many benefits. The main nutrients that plants need are nitrogen for leaf growth and chlorophyll. Phosphorus supports the root system as well as to produce blossoms, fruits, and seeds. Potassium develops the systems used for photosynthesis and transporting water and nutrients throughout the plant.You may choose to use a commercial fertilizer specialized for a certain type of tree, or you can use organic nitrogen sources such as manure, feather meal, or blood meal. Conducting a soil test can help you get a good idea of the condition of your soil and apply fertilizer more precisely. For commercial fertilizers, you could use a balanced granular fertilizer with an NPK of 10-10-10 or similar if your soil does not have sufficient phosphorus and potassium according to your soil test. In most cases the nitrogen in the soil is continuously lost with rainfall. If your soil has sufficient levels of phosphorus and potassium, a high-nitrogen fertilizer with a ratio of 6-2-1 or 10-2-2 would be more suitable.Always follow directions for the specific type of fertilizer and do research on how to use it for the Japanese persimmon you are growing.
Granular fertilizers and organic fertilizers such as blood meal are applied by sprinkling the substance around the base of the tree all the way to the drip line (the space below the farthest-reaching branches) but do not let fertilizer come in contact with the trunk. Over time, the granules break down and filter into the soil to be absorbed into the roots. After fertilizing, spread an inch-deep layer of compost around the base of the tree and water thoroughly.
It is far better to under-fertilize than over-fertilize, since you can always add more but you cannot easily take away excess fertilizer. Over-fertilizing your Japanese persimmon may cause brown leaf tips and edges, yellowing, wilting leaves, and possibly a visible crust of fertilizer salts on the surface of the soil around the plant. This condition is called fertilizer burn and results from too many accumulated salts in the plant’s cells. If excess nitrogen is the issue, the Japanese persimmon will produce a lot of leaves but won’t grow much fruit since nitrogen supports foliage growth.
Avoid fertilizing Japanese persimmon at all in the first year of growth, and be cautious about providing fertilizer if it is not necessary. You also should not fertilize if you pruned 20% of the plant or more the previous year. Hold off on fertilizing plants that are diseased or damaged, as this can do more harm than good. Remember that fertilizer is not medicine, and instead get to the root cause of the issue before you think about feeding the plant again.Do not fertilize after the peak of summer, which can cause too much growth just before winter. Also, Japanese persimmon should not be fertilized during hot and dry times of year, since dry soil does not deliver fertilizer as effectively as moist soil. Fertilizing at this time can also stimulate growth which in turn needs more water that may not be available. It is best to keep fertilizer for earlier in the season when temperatures are cooler. Finally, remember that Japanese persimmon can absorb fertilizer that has been applied to nearby plants or lawns, so be cautious about inadvertently giving plants a double-dose of fertilizer.
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Why do I need to fertilize my Japanese persimmon?
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Cultivation:SunlightDetail

What Are the Sunlight Requirements for Japanese persimmon?

Cultivation:SunlightDetail
Japanese persimmon prefers a sunny environment and should be planted on sun-facing slopes that receive plenty of light. If there is insufficient light, the fruits and flowers will fall early. This will also cause a thick and rough rind, lowered sugar content, and poor quality fruit. With enough light, the branches will develop fully and have a strong branching ability, while flower buds will form easily, giving you more flowers and a high fruiting rate. Sufficient light will give you good quality fruit with a thin skin and sweet flesh.
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Can sunlight damage Japanese persimmon? How to protect Japanese persimmon from the sun and heat damage?
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Does Japanese persimmon need to avoid sun exposure? / Should I protect Japanese persimmon from the sun?
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Cultivation:PruningDetail

How to Prune Japanese persimmon?

Cultivation:PruningDetail
Pruning is best carried out in the late winter, when the plant is still dormant, but additional pruning may also be needed during the growing season. When pruning in the winter, focus on thinning out branches, keeping fruit-producing limbs evenly spaced out. Remove dead branches, as well as those growing at improper angles, and cut off any suckers too. This is also the time to cut back tall branches to make fruit-harvesting easier - any new shoots will grow below where the branch was cut. Additional pruning will depend on the shape and style of tree you are going for.
A central leader system is the most common way to train japanese persimmon. Choose a healthy shoot at the center of the tree, and then remove any others that grow near it. In the winter, cut your central leader back by a third, and tie back any competing branches.
A trellis encourages productive growth, with shoots trained over frames to help support the weight of the fruit. Pruning each branch isn't necessary when using a trellis, but you will need to bend branches in the direction you want them to grow.
Do I need to prune my Japanese persimmon?
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Advanced Care Guide

Cultivation:WaterAndHardinessDetail

What is the Ideal Temperature Range for Japanese persimmon?

Cultivation:WaterAndHardinessDetail
Most of the plants in the Diospyros genus grow happily with the ideal temperature for growth being 13 to 19 ℃. During dormancy, the plant can tolerate the cold, withstanding a temperature of -14 ℃ for a short period of time. When the winter temperature drops below -15 ℃ to -20 ℃ , the tops of the branches will be susceptible to frost damage, and the whole plant could even freeze to death.
The plants prefer a humid climate and can be cultivated in areas with an annual precipitation of 40 to 150 cm. The root system of japanese persimmon is large and widely distributed, with a strong capacity for water absorption and a relatively high tolerance for drought. Attention should be paid to drainage during the rainy season, and irrigation should be carried out during dry spells in the summer and fall.
What is the optimal temperature for Japanese persimmon?
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Should I adjust the temperature for Japanese persimmon during different growing phases?
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How can I keep Japanese persimmon warm in cold seasons?
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What damage will Japanese persimmon suffer if the temperature is too high/low?
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Cultivation:SoilDetail

What Soil is Best for Japanese persimmon?

Cultivation:SoilDetail
Deep sandy soil, loam, or low-lying land with good drainage is ideal for growing japanese persimmon. Flat terrain is also preferred, as is a soil pH of 6.5-7.5 with medium fertility.
Cultivation:PropagationDetail

How to Propagate Japanese persimmon?

Cultivation:PropagationDetail
Grafting period and method: Branch or bud grafting should be carried out when the rootstock germinates in the spring. Management of grafted seedlings: Remove newly sprouted buds immediately after grafting. Grafted seedlings should be regularly watered during their rapid growth period (usually late spring) when the soil is dry and a nitrogen fertilizer along with a phosphorus and potassium fertilizer should be applied at the same time. Towards the end of the summer control the supply of fertilizer and water. Carry out a foliar application of a phosphorus and potassium fertilizer 2-3 times in fall to prevent seedlings from spindling. In areas prone to frost damage remove the top buds of new shoots.
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Propagation

Grafting is the most common way to propagate fruit trees, which can help you get plants with good flavor and yield in the shortest possible time.
While the precise timing for when you should graft a plant will vary based on the type of plant in question, it is generally best to graft most plants from late winter to early spring. It is also crucial to ensure that the plant onto which you are attaching your scion is in a stage of active growth. The seedlings that have just started to grow cannot be grafted until it's 2 years old.
Anyone who wants to graft a plant will be wise to set themselves up with the best tools for the job before they get started. Here is a quick list of the items you’ll need to graft a plant.
What you will need:
  1. A sharp cutting tool, preferably a grafting knife
  2. Diluted bleach solution or isopropyl alcohol to clean tools
  3. Grafting wax
  4. Twine or string
  5. Grafting tape
Steps:
The size of the understock determines which of the two basic types of grafting teachniques should be used in propagation. A graft may be made to join a nearly equal sized scion and understock together, or several small scions to a larger understock as in cleft or bark grafting.
Grafts with similar scion and understock sizes
Step 1: Remove a branch with a few healthy buds on it as scions. The understock needs to be selected from seedlings of good varieties. The scion and the understock should be of the similar size of thickness.
Step 2: Cutting the stock and scion. Create similar slanted cuts at the bottom of the scion and the top of stock. Split the incision along the longitudinal direction in the middle of the bevel of the understock and scion body for better contact of the incision.
Step 3: Match up the cuts on the scion and the rootstock.
Step 4: Use your twine to secure the connection between the branch and the rootstock. Consider applying grafting wax to protect the wounds.
Grafts with small scions and large understocks
Step 1: Remove a branch with a few healthy buds on it as scions. The understock needs to be selected from seedlings of good varieties and needs to be larger than the the scion. The scion should preferably be a branch over one year old.
Step 2: After removing the leaves and buds from the understock seedling stem. Use a razor blade to make avertical cut from the stem cross-section from the tip. The bottom of the scion should be cut in the shape of a wedge. A slight outward tilt of the scion facilitates wound contact. Leaving a maximum of 3 buds at the end and cut off excess buds on the top.
Step 3: Match up the cuts on the grafted branch and the rootstock.
Step 4: Consider applying grafting wax to protect the wounds.
Step 5: Wrap the graft with grafting tape to protect it while it heals.
Caution: Grafting between the same species is usually successful. Grafting between different genera is occasionally successful. And grafting between families usually cannot be performed.
It can also be propagated by the means of layering.
Pay attention to the age of the branch you want to propagate to know when to start air layering. If you're working with a branch that is old-growth, preferably from the previous year’s growth, spring is the best time for layering. If your chosen branch is new growth, mid-summer is your best bet. These warm months are the best time to encourage new root growth in your plants. A pencil-thick branch could be a good choice.
Since air layering is a little more complicated than other types of layering, you’ll need a few extra tools before you begin the process. Make sure you have everything on hand and then begin!
  1. A sharp, sanitized knife
  2. Peat moss for wrapping
  3. Plastic wrap for wrapping
  4. Rubber bands or twist ties
  5. (optional) aluminum foil
  6. (optional) plant growth hormones
Steps:
Step 1: Choose a thick upper stem and clear off the leaves around a chosen node.
Step 2: Below this node, ring peel the plant to a length of 0.5 to 1 inches, completely stripping the bark of the plant. It is necessary to pay attention to safety of the plant when ring stripping.
Step 3: Apply moist (not wet) peat moss to the cut area. Hold the moss in place by tightly wrapping the area with plastic wrap and ties. Apply an extra layer of aluminum foil for sun protection if needed.
Step 4: Remove the stem for propagation once the peat moss is visibly filled with roots. Make sure the wrapped moss is moist during rooting. Use a syringe to inject water if you find that the peat moss is already dry.
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Cultivation:PlantingDetail

How to Plant Japanese persimmon?

Cultivation:PlantingDetail
Early spring is the ideal planting time for japanese persimmon. In the fall, collect mature fruits that are pure, well-developed, and have no pests and diseases. Remove their flesh and impurities, and then wash and dry the seeds. The following spring, store the seeds in a dry environment or in sand (stratification) before planting. Once the seeds are completely dry, place them in wooden boxes or cloth bags, and store in a cool, ventilated and dry environment. Seeds that are stored in sand should be kept at temperatures of 3 to 9 ℃ for 60-90 days.
Sowing should be carried out when the temperature of the soil reaches 8 to 10 ℃. Before sowing, seeds that have been stored in a dry environment should be soaked in warm water (about 65 ℃) for 5 minutes, and stirred thoroughly. Then, the seeds should be soaked in clean water until they have fully swollen. Seeds that have been stored in sand can be sown directly. Row spacing should be 30 cm, with a depth of 2 to 3 cm. After covering with soil, flatten the soil slightly and layer on a mulch.
Transplant seedlings after they have grown 5 leaves. The length, width, and depth of the planting holes should not be less than 80 cm. Thoroughly mix the soil with an organic fertilizer, and then apply this to each hole. Then, fill a portion of the hole with soil and plant the seedlings after irrigating. When transplanting, ensure that the root system is fully stretched, and the seedlings are upright. After transplanting, compact the soil slightly, water it, and then seal and cover the holes with a plastic film. The roots of the seedlings should be level with the ground.
Cultivation:HarvestDetail

How to Harvest Japanese persimmon?

Cultivation:HarvestDetail
Once the fruit is at the most suitable level of maturity or reaches the inherent color and hardness of its variety, it can be harvested. Begin picking from the outer crown, before moving on to the inner crown. Always start with the lower layer before the upper layer. Cut the entire fruit stem when harvesting, and try to keep the fruit intact.
PlantCare:TransplantSummary

How to Transplant Japanese persimmon?

PlantCare:TransplantSummary
For optimal growth, transplant japanese persimmon during the rejuvenating period of early spring, as this helps prevent transplant shock. Choose a sunny location with well-draining soil. Gently tease the roots when transplanting, to encourage healthy root development.
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More Info on Japanese Persimmon Growth and Care

Basic Care Guide
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Seasonal Care Tips

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Spring

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Summer

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Fall

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Winter

This plant and other temperate fruiting trees and shrubs require care in the early spring.

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Prune back old growth but wait until after the last frost.
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Spring is also the best time for planting, but do not fertilize new plants. Mature specimens will benefit from a monthly application of organic fertilizer.
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Water the plant deeply every couple of weeks.
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Container plants require sunlight in the spring. Move the container to a location receiving several hours of sunlight a day.

Fruiting temperate trees and shrubs like this plant benefit from care during the summer.

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A monthly application of organic fertilizer throughout the summer helps to support growth and encourage fruiting.
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Keep an eye on soil moisture, watering whenever the soil is beginning to dry out.
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Remove any dead and dying leaves from the plant and around the base to help avoid issues with pests and diseases.
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Prune back old growth to help avoid potential issues with broken branches.
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Move container plants to a partially shady location if they are in a consistently sunny area.

You should provide frequent care to your plant throughout the fall.

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Up until your plant reaches dormancy in the cold winter months, continue to water it in cases of little to no rainfall to ensure the soil stays moist and the plant stays productive.
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Make sure it received plenty of direct sun as well.
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Fertilize it once at the beginning of fall, with a citrus fertilizer, then stop fertilizing and pruning during this season, especially as winter approaches. This will help your plant enter winter dormancy more easily.
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Rake up any fallen fall foliage to deter pests and diseases, as bacteria can easily grow in the fallen leaves at the base of the plant.

While your plant is dormant in the winter, let it rest. You’ll need to provide only minimal care at this time.

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Water your plant infrequently, providing it with water it only after the soil dries out to avoid waking it up.
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At the very end of winter, before new growth begins, prune away dead, diseased, or overcrowded branches to jumpstart fresh growth in the spring.
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If you have a potted variety, you can overwinter it indoors in bright sunlight, and you can possibly enjoy the harvest from your plant throughout the season.
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Common Pests & Diseases

Common issues for Japanese persimmon based on 10 million real cases
Brown spot
Brown spot Brown spot Brown spot
This infection can cause brown spots or patches to appear on the plant.
Solutions: In minor cases of brown spot, there isn’t any need to treat the disease. However, if much of the foliage is affected and defoliation occurs, the plant will benefit from getting rid of the infection. It is recommended to start by applying organic treatment options, working up to the more potent synthetic, chemical fungicides if necessary. Organic options won’t kill the fungus, but will prevent it from spreading. Dissolve ½ teaspoon of baking soda and one teaspoon of liquid soap in a gallon of water. Using a spray bottle, spray on tops and bottoms of leaves until the mixture drips off. Repeat every two weeks until existing spots stop enlarging and new spots no longer appear. Spray a copper-based fungicidal soap on the leaves, coating the top and bottom leaf surfaces. Reapply as directed on the product label. Copper penetrates the leaf surface and prevents germination of spores so the fungus cannot spread. Apply an all-purpose fungicide to the entire plant, following the label instructions carefully.
Learn More About the Brown spot more
Black spot
Black spot Black spot Black spot
Infection by the black spot pathogen causes black spots or patches to appear on leaves.
Solutions: Some steps to take to address black spot include: Prune away any infected leaves, cleaning the pruners between plants with a 10% bleach solution so that the fungus does not spread to healthy leaves. Don't compost pruned plant parts as the spores can linger in the soil for a long period of time - instead, dispose of them in the trash. Use an approved fungicide such as Trifloxystrobin, Chlorothalonil, Maneb, or Myclobutanil. Use a spreader in the fungicide spray to ensure better coverage.
Learn More About the Black spot more
Leaf beetles
Leaf beetles Leaf beetles Leaf beetles
Leaf beetles are a class of colored insects 1 to 2 cm in size. They gnaw on leaves and petals resulting in small, round holes scattered over the surface.
Solutions: For less serious cases: Remove beetles, nymphs, and eggs. Remove all life stages of the beetles and kill them by placing them in a bucket of warm, soapy water. This can be done more easily by placing the bucket under affected leaves and shaking the plant. This method is most effective in the afternoon when leaf beetles are more active. Always dispose of insects in a sealed bag or container to avoid escape and spread. To treat more serious infestations: Apply organic insecticides. Use naturally-derived insecticides before moving on to synthetic insecticides. Neem oil and pyrethrum are naturally-derived insecticides that should be applied following label instructions. Apply synthetic insecticides. Examples of insecticides effective for leaf beetles include carbaryl, permethrin, and bifenthrin. Apply insecticides according to label instructions.
Learn More About the Leaf beetles more
Caterpillars
Caterpillars Caterpillars Caterpillars
Caterpillars are fleshy moth or butterfly larvae that come in an array of colors, patterns, and even hairstyles. They chew on leaves and flower petals, creating large, irregular holes.
Solutions: Even though caterpillars are diverse, they all chew on plant parts and can cause significant damage if present in large numbers. For severe cases: Apply insecticide. For an organic solution, spray plants with a Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), which specifically affects the larval stage of moths and butterflies. Be sure to coat plants, since caterpillars need to ingest Bt for it to be effective. This will not harm other insects. Spray a chili extract. Chili seeds can be cooked in water to make a spicy spray that caterpillars don't like. Spray this mixture on the plants, but be aware it will also be spicy to humans. Introduce beneficial insects. Release beneficial insects to the garden that eat caterpillars, such as parasitic wasps. For less severe cases: Hand pick. Using gloves, pick off caterpillars on plants and dispose of them in a bucket of soapy water. Dust plants with diatomaceous earth. This powder is harmless to humans but irritates caterpillars. Therefore, it will make it difficult for caterpillars to move and eat.
Learn More About the Caterpillars more
Aged yellow and dry
Aged yellow and dry Aged yellow and dry Aged yellow and dry
Natural aging can cause leaves to turn yellow and dry out.
Solutions: If the yellowing and drying of leaves and flowers is a natural progression due to age, nothing can be done to slow or stop the process. Once hormones within the plant begin the process of senescence, it’s irreversible.
Learn More About the Aged yellow and dry more
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Brown spot
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Brown spot
This infection can cause brown spots or patches to appear on the plant.
Overview
Overview
Discolored spots on the foliage of plants are one of the most common disease problems people observe. These spots are caused by fungal and bacterial diseases, with most infections related to a fungal pathogen.
Brown spot can occurs on all houseplants, flowering ornamentals, vegetable plants, and leaves of trees, bushes, and shrubs. No plants are resistant to it, and the problem is worse in warm, wet environments. It can occur at any point in the life stage as long as leaves are present.
Small brownish spots appear on the foliage and enlarge as the disease progresses. In severe cases, the plant or tree is weakened when the lesions interrupt photosynthesis or cause defoliation.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
In most cases, brown spot only affects a small percentage of the whole plant, appearing on a small amount of the leaves. A small infection only puts minor stress on the plant. However, if left untreated and the disease progresses over numerous seasons, it will severely impact the health and productivity of the infected specimen.
  • Sporulation begins (reproduction of the fungal spores), and tiny spots appear on leaves.
  • Placement is often random and scattered as diseases are spread through raindrops.
  • May appear on lower leaves and the interior of the plant where humidity is higher.
  • Brown spots enlarge and grow large enough to touch neighboring spots to form a more prominent blotch.
  • Leaf margins may turn yellow.
  • Tiny black dots (fruiting bodies of the fungi) appear in the dead spots.
  • Blotches grow in size until the entire leaf is brown.
  • The leaf falls off the plant.
Severe Symptoms
  • Partial or complete premature defoliation
  • Reduced growth
  • Increased susceptibility to pests and other diseases
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
Brown spot, or leaf spot, is a common descriptive term given to several diseases affecting the leaves of plants and trees. Around 85% of diseases exhibiting leaf spots are due to fungus or fungus-like organisms. Sometimes brown spot is caused by a bacterial infection, or insect activity with similar symptoms.
When conditions are warm and the leaf surfaces are wet, fungal spores being transported by wind or rain land on the surface and cling to it. They do not rupture the cell walls but grow in the space between the plant plasma membrane and the plant cell wall. As the spores reproduce, they release toxins and enzymes that cause necrotic spots (i.e., dead tissue) on the leaves, allowing the fungi to consume the products released when the cells degrade.
Solutions
Solutions
In minor cases of brown spot, there isn’t any need to treat the disease. However, if much of the foliage is affected and defoliation occurs, the plant will benefit from getting rid of the infection. It is recommended to start by applying organic treatment options, working up to the more potent synthetic, chemical fungicides if necessary.
Organic options won’t kill the fungus, but will prevent it from spreading.
  1. Dissolve ½ teaspoon of baking soda and one teaspoon of liquid soap in a gallon of water. Using a spray bottle, spray on tops and bottoms of leaves until the mixture drips off. Repeat every two weeks until existing spots stop enlarging and new spots no longer appear.
  2. Spray a copper-based fungicidal soap on the leaves, coating the top and bottom leaf surfaces. Reapply as directed on the product label. Copper penetrates the leaf surface and prevents germination of spores so the fungus cannot spread.
  3. Apply an all-purpose fungicide to the entire plant, following the label instructions carefully.
Prevention
Prevention
Like many other diseases, it is easier to prevent brown spot than cure it, and this is done through cultural practices.
  • Clear fall leaves from the ground before winter to minimize places where fungi and bacteria can overwinter.
  • Maintain good air movement between plants through proper plant spacing.
  • Increase air circulation through the center of plants through pruning.
  • Thoroughly clean all pruning tools after working with diseased plants.
  • Never dispose of disease plant material in a compost pile.
  • Avoid overhead watering to keep moisture off of the foliage.
  • Keep plants healthy by providing adequate sunlight, water, and fertilizer.
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Black spot
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Black spot
Infection by the black spot pathogen causes black spots or patches to appear on leaves.
Overview
Overview
Black spot is a fungus that largely attacks leaves on a variety of ornamental plants, leaving them covered in dark spots ringed with yellow, and eventually killing them. The fungus is often simply unsightly, but if it infects the whole plant it can interfere with photosynthesis by killing too many leaves. Because of this, it is important to be aware of the best methods for preventing and treating this diseases should it occur in the garden.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Here are a few of the most common symptoms of black spot:
  • The plant has developed small black spots along the leaves.
  • These spots be small, circular, and clustered together, or they may have a splotchy appearance and take up large portions of the leaves.
  • The fungus may also affect plant canes, where lesions start purple and then turn black.
  • The plant may suffer premature leaf drop.
Though most forms of black spot fungus pose little risk to a plant's overall health, many gardeners find them unsightly. Severe cases can also weaken a plant, so it becomes more susceptible to other pathogens and diseases.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
Black spot is spread by various types of fungi, which differ slightly depending on whether they are in their sexual or asexual stages.
The fungal spores linger over the winter in fallen leaves and lesions on canes. In the spring, the spores are splashed up onto the leaves, causing infection within seven hours of moisture and when temperatures range between 24 to 29 ℃ with a high relative humidity.
In just two weeks, thousands of additional spores are produced, making it easy for the disease to infect nearby healthy plants as well.
There are several factors that could make a plant more likely to suffer a black spot infection. Here are some of the most common:
  • Exposure to infected plants or mulch (the fungus overwinters on dead leaves)
  • Weakening from physical damage, pest infestation or other infections.
  • Increased periods of wet, humid, warm weather – or exposure to overhead watering
  • Plants growing too close together
Solutions
Solutions
Some steps to take to address black spot include:
  • Prune away any infected leaves, cleaning the pruners between plants with a 10% bleach solution so that the fungus does not spread to healthy leaves.
  • Don't compost pruned plant parts as the spores can linger in the soil for a long period of time - instead, dispose of them in the trash.
  • Use an approved fungicide such as Trifloxystrobin, Chlorothalonil, Maneb, or Myclobutanil.
  • Use a spreader in the fungicide spray to ensure better coverage.
Prevention
Prevention
Here are a few tips to prevent black spot outbreaks.
  • Purchase resistant varieties: Invest in fungus-resistant plant varieties to reduce the chances for black spot diseases.
  • Remove infected plant debris: Fungi can overwinter in contaminated plant debris, so remove all fallen leaves from infected plants as soon as possible.
  • Rake and discard fallen leaves in the fall.
  • Prune regularly.
  • Water carefully: Fungal diseases spread when plants stay in moist conditions and when water droplets splash contaminated soil on plant leaves. Control these factors by only watering infected plants when the top few inches of soil are dry, and by watering at soil level to reduce splashback. Adding a layer of mulch to the soil will also reduce splashing.
  • Grow plants in an open, sunny locations so the foliage dries quickly.
  • Follow spacing guidelines when planting and avoid natural windbreaks for good air circulation.
  • Use chemical control: Regular doses of a fungicide, especially in the spring, can stop an outbreak before it begins.
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Leaf beetles
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Leaf beetles
Leaf beetles are a class of colored insects 1 to 2 cm in size. They gnaw on leaves and petals resulting in small, round holes scattered over the surface.
Overview
Overview
Leaf beetles range in size from 1.5 mm to 2 cm. Both adult beetles and their larvae eat the leaves of many different types of plants. There are over 35,000 different species of leaf beetles, in a variety of colors including gold, green, yellow-striped, and red striped. Some of these have been mistaken for ladybirds because of their shape and coloring. They can be oval, round, or elongated in shape. These insect pests are most active in spring and summer.
If not controlled, leaf beetles can do a lot of damage to vegetable crops and ornamental plants. They feed on the leaves, flowers, stems, roots, and fruits of different plants. They can fly, which means it's easy for them to move from one plant to another. Some species of leaf beetles only target one specific crop, while others will target many different types of plants. Although a lot of the damage that they cause is cosmetic, an infestation can weaken a plant and leave it prone to other more problematic diseases.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
The first signs of a leaf beetles infestation are small visible holes in leaves. Leaves then become discolored and dark beetle droppings can be seen. As the leaves turn yellow and brown, they will drop off the plant onto the ground. Some leaves will appear skeletonized with only the veins still remaining.
Infestation begins in spring, when the adult beetles emerge from the soil and lay their eggs on the leaves of plants. When these eggs hatch, the young nymphs start munching on the leaves as they grow up. Once leaf beetles are large and mature, they'll fall to the ground and pupate in the soil over winter before starting the cycle all over again.
Leaf beetles also eat holes in fruits and vegetables. These can be seen as small round holes that sometimes have a larger brown area surrounding them.
Solutions
Solutions
For less serious cases:
  1. Remove beetles, nymphs, and eggs. Remove all life stages of the beetles and kill them by placing them in a bucket of warm, soapy water. This can be done more easily by placing the bucket under affected leaves and shaking the plant. This method is most effective in the afternoon when leaf beetles are more active. Always dispose of insects in a sealed bag or container to avoid escape and spread.
To treat more serious infestations:
  1. Apply organic insecticides. Use naturally-derived insecticides before moving on to synthetic insecticides. Neem oil and pyrethrum are naturally-derived insecticides that should be applied following label instructions.
  2. Apply synthetic insecticides. Examples of insecticides effective for leaf beetles include carbaryl, permethrin, and bifenthrin. Apply insecticides according to label instructions.
Prevention
Prevention
To prevent infestations of leaf beetles, follow these practices.
  1. Regularly check for beetles. To prevent large pest infestations, be proactive about frequently checking plants for pests and removing them quickly.
  2. Clear debris. Clear weeds and debris to remove areas where these beetles may overwinter and hide.
  3. Attract natural predators. Birds and other insects, such as wasps and ladybugs, are effective natural predators of leaf beetles. Encourage them to visit by including a diverse array of plants to provide habitat and food. Also, avoid applying broad-spectrum herbicides that can harm and kill beneficial insects.
  4. Plant aromatic herbs like mint, garlic, or rosemary, as these can repel leaf beetles.
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Caterpillars
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Caterpillars
Caterpillars are fleshy moth or butterfly larvae that come in an array of colors, patterns, and even hairstyles. They chew on leaves and flower petals, creating large, irregular holes.
Overview
Overview
Caterpillars can cause problems for home gardeners. If not managed, these insects can defoliate a plant in just a matter of days. However, home gardeners face a challenge because these caterpillars eventually turn into beautiful butterflies and moths, which are important for pollination and the general ecosystem.
There are thousands of different species of caterpillars and many will only target certain plants. If caterpillars are posing a problem, they can be removed by hand, or gardeners can use insect-proof netting to protect their valuable plants.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Caterpillars are the larvae of butterflies and moths. During the warmer months, butterflies and moths that visit gardens will lay their eggs on the underside of leaves.
When the tiny eggs hatch, the young larvae emerge and start feeding on the leaves of the plant. Depending on how many larvae have hatched, they can easily defoliate the plant in a very short period of time. Caterpillars will shed their skin as they grow, around 4 or 5 times during this feeding cycle.
Symptoms of caterpillars eating plants appear as holes in the leaves. The edges of the leaves may be eaten away as well, and flowers can be affected as well.
Some are easy to see, but others need to be searched for. This is because their bodies are often camouflaged to look like part of the plant. Gardeners need to look carefully along the stems of the plant as well as under the leaves. Also, look for tiny white, yellow, or brown eggs that can be found in groups on the underside of leaves.
Once the caterpillar is fully grown, it transforms into a pupa or chrysalis. Then, after a period of time that varies according to the species, a butterfly or moth will emerge from the pupa and the cycle begins again.
Solutions
Solutions
Even though caterpillars are diverse, they all chew on plant parts and can cause significant damage if present in large numbers.
For severe cases:
  1. Apply insecticide. For an organic solution, spray plants with a Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), which specifically affects the larval stage of moths and butterflies. Be sure to coat plants, since caterpillars need to ingest Bt for it to be effective. This will not harm other insects.
  2. Spray a chili extract. Chili seeds can be cooked in water to make a spicy spray that caterpillars don't like. Spray this mixture on the plants, but be aware it will also be spicy to humans.
  3. Introduce beneficial insects. Release beneficial insects to the garden that eat caterpillars, such as parasitic wasps.
For less severe cases:
  1. Hand pick. Using gloves, pick off caterpillars on plants and dispose of them in a bucket of soapy water.
  2. Dust plants with diatomaceous earth. This powder is harmless to humans but irritates caterpillars. Therefore, it will make it difficult for caterpillars to move and eat.
Prevention
Prevention
Prevention may require less effort than attempts to eradicate infestations that have already begun. Here are our top steps for prevention:
  1. Monitor plants. Check plants regularly for caterpillar eggs on leaves. If they do not belong to an endangered species, they should be squished.
  2. Use insect netting. Cover plants with insect netting to prevent butterflies and moths from laying eggs on plants.
  3. Apply diatomaceous earth. Apply DE to plants early in the season and reapply after rain.
  4. Encourage plant diversity. This will attract predatory insects including parasitic wasps.
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Aged yellow and dry
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Aged yellow and dry
Natural aging can cause leaves to turn yellow and dry out.
Overview
Overview
Regardless of the type of plant or where it is grown, at some point, it will begin to aged yellow and dry. This is a natural, unavoidable process that happens when the plant has completed all of the steps in its life.
Annual plants go through this process at the end of a single growing season. Perennial plants live for multiple years, if not tens or hundreds of years, but will still ultimately exhibit these symptoms.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
When plants have progressed through their natural developmental stages and are nearing the end of their lifecycle, they begin showing signs of decline. Leaves will start to yellow and droop, and over time they turn papery brown and dry.
Once completely dry, the leaves begin to fall from the plant until the entire plant has dried out.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
At the end of its life, genetic coding within the plant increases the production of ethylene, a phytohormone that controls senescence or natural aging and death. Cell division stops, and the plant begins catabolizing resources to use in other parts of the plant.
As this happens, the tissues begin yellow and drying until the entire plant is desiccated and perishes.
Solutions
Solutions
If the yellowing and drying of leaves and flowers is a natural progression due to age, nothing can be done to slow or stop the process. Once hormones within the plant begin the process of senescence, it’s irreversible.
Prevention
Prevention
Unfortunately, there is no way to prevent plants from dying of “old age.” To help prolong their life, and put off symptoms of aged yellow and dry for as long as possible, take care of them by giving them enough water, fertilizing them appropriately, and making sure they get enough sunlight.
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More About Japanese Persimmon

Plant Type
Plant Type
Tree
Lifespan
Lifespan
Perennial
Spread
Spread
10 to 13 m
Bloom Time
Bloom Time
Late spring, Early summer, Mid summer
Flower Color
Flower Color
Yellow
Cream
Leaf Color
Leaf Color
Green
Yellow
Red
Orange
Flower Size
Flower Size
2 to 2.5 cm
Plant Height
Plant Height
10 to 14 m

Name story

Japanese persimmon
The genus name, Diospyros, is a mashup of Greek words meaning "divine wheat" or "divine grain," and is meant to highlight the fruit's heavenly flavor. "Kaki," the word used as the specific epithet when japanese persimmon was given its scientific name, is simply the Japanese word for the plant.

Usages

Garden Use
Japanese persimmon is a deciduous fruit and ornamental tree famous and widely grown for its oval, vibrantly orange, edible fruits. Besides the fruit, it is cultivated for its ornamental value - its finely shaped canopy has elongated, dark green leaves that turn yellow, orange, and reddish-purple in the autumn. There are separate male and female japanese persimmon trees in most cases, so make sure you have both in your garden or neighborhood if you plan on collecting fruits.
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Common Problems

Why is japanese persimmon prone to having its flowers and fruits fall off early? What preventative measures can I take?

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The variety you are growing can influence this. However, it could also be related to certain cultivation and care conditions, such as poor soil and infrequent fertilization. These can cause the tree to become weak, with its flowering organs under-developing. Your climate can play a part too, as can pests and diseases.
Control measures include improving the management of fertilizer and water, thinning in the summer, stripping the skin of the main branch, and spraying gibberellic acid during its flowering period. You can also spray treatment agents to eliminate pests and diseases.

Why do the leaves of japanese persimmon turn yellow, with burnt edges?

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This is often due to poor light transmission. When leaves and branches are too dense during the growth process, the leaves receive insufficient light. The branches can be thinned to maintain permeability. A lack of fertilizer can also cause the leaves to turn yellow. Make sure that you are applying a nitrogen fertilizer at the right time, as well as topping this up with a phosphorus and potassium fertilizer in appropriate amounts.
The plant is susceptible to anthracnose, persimmon angular spot, powdery mildew, and a number of other diseases, all of which can also cause the yellowing of leaves and burnt edges. Additionally, if the plant is in a dry state for a long time, meaning that it hasn't been given enough water, the leaves will also turn yellow with burnt edges. Try to keep the soil consistently moist to prevent this.
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Caring for a New Plant

new-plant
The following pictures and instructions for fruit plant are aimed to help your plants adapt and thrive in a new environment.
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1
Picking a Healthy Fruit Plant
check-health

Check Its Health

part
Whole Plant
Symmetrical crown, evenly distributed branches, full and compact shape, no excessive growth, close internodes, and uniform leaf size.
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Fruits
The fruit is closely attached and does not fall off easily when shaken. No disease spots.
part
Branches
The branches are not withered, and the trunk is free of boreholes or damage.
more
Stems
No mold, browning or soft rot at the base of the plant.
more
Leaves
Check the inside of the plant, shaded and overlapping areas, back of leaves. Even colour, no yellowing, no brown spots, no crawling insects, no cobwebs, no deformities, no wilting.
health-trouble

Health Troubleshooting

Whole Plant
Fruits
Branches
Stems
Leaves
more
more 1 Asymmetrical crown or missing, uneven branching: prune the weak and slender branches of the larger portion of the asymmetrical crown, then trim the overgrown larger branches.
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more 2 Internodes are longer in the upper part, leaves are sparse and smaller on top: increase light intensity or duration.
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more 1 Fruit drops easily: provide the plant with adequate light, but avoid direct sunlight during the afternoon. Be careful not to over-water or allow the soil to become too dry.
more
more 2 Spots or disease on the fruit: avoid getting water on the fruit. When watering, avoid wetting the fruit as much as possible.
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more 1 Dry branches: check if the branch is still alive by peeling back a small section of bark and trim away any dry branches. Watch out for signs of insect infestation inside the branch.
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more 2 Bark with holes: inject insecticide into the holes and apply systemic insecticide to the roots.
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more 3 Damaged bark: brush on a wound-healing agent, and avoid getting it wet.
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Mildew, browning, or soft rot at the base: place the plant in a ventilated, dry environment and water with fungicide.
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more 1 Uneven leaf color and yellowing: prune yellow leaves and check if there are signs of rot at the base of the plant. Spray with fungicide for severe cases.
more
more 2 Brown spots or small yellow spots: place the plant in a ventilated area and avoid watering the leaves. Spray with fungicide for severe cases.
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more 3 Tiny crawling insects on the back of leaves or spider webs between leaves: increase light exposure and spray with insecticide for severe cases.
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more 4 Deformations or missing parts on leaves: determine if it's physical damage or pest infestation. Linear or tearing damage is physical, while the rest are pests. Spray with insecticide.
more
more 5 Wilting leaves: provide partial shade and avoid excessive sun exposure. Remove 1/3 to 1/2 of the leaves for severe cases.
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Check Its Growing Conditions

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Soil Check
Soil should smell fresh like after a rain and no musty odor.
more
Light Check
Check the light requirement of the plant and if it match with planting location.
more
Ventilation Check
Ensure good ventilation.
more
Temperature Check
Ensure outdoor temperature is suitable for plants.
condition-trouble

Condition Troubleshooting

Soil
Ideal Temperature
Ventilation
Suitable Light
check
Potting mix soil, Peat moss mix soil
Soil
Soil smells musty or foul: check the root system for decay, place the plant in a ventilated, dry environment, and water with fungicide.
check
-10℃ to 35℃
Ideal Temperature
Temperature is too low: Temporarily move the plants indoors and then to outdoors when temperature is suitable.
check
Well Ventilated
Ventilation
Non-ventilated environment: can lead to root rot, diseases, and flower/fruit drop. Place the plants in an airy location avoiding dead spots.
check
Full sun, Partial sun
Suitable Light
Insufficient light: reduce light appropriately during flowering period but not a fully shaded environment. After flowering, move to normal cultivation environment. For plants with long flowering and fruiting periods, provide normal light to avoid shortening.
Transplant recovery: After transplanting, pot plants should be temporarily shaded, then moved to normal light after a week if no abnormal drop or wilting. In-ground plants, shade for a week and then transfer to normal light or just pay attention to watering.
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2
Adapting Your New Fruit Plant
Step 1
condition-image
Repotting
Potted plants - Wait until flowering and fruiting stage is over before changing pots. In-ground plants - Plant directly taking care not to harm root system or remove soil.
Step 2
condition-image
Pruning
Prune residual flowers, yellow/dead leaves. No other pruning at this time.
Step 3
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Watering
Water appropriately. Water more frequently for newly transplanted or purchased plants to keep the soil consistently moist for at least 2 weeks. Avoid overwatering, do not water when there is water on your finger after touching the soil. Both underwatering and overwatering can cause plants to drop their flowers or fruit.
Step 4
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Fertilizing
Don't fertilize just after purchase. Fertilize after 2 weeks using half concentration.
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Lighting
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Indoor
Indoor
Outdoor
Choose a site here for personalized care tips.
Requirements
Full sun
Ideal
Above 6 hours sunlight
Partial sun
Tolerance
About 3-6 hours sunlight
Watch how sunlight gracefully moves through your garden, and choose spots that provide the perfect balance of light and shade for your plants, ensuring their happiness.
Essentials
Japanese persimmon's growth thrives when exposed to abundant daily sunlight. Sufficient light promotes its healthy development and fruiting. In its native environment, it is accustomed to basks in generous sun. However, it can also manage well with a relative degree of sun exposure, though it may impact growth and yield. Both excessive or inadequate light can stress the plant.
Preferred
Tolerable
Unsuitable
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Artificial lighting
Indoor plants require adequate lighting for optimal growth. When natural sunlight is insufficient, particularly in winter or in less sunny spaces, artificial lights offer a vital solution, promoting faster, healthier growth.
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Indoor plants require adequate lighting for optimal growth. When natural sunlight is insufficient, particularly in winter or in less sunny spaces, artificial lights offer a vital solution, promoting faster, healthier growth.
1. Choose the right type of artificial light: LED lights are a popular choice for indoor plant lighting because they can be customized to provide the specific wavelengths of light that your plants need.
Full sun plants need 30-50W/sq ft of artificial light, partial sun plants need 20-30W/sq ft, and full shade plants need 10-20W/sq ft.
2. Determine the appropriate distance: Place the light source 12-36 inches above the plant to mimic natural sunlight.
3. Determine the duration: Mimic the length of natural daylight hours for your plant species. most plants need 8-12 hours of light per day.
Important Symptoms
Insufficient light
Japanese persimmon thrives in full sunlight but is sensitive to heat. As a plant commonly grown outdoors with abundant sunlight, it may exhibit subtle symptoms of light deficiency when placed in rooms with suboptimal lighting.
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(Symptom details and solutions)
Small leaves
New leaves may grow smaller in size compared to the previous ones once they have matured.
Leggy or sparse growth
The spaces between leaves or stems of your japanese persimmon may become longer, resulting in a thin and stretched-out appearance. This can make the plant look sparse and weak, and it may easily break or lean due to its own weight.
Faster leaf drop
When plants are exposed to low light conditions, they tend to shed older leaves early to conserve resources. Within a limited time, these resources can be utilized to grow new leaves until the plant's energy reserves are depleted.
Slower or no new growth
Japanese persimmon enters a survival mode when light conditions are poor, which leads to a halt in leaf production. As a result, the plant's growth becomes delayed or stops altogether.
Lighter-colored new leaves
Insufficient sunlight can cause leaves to develop irregular color patterns or appear pale. This indicates a lack of chlorophyll and essential nutrients.
Solutions
1. To ensure optimal growth, gradually move plants to a sunnier location each week, until they receive at least 6 hours of direct sunlight daily. Use a south-facing window and keep curtains open during the day for maximum sunlight exposure and nutrient accumulation.2. To provide additional light for your plant, consider using artificial light if it's large or not easily movable. Keep a desk or ceiling lamp on for at least 8 hours daily, or invest in professional plant grow lights for ample light.
Excessive light
Japanese persimmon thrives in full sun exposure but is sensitive to heat. Although sunburn symptoms occasionally occur, they are unable to withstand intense sunlight in high-temperature environments.
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(Symptom details and solutions)
Chlorosis
Chlorosis is a condition where the plant's leaves lose their green color and turn yellow. This is due to the breakdown of chlorophyll from excessive sunlight, which negatively affects the plant's ability to photosynthesize.
Sunscald
Sunscald occurs when the plant's leaves or stems are damaged by intense sunlight exposure. It appears as pale, bleached, or necrotic areas on the plant tissue and can reduce the plant's overall health.
Leaf Curling
Leaf curling is a symptom where leaves curl or twist under extreme sunlight conditions. This is a defense mechanism used by the plant to reduce its surface area exposed to sunlight, minimizing water loss and damage.
Wilting
Wilting occurs when a plant loses turgor pressure and its leaves and stems begin to droop. Overexposure to sunlight can cause wilting by increasing the plant's water loss through transpiration, making it difficult for the plant to maintain adequate hydration.
Leaf Scorching
Leaf scorching is a symptom characterized by the appearance of brown, dry, and crispy edges or patches on leaves due to excessive sunlight. This can lead to a reduction in photosynthetic capacity and overall plant health.
Solutions
1. Move your plant to the optimal position where it can receive abundant sunlight but also have some shade. An east-facing window is an ideal choice as the morning sunlight is gentler. This way, your plant can enjoy ample sunlight while reducing the risk of sunburn.2. It is recommended to trim off any completely dehydrated or withered parts of the plant.
Discover care info about seasonal tips, plant diseases, and more?
Temperature
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Outdoor
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Requirements
Ideal
Tolerable
Unsuitable
Just like people, each plant has its own preferences. Learn about your plants' temperature needs and create a comforting environment for them to flourish. As you care for your plants, your bond with them will deepen. Trust your intuition as you learn about their temperature needs, celebrating the journey you share. Lovingly monitor the temperature around your plants and adjust their environment as needed. A thermometer can be your ally in this heartfelt endeavor. Be patient and gentle with yourself as you explore your plants' temperature needs. Cherish your successes, learn from challenges, and nurture your garden with love, creating a haven that reflects the warmth of your care.
Essentials
The japanese persimmon prefers temperatures ranging from 50 to 100 ℉ (10 to 38 ℃), which is similar to its native growth environment. It is a temperate woody plant that can tolerate seasonal temperature changes. In winter, it can withstand mild freezing up to 15 ℉ (-9.4 ℃).
Regional wintering strategies
Japanese persimmon has strong cold resistance, so special frost protection measures are usually not necessary during winter. However, if the winter temperatures are expected to drop below {Limit_growth_temperature}, it is still important to provide cold protection. This can be achieved by wrapping the trunk and branches with materials such as non-woven fabric or cloth. Before the first freeze in autumn, it is recommended to water the plant abundantly, ensuring the soil remains moist and enters a frozen state. This helps prevent drought and water scarcity for the plant during winter and early spring.
Important Symptoms
Low Temperature
Japanese persimmon is cold-tolerant and thrives best when the temperature is above {Suitable_growth_temperature_min}. During winter, it should be kept above {Tolerable_growing_temperature_min}. When the temperature falls below {Limit_growth_temperature}, although there may not be any noticeable changes during winter, the branches may become brittle and dry during springtime, and no new shoots will emerge.
Solutions
In spring, prune away any dead branches that have failed to produce new leaves.
High Temperature
During summer, Japanese persimmon should be kept below {Suitable_growth_temperature_max}. When the temperature exceeds {Tolerable_growing_temperature_max}, the leaves of the plant may become lighter in color, the tips may become dry and withered, and the plant becomes more susceptible to sunburn.
Solutions
Trim away the sunburned and dried-up parts. Move the plant to a location that provides shade from the midday and afternoon sun, or use a shade cloth to create shade. Water the plant in the morning and evening to keep the soil moist.
Discover care info about seasonal tips, plant diseases, and more?
Transplant
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How to Successfully Transplant Japanese Persimmon?
For optimal growth, transplant japanese persimmon during the rejuvenating period of early spring, as this helps prevent transplant shock. Choose a sunny location with well-draining soil. Gently tease the roots when transplanting, to encourage healthy root development.
What Preparations are Needed Before Transplanting Japanese Persimmon?
What is the Ideal Time for Transplanting Japanese Persimmon?
The opening gambit of the year, or better said, 'early spring' is optimal for transplanting japanese persimmon. This period allows the plant adequate time to establish its roots before summer. Imagine japanese persimmon blooming in your garden, enhancing its beauty and providing delicious fruit because you transplanted it at the right time. So, what do you say? Let's give japanese persimmon a new home this early spring!
How Much Space Should You Leave Between Japanese Persimmon Plants?
For transplanting japanese persimmon, space them about 20 feet (6 meters) apart. This will give each plant enough room to grow and thrive without crowding or competing for resources.
What is the Best Soil Mix for Japanese Persimmon Transplanting?
To prepare the soil, choose a well-draining, loamy soil, and mix in a base fertilizer with a balanced N-P-K ratio. This will provide japanese persimmon with the essential nutrients for healthy growth.
Where Should You Relocate Your Japanese Persimmon?
Select a location with full sun or light shade for transplanting japanese persimmon. It thrives in areas with 6-8 hours of sunlight per day, helping it grow strong and produce bountiful fruit.
What Equipments Should You Prepare Before Transplantation Japanese Persimmon?
Shovel or Spade
To dig holes and lift the root ball of the japanese persimmon plant from its original location.
Pruning Shears
Necessary if you need to trim any overgrown roots or branches before transplanting.
Gardening Gloves
To protect your hands while working with the soil and japanese persimmon plant.
Watering Can
To water the japanese persimmon both before and after transplanting.
Gardening Fork
Useful for loosening the soil around the japanese persimmon while removing it from its original location.
How Do You Remove Japanese Persimmon from the Soil?
From Ground: To begin, thoroughly water the japanese persimmon plant to dampen and loosen the soil. Use a spade or shovel to carefully dig a wide trench around the plant, ensuring the root ball remains intact. Be gentle and patient when working the spade under the root ball to lift the plant out of the ground.
From Pot: Start by watering the japanese persimmon plant. Tip the pot sideways gently and while supporting the plant base, tap the edge of the pot on a hard surface. This action should slide the plant out along with its root ball. If the plant is stuck, you may have to cut the pot away.
From Seedling Tray: Gently grab the japanese persimmon by its leaves, not the stem, and tug it upwards. The seedling should come out with its roots and some soil attached. Handle it carefully as seedlings are a lot more fragile.
Step-by-Step Guide for Transplanting Japanese Persimmon
Step1 Preparation
Ensure the prepared hole is wide and deep enough for the japanese persimmon root ball, with space around for growth. The depth should be such that the plant is at the same level in the ground as it was in its previous location, not deeper.
Step2 Positioning
Carefully place your japanese persimmon in the hole, ensuring the root ball is centred and straight.
Step3 Backfilling
Slowly backfill the hole with soil, patting gently around the root ball to remove any air pockets.
Step4 Watering
Immediately after transplanting, water thoroughly. This first watering is crucial as it allows the soil to settle and reduces transplant shock.
How Do You Care For Japanese Persimmon After Transplanting?
RegularWatering
Keep the soil around the japanese persimmon consistently moist, but not soggy, for the first few weeks after transplanting to help the roots to establish.
Check for Pests/Diseases
Frequently inspect your transplanted japanese persimmon for any signs of pests or disease. If detected, treating early will give your plant a better chance of a healthy start in its new location.
Pruning
Avoid significant pruning right after transplanting, as this can stress the plant. However, removing any dead or diseased branches can help the japanese persimmon's overall health and focus on root development.
Troubleshooting Common Issues with Japanese Persimmon Transplantation.
When's the best time to transplant the japanese persimmon?
Transplanting japanese persimmon is best done as winter dwindles away, right at the brink of spring.
What is the ideal distance between two japanese persimmon plants during transplantation?
Ensure that the plants are spaced generously, preferably around 20 feet (6 meters) apart for optimal growth.
Do I need to prune the japanese persimmon before transplanting it?
Absolutely! You should trim back the branches to a length of about 6-8 inches (15-20 cm). This reduces water stress.
What soil type is best suited for the japanese persimmon during transplantation?
Japanese persimmon thrives best in well-draining, sandy or loamy soil. Make sure the soil is rich in organic matter.
How should I prepare the hole for japanese persimmon during transplantation?
Dig a hole twice the size of the root ball. This will give enough room for the roots to spread and establish.
How deep should the japanese persimmon be planted during transplantation?
The japanese persimmon should be planted at the same depth as it was in its original location. Too deep might lead to root rot.
How should I water japanese persimmon post-transplantation?
Water thoroughly right after transplanting, and then continue watering one to two times per week till the plant is established.
Should I add fertilizer while transplanting japanese persimmon?
While not necessary, a slow-release, low-nitrogen fertilizer can be added at planting time to support strong root development.
What should I do if my transplanted japanese persimmon begins to wilt?
First, check the moisture level of the soil. If dry, water it. If wet, let it dry out. Then, ensure it's getting proper sunlight.
How to protect the newly transplanted japanese persimmon from weather elements?
If heavy rain or harsh sunlight is expected, a temporary shelter might be beneficial. But remember, japanese persimmon thrives in ample sun!
Discover care info about seasonal tips, plant diseases, and more?
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