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Basic Care
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FAQ

How to Care for Blackthorn

Blackthorn (Prunus spinosa) is a large deciduous shrub species that is also commonly called a sloe. Blackthorn is indigenous to Europe, Asia, and Africa. In Britain, this species is used to make a liquor called sloe gin. In Ireland, its wood is made into walking sticks.
symbolism

Symbolism

Waning and Dark Moon
Water
Water
Every 2 weeks
Sunlight
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Full sun
Toxic to Pets
Blackthorn
Blackthorn
Blackthorn
Blackthorn
Blackthorn
care_basic_guide

Basic Care Guide

Cultivation:WaterDetail

How to Water Blackthorn?

You should water blackthorn and adjust the frequency of watering based on its stage of growth, the local weather, and the condition of the soil. Before budding (in mid-spring), it should be watered once. From mid-spring to just before the fall, it should be watered every month. It needs to be thoroughly watered each time you water it, until the water on the soil surface stops draining away. This will ensure that it has sufficient water for growth.
After watering, remember to loosen the soil and remove any weeds in a timely fashion. Stop watering in the autumn and especially in the winter, otherwise it will suffer from frost damage.
Cultivation:WaterDetail
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What's the best method to water my Blackthorn?
You might want to put a garden hose at the plant base to ensure that you're promoting excellent root development. Avoid directly spraying the leaves, and know that the leaves will require more watering if they are outdoors and facing direct sunlight. You can also use bubblers that you can put on to each plant to moisten the roots. Also, use soaker hoses that can cover the entire garden or bed when adding or removing plants to push the roots deeply. Drain any excess water and wait for the soil to dry before watering. Water at ground level to prevent diseases. On a sunny day, you might want to spray the entire bush with water. Whether potted or in-ground, please remember Blackthorn prefers deep watering over light sprinkling.
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What should I do if I water Blackthorn too much/too little?
An overwatered Blackthorn can start to have leaves that turn yellow, drop off and wilt. The plant can also look dull and unhealthy, with signs of mushy stems. When they are beginning to show these signs, it's best to adjust your schedule whenever possible.
The wilting can also be a sign of under watering as well. You might see that the leaves begin to turn crispy and dry while the overwatered ones will have soft wilted leaves. Check the soil when it is dry and watering is not enough, give it a full watering in time. Enough water will make the Blackthorn recover again, but the plant will still appear dry and yellow leaves after a few days due to the damaged root system. Once it return to normal, the leave yellowing will stop .
Always check the moisture levels at the pot when you have the Blackthorn indoors. Avoid overwatering indoors and see if there are signs of black spots. If these are present, let the soil dry in the pot by giving it a few days of rest from watering.
Overwatering can lead to root rot being present in your plant. If this is the case, you might want to transfer them into a different pot, especially if you see discolored and slimy roots. Always prevent root rot as much as possible, and don't let the soil become too soggy.
You should dig a little deeper when you plant your Blackthorn outdoors. When you check with your fingers and notice that the soil is too dry, it could mean underwatering. Adequate watering is required to help the plant recover.
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How often should I water my Blackthorn?
The Blackthorn likes deep and infrequent watering. You would want to soak them in a gallon of water each time, especially when they are planted in pots. The water storage of flower pots is limited and the soil will dry out faster. Watering is required every 3 to 5 days when living in a cold region. Water it early in the morning when the soil is dry, outdoors or indoors. You can also determine if watering is needed by checking the soil inside. When the top 2-3 inches of soil is dry, it is time to give the plant a full watering. During hot days, you may need to check the moisture daily, as the heat can quickly dry out the soil in the pot.
Irrigation of the soil is also required if you have a garden. When you live in a hot climate, you might want to water once a week. Only water when you notice that about 2 to 3 inches of soil become too dry outdoors or indoors. Consider the amount of rainwater on the plant and ensure not to add to it to prevent root rot.You may not need additional watering of the plants if there is a lot of rainfall.Blackthorn generally grows during spring and fall. When they are outdoors, you need to add mulch about 3 to 4 inches deep to conserve more water.
You need to water the plants more frequently in sandy soil because this type tends to drain faster. However, with the clay one, you need to water this less frequently where you could go for 2-3 days to dry the plant and not develop any root rot. You could mark the date on the calendar whenever you water and when you notice that the leaves are starting to droop. This can mean that you might be a day late.
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How much water do I need to give my Blackthorn?
The Blackthorn generally needs about a gallon of water each schedule,With the potted plants, you might want to water them deeply until you see that the water is dripping at the bottom of the pot. Then, wait for the soil to dry before watering them again. You can use a water calculator or a moisture meter to determine the amount you've given to your plant in a week. Provide plenty of water, especially in the flowering period, but let the moisture evaporate afterwards to prevent root rot.
If Blackthorn is planted outdoor with adequate rainfall, it may not need additional watering. When Blackthorn is young or newly planted, make sure it gets 1-2 inches of rain per week. As Blackthorn continues to grow, it can survive entirely on rainfall. Only when the weather is too hot, or when there is no rainfall at all for 2-3 weeks, then consider giving Blackthorn a full watering during the cooler moment of the day to prevent the plant from suffering from high heat damage. Additional watering will be required during persistent dry spells.
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Should I adjust the watering frequency for my Blackthorn according to different seasons or climates?
The Blackthorn needs outdoors come from rain, with only persistent dry weather requiring watering. Throughout the spring and fall growing seasons, the soil needs to be kept moist but not soggy, and alternating dry and moist soil conditions will allow the Blackthorn to grow well. Throughout the summer, hot weather can cause water to evaporate too quickly, and if there is a lack of rainfall, you will need to water more frequently and extra to keep it moist.
Usually, the Blackthorn will need less water during the winter. Since the Blackthorn will drop their leaves and go dormant, you can put them into a well-draining but moisture-retentive soil mixture like the terracotta to help the water evaporate quicker. Once your Blackthorn growing outdoors begins to leaf out and go dormant, you can skip watering altogether and in most cases Blackthorn can rely on the fall and winter rains to survive the entire dormant period.
After the spring, you can cultivate your Blackthorn and encourage it to grow and bloom when the temperature becomes warmer.This plant is not generally a fan of ponding or drought when flowering. You must ensure that the drainage is good at all times, especially during the winter.
When the plant is in a pot, the plant has limited root growth. Keep them well-watered, especially if they are planted in pots during summer. They don't like cold and wet roots, so provide adequate drainage, especially if they are still growing.
It's always best to water your Blackthorn’s diligently. Get the entire root system into a deep soak at least once or twice a week, depending on the weather. It's best to avoid shallow sprinkles that reach the leaves since they generally encourage the growth of fungi and don't reach deep into the roots. Don't allow the Blackthorn’s to dry out completely in the fall or winter, even if they are already dormancy.
Don't drown the plants because they generally don't like sitting in water for too long. They can die during winter if the soil does not drain well. Also, apply mulch whenever possible to reduce stress, conserve water, and encourage healthy blooms.
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What should I be careful with when I water my Blackthorn in different seasons, climates, or during different growing periods?
If planting in the ground, Blackthorn mostly relies on rain. However, if there is no rainfall for 2-3 weeks, you may need to give proper consideration to giving the plants a deep watering. If watering Blackthorn in summer, you should try to do it in the morning. A large temperature difference between the water temperature and the root system can stress the roots. You need to avoid watering the bushes when it's too hot outside. Start mulching them during the spring when the ground is not too cold.
The age of the plants matter. Lack of water is one of the most common reasons the newly planted ones fail to grow. After they are established, you need to ease off the watering schedule.
Reduce watering them during the fall and winter, especially if they have a water-retaining material in the soil. The dry winds in winter can dry them out, and the newly planted ones can be at risk of drought during windy winter, summer, and fall. Windy seasons mean that there's more watering required. The ones planted in the pot tend to dry out faster, so they need more watering. Once you see that they bloom less, the leaves begin to dry up.
Potted plants are relatively complex to water and fluctuate in frequency. Always be careful that the pot-planted plant don't sit in the water. Avoid putting them in containers with saucers, bowls, and trays. Too much watering in the fall can make the foliage look mottled or yellowish. It's always a good idea to prevent overwatering them regardless of the current climate or season that you might have. During the months when Blackthorn begins to flower, you might want to increase the watering frequency but give it a rest once they are fully grown.
Give them an adequate amount of water once every 3 to 5 days but don't give them regular schedules. Make sure the soil is dry by sticking your finger in the pot, or use a moisture meter if you're unsure if it's the right time. Too much root rot can cause them to die, so be careful not to overwater or underwater regardless of the climate or season you have in your area.
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Why is watering my Blackthorn important?
Watering the Blackthorn helps transport the needed nutrients from the soil to the rest of the plant. The moisture will keep this species healthy if you know how much water to give. The watering requirements will depend on the weather in your area and the plant's soil.
The Blackthorn thrives on moist soil, but they can't generally tolerate waterlogging. Ensure to provide enough mulch when planted on the ground and never fall into the trap of watering too little. They enjoy a full can of watering where the water should be moist at the base when they are planted in a pot to get the best blooms.
If they are grown as foliage, you need to water them up to a depth of 10 to 20 inches so they will continue to grow. If it's raining, refrain from watering and let them get the nutrients they need from the rainwater.
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Cultivation:FertilizerDetail

How to Fertilize Blackthorn?

Blackthorn likes to be fertilized. A sufficient amount of fertilizer will ensure that it grows healthily and bears fruit. Organic fertilizer is usually used for its base fertilizer. When applying fertilizer, dig a circular trench around the external circumference of the tree crown, at a depth of 38 cm and a width of 28 cm. Apply the fertilizer evenly throughout the trench, then backfill the soil.
Fertilizer should be applied twice a year, the first time prior to blooming, to supply nutrients for the flowers, and the second time when the fruit is growing larger, to supply nutrients for fruit growth and to increase the yield.

Fertilizer

Blackthorn is generally grown in order to produce edible fruit, and requires ample nutrients to be able to yield the most fruit with the best flavor. Without enough nutrients, the leaves and flowers may be underdeveloped, and the Blackthorn fails to thrive overall. This is why many gardeners prefer to fertilize.
The growth of plants continues to deplete the soil of nutrients, especially those of the fast growing types. So regular fertilization to give Blackthorn some extra supply of nutrients will not only help it stay healthy, but will also allow it to grow more and more delicious fruit.
Plants may face many problems if they have not been fertilized for a long time. Nutrient deficiency can cause foliage issues, most commonly yellow leaves. Leaves may also develop a reddish color, shape deformities, withered tips, or dieback across large portions of the plant. Some types of nutrient deficiency can cause bark disorders, slow growth, poor shoot development, and a lack of fruit production.
The best time to fertilize is in the early spring, before the buds emerge. As Blackthorn energes from winter dormancy, it uses the reserves that were stored up over the winter to put out new growth. Lots of energy will be needed to support the development of blooms, so fertilizing about 2 to 4 weeks before you expect it to bloom provides enough time for the nutrients to soak into the soil and then be absorbed and dispersed throughout the plant.You can continue to feed Blackthorn during the spring, but it is best not to fertilize in the autumn because this can cause too much foliage to develop late in the season. That makes the leaves susceptible to damage in winter.
Usually the use of some fertilizer with balanced nutrition (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) can bring many benefits. The main nutrients that plants need are nitrogen for leaf growth and chlorophyll. Phosphorus supports the root system as well as to produce blossoms, fruits, and seeds. Potassium develops the systems used for photosynthesis and transporting water and nutrients throughout the plant.You may choose to use a commercial fertilizer specialized for a certain type of tree, or you can use organic nitrogen sources such as manure, feather meal, or blood meal. Conducting a soil test can help you get a good idea of the condition of your soil and apply fertilizer more precisely. For commercial fertilizers, you could use a balanced granular fertilizer with an NPK of 10-10-10 or similar if your soil does not have sufficient phosphorus and potassium according to your soil test. In most cases the nitrogen in the soil is continuously lost with rainfall. If your soil has sufficient levels of phosphorus and potassium, a high-nitrogen fertilizer with a ratio of 6-2-1 or 10-2-2 would be more suitable.Always follow directions for the specific type of fertilizer and do research on how to use it for the Blackthorn you are growing.
Granular fertilizers and organic fertilizers such as blood meal are applied by sprinkling the substance around the base of the tree all the way to the drip line (the space below the farthest-reaching branches) but do not let fertilizer come in contact with the trunk. Over time, the granules break down and filter into the soil to be absorbed into the roots. After fertilizing, spread an inch-deep layer of compost around the base of the tree and water thoroughly.
It is far better to under-fertilize than over-fertilize, since you can always add more but you cannot easily take away excess fertilizer. Over-fertilizing your Blackthorn may cause brown leaf tips and edges, yellowing, wilting leaves, and possibly a visible crust of fertilizer salts on the surface of the soil around the plant. This condition is called fertilizer burn and results from too many accumulated salts in the plant’s cells. If excess nitrogen is the issue, the Blackthorn will produce a lot of leaves but won’t grow much fruit since nitrogen supports foliage growth.
Avoid fertilizing Blackthorn at all in the first year of growth, and be cautious about providing fertilizer if it is not necessary. You also should not fertilize if you pruned 20% of the plant or more the previous year. Hold off on fertilizing plants that are diseased or damaged, as this can do more harm than good. Remember that fertilizer is not medicine, and instead get to the root cause of the issue before you think about feeding the plant again.Do not fertilize after the peak of summer, which can cause too much growth just before winter. Also, Blackthorn should not be fertilized during hot and dry times of year, since dry soil does not deliver fertilizer as effectively as moist soil. Fertilizing at this time can also stimulate growth which in turn needs more water that may not be available. It is best to keep fertilizer for earlier in the season when temperatures are cooler. Finally, remember that Blackthorn can absorb fertilizer that has been applied to nearby plants or lawns, so be cautious about inadvertently giving plants a double-dose of fertilizer.
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Cultivation:FertilizerDetail
Why do I need to fertilize my Blackthorn?
The growth of plants continues to deplete the soil of nutrients, especially those of the fast growing types. So regular fertilization to give Blackthorn some extra supply of nutrients will not only help it stay healthy, but will also allow it to grow more and more delicious fruit. Plants may face many problems if they have not been fertilized for a long time. Nutrient deficiency can cause foliage issues, most commonly yellow leaves. Leaves may also develop a reddish color, shape deformities, withered tips, or dieback across large portions of the plant. Some types of nutrient deficiency can cause bark disorders, slow growth, poor shoot development, and a lack of fruit production.
Read More more
When is the best time to fertilize my Blackthorn?
The best time to fertilize is in the early spring, before the buds emerge. As Blackthorn energes from winter dormancy, it uses the reserves that were stored up over the winter to put out new growth. Lots of energy will be needed to support the development of blooms, so fertilizing about 2 to 4 weeks before you expect it to bloom provides enough time for the nutrients to soak into the soil and then be absorbed and dispersed throughout the plant.
You can continue to feed Blackthorn during the spring, but it is best not to fertilize in the autumn because this can cause too much foliage to develop late in the season. That makes the leaves susceptible to damage in winter.
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When should I avoid fertilizing my Blackthorn?
Avoid fertilizing Blackthorn at all in the first year of growth, and be cautious about providing fertilizer if it is not necessary. You also should not fertilize if you pruned 20% of the plant or more the previous year. Hold off on fertilizing plants that are diseased or damaged, as this can do more harm than good. Remember that fertilizer is not medicine, and instead get to the root cause of the issue before you think about feeding the plant again.
Do not fertilize after the peak of summer, which can cause too much growth just before winter. Also, Blackthorn should not be fertilized during hot and dry times of year, since dry soil does not deliver fertilizer as effectively as moist soil. Fertilizing at this time can also stimulate growth which in turn needs more water that may not be available. It is best to keep fertilizer for earlier in the season when temperatures are cooler.
Finally, remember that Blackthorn can absorb fertilizer that has been applied to nearby plants or lawns, so be cautious about inadvertently giving plants a double-dose of fertilizer.
Read More more
What type of fertilizer does my Blackthorn need?
Usually the use of some fertilizer with balanced nutrition (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) can bring many benefits. The main nutrients that plants need are nitrogen for leaf growth and chlorophyll. Phosphorus supports the root system as well as to produce blossoms, fruits, and seeds. Potassium develops the systems used for photosynthesis and transporting water and nutrients throughout the plant.You may choose to use a commercial fertilizer specialized for a certain type of tree, or you can use organic nitrogen sources such as manure, feather meal, or blood meal.
Conducting a soil test can help you get a good idea of the condition of your soil and apply fertilizer more precisely. For commercial fertilizers, you could use a balanced granular fertilizer with an NPK of 10-10-10 or similar if your soil does not have sufficient phosphorus and potassium according to your soil test. In most cases the nitrogen in the soil is continuously lost with rainfall. If your soil has sufficient levels of phosphorus and potassium, a high-nitrogen fertilizer with a ratio of 6-2-1 or 10-2-2 would be more suitable.
Read More more
How do I fertilize my Blackthorn?
Always follow directions for the specific type of fertilizer and do research on how to use it for the Blackthorn you are growing. It is important not to over-fertilize your Blackthorn, so determining the correct amount to use is crucial, especially for fruit trees. The usual rule of thumb is to use the age of the tree (if known) or the diameter of the trunk to understand how much fertilizer should be used. Estimate a one-tenth of a pound of fertilizer per year or per inch of trunk, with a maximum of one pound. Note that a Blackthorn should not be fertilized for the first few years.
Granular fertilizers and organic fertilizers such as blood meal are applied by sprinkling the substance around the base of the tree all the way to the drip line (the space below the farthest-reaching branches) but do not let fertilizer come in contact with the trunk. Over time, the granules break down and filter into the soil to be absorbed into the roots. After fertilizing, spread an inch-deep layer of compost around the base of the tree and water thoroughly.
Read More more
What happens if I fertilize my Blackthorn too much?
It is far better to under-fertilize than over-fertilize, since you can always add more but you cannot easily take away excess fertilizer. Over-fertilizing your Blackthorn may cause brown leaf tips and edges, yellowing, wilting leaves, and possibly a visible crust of fertilizer salts on the surface of the soil around the plant. This condition is called fertilizer burn and results from too many accumulated salts in the plant’s cells. If excess nitrogen is the issue, the Blackthorn will produce a lot of leaves but won’t grow much fruit since nitrogen supports foliage growth.
If you have overfertilized, you could try removing the top layer of soil under the Blackthorn to remove the most concentrated area of fertilizer. Then flush the area by watering heavily to try to get rid of fertilizer around the roots.
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Cultivation:SunlightDetail

What Are the Sunlight Requirements for Blackthorn?

Blackthorn likes sunshine. As a fruit tree, ample sunlight for photosynthesis is necessary for its growth and to provide sufficient nutrition to develop fruit. It should be planted in a spot that ensures it can receive at least 6 hours of sunlight, and ideally no less than 8 hours of sunlight.
Cultivation:SunlightDetail
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How much/long should Blackthorn get sunlight per day for healthy growth?
For healthy growth, make sure that Blackthorn receives at least 3–6 hours of sun each day. This is actually a minimum requirement—most plants that can handle part sun can also thrive in full sun, but because they require less light for photosynthesis, they are more flexible than plants that require full sun or part shade.
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What type of sunlight does Blackthorn need?
Blackthorn does best with exposure to full or part sun. They will perform best with direct morning light, but in summer they need protection from the strong afternoon sun. In temperate environments, too much hot afternoon sun can burn the leaves, damaging the plant's appearance and health.
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Can sunlight damage Blackthorn? How to protect Blackthorn from the sun and heat damage?
Blackthorn planted indoors can easily be damaged by direct sunlight when it's moved outdoors. The best way to prevent sunburns from overexposure is to move pots gradually from a shaded area to a brighter spot, gradually. But even plants that are acclimated to the summer sun can be damaged by extreme heat. In a heatwave, it is important to keep the soil consistently moist so that plants can cope with excessive levels of heat. Moving plants in containers to areas with afternoon shade or erecting a shade cloth over them can protect sensitive Blackthorn during extreme weather events.
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Does Blackthorn need to avoid sun exposure? / Should I protect Blackthorn from the sun?
While bright morning sun and some full sun exposure can be highly beneficial for Blackthorn, the harsh, hot midday sun of summer can be too much to handle.
If planted in the ground, the summer sun will usually ramp up slowly enough through the season for Blackthorn to gradually adapt to its intensity. But a potted plant that has been indoors or in a protected location will often suffer injury when placed suddenly into a location where the direct summer sun reaches it in the hottest part of the day.
To protect this plant from the brutal afternoon summer sun, plant or place it in an understory location where it is shaded at midday by taller trees and plants or by a building or landscape feature.
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What will happen if Blackthorn gets inadequate sunlight?
When Blackthorn receives too little sun, they may become pale green or display drooping, yellow leaves. While some leaf drop is normal, if leaves are dropping but no new ones are growing in to replace them, it is a sign that something is wrong. If Blackthorn receiving inadequate light does manage to grow, the new growth is often spindly, pale, and prone to insect infestation. Paying attention to these signs and changing the lighting conditions of the plant will make a significant difference.
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Does Blackthorn need special care about sunlight during its different growth stages?
Tender, new leaves are especially sensitive to sunburn. Bearing this in mind, very young Blackthorn and when it's in a strong growth phase, such as in late spring and early summer, will be more sensitive to harsh sun and heat than the mature one or those in a more dormant fall growth stage. Blackthorn fresh from a nursery is also usually not prepared for strong full sunlight and must be introduced to it slowly.
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Are there any cautions or tips for sunlight and Blackthorn?
Recently transplanted Blackthorn will often experience a bit of shock and will need to be cared for carefully, either shaded from bright afternoon sun or placed in a protected area. On very hot days, you may see the leaves of Blackthorn drooping—this is usually nothing to worry about. Plants will send the water in their leaves down into their roots to protect them from burning. However, if the leaves are still drooping in the evening or the next morning, the plant needs water. Always avoid watering during the hottest times of day, as sunlight can hit wet leaves and scorch them easily.
Blackthorn that has been underwatered will be weaker than that with consistently moist soil. This can leave it with weak roots that are unable to protect the leaves on hot, sunny summer days by diverting water away from the leaves. Care for an underwatered plant by giving it a long, deep watering and then allowing the top two inches of soil to dry out before the next watering. Even if it loses its leaves, if cared for properly it will grow new ones.
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Cultivation:PruningDetail

How to Prune Blackthorn?

Blackthorn sprouts on branches that have strong budding capabilities. However, the branches can easily become overcrowded and need frequent pruning to maintain the shape, air circulation, and light exposure within the tree. This also helps to prevent pests and diseases while at the same time helping the leaves receive more sunlight.
Blackthorn can generate a large amount of fruit without any artificial pollination. Because blackthorn can produce a large number of flowers with a high yield of fruit, to maintain its growth and the quality of fruit, it is recommended that some flowers and fruit be removed to concentrate the nutrients for the remaining fruit. As a result, there will not be a large amount of fruit, but those left will be of higher quality and have an improved flavor.
Cultivation:PruningDetail
Is pruning necessary for my Blackthorn?
Despite having a relatively fast habit of growth, Blackthorn does not require very much pruning. It is not necessary to routinely prune this tree, however, it does require some pruning every once in a while. Pruning can be done to tidy this tree up and remove any diseased or damaged foliage. Or Blackthorn can be pruned for shaping.
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When is the best time to prune my Blackthorn?
Blackthorn should be pruned as needed. Typically, these trees should be pruned to remove any damaged, yellowing, dying, or dead foliage. It is also necessary to prune this plant to remove any shoots that are congested or are crossing. The best time to prune Blackthorn is between late winter to early spring. This is the period when pruning causes the least damage to the plant.
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How can I prune my Blackthorn?
Pruning Blackthorn is a fairly easy task if you know what to look for. To prune these trees, you will need a pair of sharp pruning shears. Using your pruning shears, remove any damaged or diseased parts of the tree. Keep an eye out for any shoots that are becoming congested or are beginning to cross and remove them. Ideally, you should steer clear from pruning any of the tree’s lower limbs. Leaving these intact will allow the tree to have a more natural and open form. Additionally, leaving the lower limbs alone will help to prevent any disease-inducing stress, as well as suckers from forming.
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What should I do after pruning my Blackthorn?
There are no special requirements to follow after you have pruned your Blackthorn. It is recommended, however, that you dispose of any diseased foliage that has been removed from the tree away from any other plants. This is to avoid spreading the disease to other plants. After pruning your Blackthorn, you may apply a fertilizer treatment to encourage faster growth. Do not water the plants immediately after pruning as this can lead to fungal infestation of the plants through the wounds.
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What should I be careful with when pruning my Blackthorn during different growing stages?
The best time to prune Blackthorn is between late winter to early spring. This is the period when pruning causes the least damage to the plant. Keep an eye out for any shoots that are becoming congested or are beginning to cross and remove them. Ideally, you should steer clear from pruning any of the tree’s lower limbs. Leaving these intact will allow the tree to have a more natural and open form. This will increase ventilation and light, reduce disease infection and allow Blackthorn to grow more vigorously. When pruning branches you need to leave the strong ones and remove the weak ones, keeping healthy auxiliary branches that grow outwards at about 45 degrees. Branches that are too angled or too small should be removed. Pruning Saw is required if the branch is more than three quarters of an inch in size, pruning should be done in the direction of the "Branch bark ridge" to the "Branch collar" to allow for good healing. Branches that require a saw need to be pruned using the "three-cut method", which prevents the bark of the branch from tearing and creating cracks in the trunk, which can be detrimental to the recovery of the plant. Finally, you may prefer to just trim off dead or damaged portions of the plant to keep it looking its best as if it's possible. This can be done at any time of year. Diseased or damaged stems should be cut right at the soil line and removed completely.
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Are there any tips for pruning my Blackthorn?
The best thing to remember about Blackthorn is that they do not require routine pruning. Your tree will likely grow better if you prune it as and when it is necessary and no more than that. Additionally, you should also keep in mind that it is better to leave the lower limbs of this tree alone to prevent stress-induced diseases from attacking your tree. Different diameter branches require different pruning tools. If the tree is too tall, pruning needs to be done safely or by a professional.
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care_advanced_guide

Advanced Care Guide

Cultivation:WaterAndHardinessDetail

What is the Ideal Temperature Range for Blackthorn?

Blackthorn is fairly good at surviving in low temperatures. The temperature it can tolerate ranges from -22 ℃ to 42 ℃. It is also not very picky when it comes to water. It does not need a lot of water and is resistant to both drought and flood.
Cultivation:WaterAndHardinessDetail
What is the optimal temperature for Blackthorn?
The best temperature for Blackthorn to thrive is 65~80℉(18~27℃). During the primary growing phase, the highest temperature tolerable would be 95℉(35℃), while the lowest tolerable temperature would be 15℉(-10℃). This species is tolerant of low temperatures and will survive freezing winters. The perfect, highest, and lowest temperature range:
Perfect:65~80℉(18~27℃)
Highest:85~95℉(30~35℃)
Lowest:-5~15℉(-20~-10℃) or below
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Should I adjust the temperature for Blackthorn during different growing phases?
Research shows that Blackthorn will begin to exhibit signs of stunted growth during prolonged periods of higher temperatures, especially during the development of axillary buds and the growth of main shoots. Keeping the temperatures consistent and cooler, around 65℉(18℃), will encourage vigorous growth after germination or transplanting.
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How can I keep Blackthorn warm in cold seasons?
Blackthorn can withstand freezing temperatures when planted in the ground in areas that don’t get below of 15℉(-10℃) as an extreme temperature during the winter months. But if planted in pots or containers, then their roots must be protected from the winter cold. Do this by wrapping the container in a blanket or bringing it inside where it will be fully protected from the elements.
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What damage will Blackthorn suffer if the temperature is too high/low?
Greater harm will come to Blackthorn if the temperature is consistently too high versus too low.
If Blackthorn gets too hot, seed germination and photosynthesis efficiency is lessened due to hormone triggers caused by heat stress. The plant will show signs through wilting, leaf browning, and potentially death.
If Blackthorn gets too cold, plant functions such as nutrient uptake and photosynthesis will cease, resulting in the possible death of the plant. If a single freezing event occurs during the growing season, then a membrane phase transition might occur, which can cause a cease in plant functions and death of the plant.
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What tips and cautions should I keep in mind when it comes to temperature for Blackthorn?
Keeping the soil temperature consistent is one of the most important strategies to keeping Blackthorn healthy, which leads to successful budding, flowering, and new growth. Do this by consistently watering, adding mulch to bare soil, and planting in the shade.
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How can I keep Blackthorn warm without a heat pad?
Due to the cold tolerance of Blackthorn, heating pads will not be necessary if planted outside in the ground. If the plant is in an outdoor pot, then bring it inside a heated house and place it in a sunny window during the winter months.
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How can I provide Blackthorn with an adequate temperature condition?
To ensure adequate temperature conditions are present, plant Blackthorn in an area with partial shade. If possible, use afternoon shade to provide the best protection during the hottest part of the day. This will also result in lower temperatures in the soil due to increased moisture retention. If Blackthorn is planted indoors, then keep the container away from windows and out of direct sunlight during the summer months to prevent the soil temperature from spiking daily.
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How can I save Blackthorn from temperature damage?
During the summer or times of high heat, give Blackthorn extra shade and water to help cool its leaves, roots, and soil. During cold snaps or growing season freezes, cover sensitive budding vegetation with frost cloth or water using sprinkler systems. If it’s only nearing freezing temperatures for a short period, then water during the day several hours before the freeze. If the temperature is predicted to remain below freezing for an extended period, then keep the sprinkler running until the temperature rises above freezing the following day.
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Should I adjust the temperature for Blackthorn in different seasons?
Blackthorn is a mid-temperature plant that can easily tolerate the typical fluctuations of the seasons and remain a hardy species when planted in maintained landscapes areas, containers, or indoors. Therefore, adjusting the temperature during the different seasons is unnecessary for primary growth. If flowering is stunted or impeded, then allowing the plant to experience a season of winter freeze could help to revive flowering.
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Under what conditions should I stop adjusting the temperature for Blackthorn?
If it becomes too difficult to lower the temperature for an indoor plant during the summer, then plant it outside in the ground or in a container. Make sure to plant Blackthorn in a shaded location and water often to keep the soil moist.
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Cultivation:SoilDetail

What Soil is Best for Blackthorn?

When planting blackthorn, you should select a sandy loam soil or loam that is thick, rich in organic matter, and with a slight to medium alkaline pH of 7-8.5. Avoid planting it in a place where salt and alkalis are concentrated. Additionally, make sure that the soil is moist but drains well. It is best not to grow blackthorn in clay soil.
Cultivation:SoilDetail
Cultivation:PropagationDetail

How to Propagate Blackthorn?

Blackthorn can be propagated by grafting. Select healthy and strong that have 3-4 fully developed buds for grafting in mid-spring, or directly use buds for grafting in the summer.
Cut a T-shaped opening in the stock, and insert the branch or bud into the cut between its xylem and phloem, while making sure the phloem vessels are in contact with each other. Then, use plastic wrapping to bind them together. After 10-20 days, when the cut has healed and the branch or bud has survived, the plastic wrap can be removed.

Propagation

Grafting is the most common way to propagate fruit trees, which can help you get plants with good flavor and yield in the shortest possible time.
While the precise timing for when you should graft a plant will vary based on the type of plant in question, it is generally best to graft most plants from late winter to early spring. It is also crucial to ensure that the plant onto which you are attaching your scion is in a stage of active growth. The seedlings that have just started to grow cannot be grafted until it's 2 years old.
Anyone who wants to graft a plant will be wise to set themselves up with the best tools for the job before they get started. Here is a quick list of the items you’ll need to graft a plant.
What you will need:
  1. A sharp cutting tool, preferably a grafting knife
  2. Diluted bleach solution or isopropyl alcohol to clean tools
  3. Grafting wax
  4. Twine or string
  5. Grafting tape
Steps:
The size of the understock determines which of the two basic types of grafting teachniques should be used in propagation. A graft may be made to join a nearly equal sized scion and understock together, or several small scions to a larger understock as in cleft or bark grafting.
Grafts with similar scion and understock sizes
Step 1: Remove a branch with a few healthy buds on it as scions. The understock needs to be selected from seedlings of good varieties. The scion and the understock should be of the similar size of thickness.
Step 2: Cutting the stock and scion. Create similar slanted cuts at the bottom of the scion and the top of stock. Split the incision along the longitudinal direction in the middle of the bevel of the understock and scion body for better contact of the incision.
Step 3: Match up the cuts on the scion and the rootstock.
Step 4: Use your twine to secure the connection between the branch and the rootstock. Consider applying grafting wax to protect the wounds.
Grafts with small scions and large understocks
Step 1: Remove a branch with a few healthy buds on it as scions. The understock needs to be selected from seedlings of good varieties and needs to be larger than the the scion. The scion should preferably be a branch over one year old.
Step 2: After removing the leaves and buds from the understock seedling stem. Use a razor blade to make avertical cut from the stem cross-section from the tip. The bottom of the scion should be cut in the shape of a wedge. A slight outward tilt of the scion facilitates wound contact. Leaving a maximum of 3 buds at the end and cut off excess buds on the top.
Step 3: Match up the cuts on the grafted branch and the rootstock.
Step 4: Consider applying grafting wax to protect the wounds.
Step 5: Wrap the graft with grafting tape to protect it while it heals.
Caution: Grafting between the same species is usually successful. Grafting between different genera is occasionally successful. And grafting between families usually cannot be performed.
It can also be propagated by the means of layering.
Pay attention to the age of the branch you want to propagate to know when to start air layering. If you're working with a branch that is old-growth, preferably from the previous year’s growth, spring is the best time for layering. If your chosen branch is new growth, mid-summer is your best bet. These warm months are the best time to encourage new root growth in your plants. A pencil-thick branch could be a good choice.
Since air layering is a little more complicated than other types of layering, you’ll need a few extra tools before you begin the process. Make sure you have everything on hand and then begin!
  1. A sharp, sanitized knife
  2. Peat moss for wrapping
  3. Plastic wrap for wrapping
  4. Rubber bands or twist ties
  5. (optional) aluminum foil
  6. (optional) plant growth hormones
Steps:
Step 1: Choose a thick upper stem and clear off the leaves around a chosen node.
Step 2: Below this node, ring peel the plant to a length of 0.5 to 1 inches, completely stripping the bark of the plant. It is necessary to pay attention to safety of the plant when ring stripping.
Step 3: Apply moist (not wet) peat moss to the cut area. Hold the moss in place by tightly wrapping the area with plastic wrap and ties. Apply an extra layer of aluminum foil for sun protection if needed.
Step 4: Remove the stem for propagation once the peat moss is visibly filled with roots. Make sure the wrapped moss is moist during rooting. Use a syringe to inject water if you find that the peat moss is already dry.
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Cultivation:PropagationDetail
Cultivation:PlantingDetail

How to Plant Blackthorn?

You can purchase blackthorn saplings in garden centers. Pay attention to two things before planting. First, choose an area of the garden that has a lower altitude to plant your blackthorn. This will help it to acquire enough water because its roots are shallow. Additionally, apply sufficient base fertilizer before planting it, mostly organic fertilizer. Once planted, remember to water it soon after, until the water on the surface of the soil stops draining away. When this happens you have provided sufficient water.
We generally do not sow seeds to propagate blackthorn because the seeds need to undergo post-ripening effects. This means that the seeds are not yet mature when they are harvested. It is only after a period of special treatment that the seeds can complete their biochemical processes and reach the condition of being mature seeds that are able to germinate.
Cultivation:PlantingDetail
Cultivation:HarvestDetail

How to Harvest Blackthorn?

The fruits of blackthorn usually ripen in the early fall and can be picked for eating. If the fruit needs to be stored or transported a long distance, it is better to harvest the fruit before it softens, such as during the late summer or early fall. Note that fruit should be handled gently and, ideally, and the twig should remain on the fruit.
Cultivation:HarvestDetail
PlantCare:TransplantSummary

How to Transplant Blackthorn?

Blackthorn is best transplanted during cooler months of S1-S2, as mild temperatures reduce plant stress and promote root establishment. The ideal spot is sunny to semi-shaded with well-drained soil. Remember to water frequently after transplantation to encourage healthy growth.
PlantCare:TransplantSummary
care_scenes

More Info on Blackthorn Growth and Care

Basic Care Guide
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Lighting
Full sun
Blackthorn thrives in areas exposed adequately to sunlight, supporting its robust growth. Its native habitats provide it mainly with abundant daily sun. During different growth stages, it can also manage with fewer sunlit hours. Excessive sun might cause damage, whereas inadequate light may impair growth and flowering.
Best Sunlight Practices
Temperature
-15 38 ℃
Blackthorn is native to environments where temperatures range from 50 to 95 °F (10 to 35 ℃). It prefers these moderate conditions. To ensure healthy growth, maintain these temperatures throughout the year, increasing indoor heating in winter if needed.
Temp for Healthy Growth
Transplant
10-15 feet
Blackthorn is best transplanted during cooler months of S1-S2, as mild temperatures reduce plant stress and promote root establishment. The ideal spot is sunny to semi-shaded with well-drained soil. Remember to water frequently after transplantation to encourage healthy growth.
Transplant Techniques
Feng shui direction
East
The blackthorn is known for its resilience and strength, symbolizing courage in Feng Shui. Facing East, the blackthorn is compatible as this direction represents the wood element, a signature to growth and transformation. Embodying the essence of renewal, blackthorn's thorny disposition could stimulate the flow of qi, fostering development. However, its prickly nature may also evoke a sense divide, suggesting the importance of balance and placement.
Fengshui Details
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Seasonal Care Tips

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Spring

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Summer

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Fall

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Winter

This plant and other temperate fruiting trees and shrubs require care in the early spring.

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Prune back old growth but wait until after the last frost.
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Spring is also the best time for planting, but do not fertilize new plants. Mature specimens will benefit from a monthly application of organic fertilizer.
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3
Water the plant deeply every couple of weeks.
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4
Container plants require sunlight in the spring. Move the container to a location receiving several hours of sunlight a day.

Fruiting temperate trees and shrubs like this plant benefit from care during the summer.

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1
A monthly application of organic fertilizer throughout the summer helps to support growth and encourage fruiting.
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2
Keep an eye on soil moisture, watering whenever the soil is beginning to dry out.
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Remove any dead and dying leaves from the plant and around the base to help avoid issues with pests and diseases.
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Prune back old growth to help avoid potential issues with broken branches.
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Move container plants to a partially shady location if they are in a consistently sunny area.

You should provide frequent care to your plant throughout the fall.

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Up until your plant reaches dormancy in the cold winter months, continue to water it in cases of little to no rainfall to ensure the soil stays moist and the plant stays productive.
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Make sure it received plenty of direct sun as well.
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Fertilize it once at the beginning of fall, with a citrus fertilizer, then stop fertilizing and pruning during this season, especially as winter approaches. This will help your plant enter winter dormancy more easily.
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Rake up any fallen fall foliage to deter pests and diseases, as bacteria can easily grow in the fallen leaves at the base of the plant.

While your plant is dormant in the winter, let it rest. You’ll need to provide only minimal care at this time.

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Water your plant infrequently, providing it with water it only after the soil dries out to avoid waking it up.
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At the very end of winter, before new growth begins, prune away dead, diseased, or overcrowded branches to jumpstart fresh growth in the spring.
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If you have a potted variety, you can overwinter it indoors in bright sunlight, and you can possibly enjoy the harvest from your plant throughout the season.
care_pet_and_diseases

Common Pests & Diseases

Common issues for Blackthorn based on 10 million real cases
Brown spot
Brown spot Brown spot
Brown spot
This infection can cause brown spots or patches to appear on the plant.
Solutions: In minor cases of brown spot, there isn’t any need to treat the disease. However, if much of the foliage is affected and defoliation occurs, the plant will benefit from getting rid of the infection. It is recommended to start by applying organic treatment options, working up to the more potent synthetic, chemical fungicides if necessary. Organic options won’t kill the fungus, but will prevent it from spreading. Dissolve ½ teaspoon of baking soda and one teaspoon of liquid soap in a gallon of water. Using a spray bottle, spray on tops and bottoms of leaves until the mixture drips off. Repeat every two weeks until existing spots stop enlarging and new spots no longer appear. Spray a copper-based fungicidal soap on the leaves, coating the top and bottom leaf surfaces. Reapply as directed on the product label. Copper penetrates the leaf surface and prevents germination of spores so the fungus cannot spread. Apply an all-purpose fungicide to the entire plant, following the label instructions carefully.
Leaf beetles
Leaf beetles Leaf beetles
Leaf beetles
Leaf beetles are a class of colored insects 1 to 2 cm in size. They gnaw on leaves and petals resulting in small, round holes scattered over the surface.
Solutions: For less serious cases: Remove beetles, nymphs, and eggs. Remove all life stages of the beetles and kill them by placing them in a bucket of warm, soapy water. This can be done more easily by placing the bucket under affected leaves and shaking the plant. This method is most effective in the afternoon when leaf beetles are more active. Always dispose of insects in a sealed bag or container to avoid escape and spread. To treat more serious infestations: Apply organic insecticides. Use naturally-derived insecticides before moving on to synthetic insecticides. Neem oil and pyrethrum are naturally-derived insecticides that should be applied following label instructions. Apply synthetic insecticides. Examples of insecticides effective for leaf beetles include carbaryl, permethrin, and bifenthrin. Apply insecticides according to label instructions.
Shot hole disease
Shot hole disease Shot hole disease
Shot hole disease
Bacterial perforation disease creates brown spots on the leaves which eventually dry up and fall away, leaving perforations in the leaf surface.
Solutions: In the case of mild disease symptoms: Remove diseased leaves immediately. Also remove any foliage on the ground near the plants, including leaves without the disease. Take care not to touch healthy foliage during removal to avoid spreading. It is best to remove leaves in dry, cool weather. When holes and spots are numerous, and leaves start to drop, take these actions immediately. Remove diseased leaves right away. Just like in mild cases, remove all foliage on the ground near the plant. Avoid touching non-diseased foliage, and only remove leaves when they are dry. Apply fungicide and bactericide. Apply a copper-based fungicide. Spray young leaves about once every week. It's best to apply these products in spring when damage is beginning. After mid-summer, they will have little benefit.
Aged yellow and dry
Aged yellow and dry Aged yellow and dry
Aged yellow and dry
Natural aging can cause leaves to turn yellow and dry out.
Solutions: If the yellowing and drying of leaves and flowers is a natural progression due to age, nothing can be done to slow or stop the process. Once hormones within the plant begin the process of senescence, it’s irreversible.
Underwatering
Underwatering Underwatering
Underwatering
Leaves may wilt for a variety of reasons.
Solutions: The easiest (and most obvious) way to address underwatering is to fully hydrate the plant. However, this must be done carefully. A common mistake that many gardeners make is to douse their underwatered plants with water. This can overwhelm the roots of the plant and shock its system, something that can be even more damaging than the lack of water to begin with. Instead, water thoroughly and slowly, taking breaks to let the water slowly saturate through the soil to get to the roots. Use room temperature water, as cold water might be too much of a shock. In the future, shorten the time between waterings. A good rule of thumb is to check the soil around each plant daily. If it’s dry to at least two inches down, it’s time to water. If a container plant is repeatedly drying out very quickly, repotting into a slower-draining container might be a good idea, too.
Underwatering yellow
Underwatering yellow Underwatering yellow
Underwatering yellow
A lack of water will cause the leaves to gradually turn yellow starting at the base of the branch while the entire plant appears to wilt.
Solutions: Your plant is very thirsty and needs water promptly. You can revive your plant by giving it water. The easiest technique is to slowly pour water into your plant’s soil so that the whole surface is moistened. If you pour the water too quickly, the water will flow directly through rather than diffusing throughout the soil. If your plant’s pot does not have drainage holes, do not give your plant more than about a third of the pot’s volume of water. If your plant’s pot does have drainage holes, you can add water slowly until the soil is thoroughly moistened and the water flows freely through the pot. If you trim off yellow leaves to improve the plant’s appearance, do not remove more than a third of the plant’s leaves. It may be better to wait until leaves have died and fallen off to remove them.
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Brown spot
plant poor
Brown spot
This infection can cause brown spots or patches to appear on the plant.
Overview
Overview
Discolored spots on the foliage of plants are one of the most common disease problems people observe. These spots are caused by fungal and bacterial diseases, with most infections related to a fungal pathogen.
Brown spot can occurs on all houseplants, flowering ornamentals, vegetable plants, and leaves of trees, bushes, and shrubs. No plants are resistant to it, and the problem is worse in warm, wet environments. It can occur at any point in the life stage as long as leaves are present.
Small brownish spots appear on the foliage and enlarge as the disease progresses. In severe cases, the plant or tree is weakened when the lesions interrupt photosynthesis or cause defoliation.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
In most cases, brown spot only affects a small percentage of the whole plant, appearing on a small amount of the leaves. A small infection only puts minor stress on the plant. However, if left untreated and the disease progresses over numerous seasons, it will severely impact the health and productivity of the infected specimen.
  • Sporulation begins (reproduction of the fungal spores), and tiny spots appear on leaves.
  • Placement is often random and scattered as diseases are spread through raindrops.
  • May appear on lower leaves and the interior of the plant where humidity is higher.
  • Brown spots enlarge and grow large enough to touch neighboring spots to form a more prominent blotch.
  • Leaf margins may turn yellow.
  • Tiny black dots (fruiting bodies of the fungi) appear in the dead spots.
  • Blotches grow in size until the entire leaf is brown.
  • The leaf falls off the plant.
Severe Symptoms
  • Partial or complete premature defoliation
  • Reduced growth
  • Increased susceptibility to pests and other diseases
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
Brown spot, or leaf spot, is a common descriptive term given to several diseases affecting the leaves of plants and trees. Around 85% of diseases exhibiting leaf spots are due to fungus or fungus-like organisms. Sometimes brown spot is caused by a bacterial infection, or insect activity with similar symptoms.
When conditions are warm and the leaf surfaces are wet, fungal spores being transported by wind or rain land on the surface and cling to it. They do not rupture the cell walls but grow in the space between the plant plasma membrane and the plant cell wall. As the spores reproduce, they release toxins and enzymes that cause necrotic spots (i.e., dead tissue) on the leaves, allowing the fungi to consume the products released when the cells degrade.
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Leaf beetles
plant poor
Leaf beetles
Leaf beetles are a class of colored insects 1 to 2 cm in size. They gnaw on leaves and petals resulting in small, round holes scattered over the surface.
Overview
Overview
Leaf beetles range in size from 1.5 mm to 2 cm. Both adult beetles and their larvae eat the leaves of many different types of plants. There are over 35,000 different species of leaf beetles, in a variety of colors including gold, green, yellow-striped, and red striped. Some of these have been mistaken for ladybirds because of their shape and coloring. They can be oval, round, or elongated in shape. These insect pests are most active in spring and summer.
If not controlled, leaf beetles can do a lot of damage to vegetable crops and ornamental plants. They feed on the leaves, flowers, stems, roots, and fruits of different plants. They can fly, which means it's easy for them to move from one plant to another. Some species of leaf beetles only target one specific crop, while others will target many different types of plants. Although a lot of the damage that they cause is cosmetic, an infestation can weaken a plant and leave it prone to other more problematic diseases.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
The first signs of a leaf beetles infestation are small visible holes in leaves. Leaves then become discolored and dark beetle droppings can be seen. As the leaves turn yellow and brown, they will drop off the plant onto the ground. Some leaves will appear skeletonized with only the veins still remaining.
Infestation begins in spring, when the adult beetles emerge from the soil and lay their eggs on the leaves of plants. When these eggs hatch, the young nymphs start munching on the leaves as they grow up. Once leaf beetles are large and mature, they'll fall to the ground and pupate in the soil over winter before starting the cycle all over again.
Leaf beetles also eat holes in fruits and vegetables. These can be seen as small round holes that sometimes have a larger brown area surrounding them.
Solutions
Solutions
For less serious cases:
  1. Remove beetles, nymphs, and eggs. Remove all life stages of the beetles and kill them by placing them in a bucket of warm, soapy water. This can be done more easily by placing the bucket under affected leaves and shaking the plant. This method is most effective in the afternoon when leaf beetles are more active. Always dispose of insects in a sealed bag or container to avoid escape and spread.
To treat more serious infestations:
  1. Apply organic insecticides. Use naturally-derived insecticides before moving on to synthetic insecticides. Neem oil and pyrethrum are naturally-derived insecticides that should be applied following label instructions.
  2. Apply synthetic insecticides. Examples of insecticides effective for leaf beetles include carbaryl, permethrin, and bifenthrin. Apply insecticides according to label instructions.
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Shot hole disease
plant poor
Shot hole disease
Bacterial perforation disease creates brown spots on the leaves which eventually dry up and fall away, leaving perforations in the leaf surface.
Overview
Overview
Shot hole disease (coryneum blight) most commonly affects mature trees, particularly fruit trees. The fungus can infect the buds, fruit, and leaves of the tree. It causes spots on the leaves that eventually die and drop out. This makes the leaves look tattered and affects the overall health of the tree. If the fruit is affected, it will result in cracks in the skin and generally make the fruit inedible.
The disease is very difficult to eliminate entirely but further infection can be prevented with good cultural practices and by removing diseased parts of the tree. Some of the more common fruit trees affected by this disease include plums, peaches, cherries, nectarines, apricot, and almonds.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Small red spots appear on the leaves. These spots then become larger and turn purple with a white center. Finally, the spots drop out of the leaves altogether, leaving small round holes. These almost look like gunshot holes, hence the name of the disease.
As the disease progresses, more holes will form in the leaves with some joining together to make larger holes.
As the infection spreads to developing fruit, purple-red spots appear on the outer skin. Eventually, these spots will cause the skin to crack and some of the juice will ooze out.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
Shot hole disease is a fungal disease (Wilsonomyces**carpophilus) that primarily targets mature trees. The fungal spores are carried onto the tree through water-splashing and wind.
The disease thrives in wet conditions when there has been excessive rainfall. New growth in spring is particularly susceptible to this disease.
The fungal spores overwinter inside buds on the tree and also lesions on twigs.
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Aged yellow and dry
plant poor
Aged yellow and dry
Natural aging can cause leaves to turn yellow and dry out.
Overview
Overview
Regardless of the type of plant or where it is grown, at some point, it will begin to aged yellow and dry. This is a natural, unavoidable process that happens when the plant has completed all of the steps in its life.
Annual plants go through this process at the end of a single growing season. Perennial plants live for multiple years, if not tens or hundreds of years, but will still ultimately exhibit these symptoms.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
When plants have progressed through their natural developmental stages and are nearing the end of their lifecycle, they begin showing signs of decline. Leaves will start to yellow and droop, and over time they turn papery brown and dry.
Once completely dry, the leaves begin to fall from the plant until the entire plant has dried out.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
At the end of its life, genetic coding within the plant increases the production of ethylene, a phytohormone that controls senescence or natural aging and death. Cell division stops, and the plant begins catabolizing resources to use in other parts of the plant.
As this happens, the tissues begin yellow and drying until the entire plant is desiccated and perishes.
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Underwatering
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Underwatering
Leaves may wilt for a variety of reasons.
Overview
Overview
Underwatering plants is one of the quickest ways to kill them. This is something that most gardeners are well aware of. Unfortunately, knowing exactly how much water a plant needs can be tricky, especially considering that underwatering and overwatering present similar symptoms in plants.
Therefore, it’s important to be vigilant and attentive to each plants’ individual needs.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
As mentioned earlier, overwatering and underwatering present similar symptoms in plants. These symptoms include poor growth, wilted leaves, defoliation, and brown leaf tips or margins. Ultimately, both underwatering and overwatering can lead to the death of a plant.
The easiest way to determine whether a plant has too much water or too little is to look at the leaves. If underwatering is the culprit, the leaves will look brown and crunchy, while if it’s overwatering, they will appear yellow or a pale green in color.
When this issue first begins, there may be no noticeable symptoms at all, particularly in hardy or drought-tolerant plants. However, they will begin to wilt once they start suffering from a lack of water. The edges of the plant’s leaves will become brown or curled. Soil pulling away from the edges of the planter is a telltale sign, or a crispy, brittle stem.
Prolonged underwatering can cause a plant’s growth to become stunted. The leaves might drop and the plant can be more susceptible to pest infestations, too.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
Underwatering is caused by, quite simply, not watering plants often or deeply enough. There is a heightened risk of underwatering if any of these situations apply:
  • Extreme heat and dry weather (when growing outdoors)
  • Grow lights or indoor lighting that is too bright or intense for the type of plant
  • Using fast-draining growing media such as sand
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Underwatering yellow
plant poor
Underwatering yellow
A lack of water will cause the leaves to gradually turn yellow starting at the base of the branch while the entire plant appears to wilt.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Your plant’s leaves are turning yellow due to underwatering, the oldest leaves turn yellow first. Leaves yellow from the edges towards the middle. Other signs of underwatering include the soil feeling very dry or pulling away from the edge of its pot.
Solutions
Solutions
Your plant is very thirsty and needs water promptly.
  1. You can revive your plant by giving it water. The easiest technique is to slowly pour water into your plant’s soil so that the whole surface is moistened. If you pour the water too quickly, the water will flow directly through rather than diffusing throughout the soil. If your plant’s pot does not have drainage holes, do not give your plant more than about a third of the pot’s volume of water. If your plant’s pot does have drainage holes, you can add water slowly until the soil is thoroughly moistened and the water flows freely through the pot.
  2. If you trim off yellow leaves to improve the plant’s appearance, do not remove more than a third of the plant’s leaves. It may be better to wait until leaves have died and fallen off to remove them.
Prevention
Prevention
  1. When you get a new plant, research its specific watering needs. Set reminders so that you remember to water your plants consistently. Not all plants are the same, so make sure to differentiate all of your plants in your watering schedule.
  2. You may wish to purchase a commercial soil water meter which has a long probe that you place near your plant’s roots. Be sure to check it frequently and water your plant when the soil water meter indicates that it needs watering.
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care_toxicity

Blackthorn and Their Toxicity

Toxic to Dogs
Toxic to Dogs
Aside from the ripened pulp found around the seeds of this plant, all of its parts contain cyanide and are toxic to dogs. Signs of poisoning include trouble breathing, gums that turn bright reed, shock, dilated pupils, and even death. The blackthorn is at its most dangerous to dogs when it is in the process of wilting. If you think there is a risk your dog has ingested this plant, consult your veterinarian as soon as possible.
Toxic to Cats
Toxic to Cats
Many plants of the Prunus spinosa genus, including apricot, cherry, and plum, contain cyanogenic chemicals that are fatally toxic to cats; immediate medical treatment is mandatory if a cat has eaten any part of one of these plants. Depending on the species, the leaves, stems, seeds, flower buds, pits, fruit, and (or) berries can be toxic. The symptoms of blackthorn poisoning include red gums, drooling, vomiting, dilated pupils, difficulty breathing, rapid heartbeat, panting, and shock.
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Who Is Most at Risk of Plant Poisoning?
Your pets like cats and dogs can be poisoned by them as well!
1
Do not let your lovely pets eat any parts, nor contact with the sap of toxic or unknown plants;
2
It’s better to kill those growing around your house. Wear long-sleeved shirts, pants and gloves with sharp tools to dig it out completely;
3
Clean the tools with rubbing alcohol or soap and water but do not do that with bare hands;
4
Clean your hands and skin once exposed to plants with soap and water;
5
Consider using barrier creams that contain bentoquatam to prevent poison oak, ivy and sumac rashes;
6
Dump it in special trash cans in sealed garbage packages, and do not let your pets reach it;Do not let your lovely pets eat any parts, nor contact with the sap of toxic or unknown plants;
7
If you take your pets to hike with you in the wild, please don’t let them eat any plants that you don’t know;
8
Once your pets eat, touch or inhale anything from toxic plants and act abnormally, please call the doctors for help ASAP!
pets
Pets
Some pets are less likely than children to eat and touch just about everything. This is good, as a pet owner. However, you know your pet best, and it is up to you to keep them safe. There are plenty of poisonous weeds that can grow within the confines of your lawn, which might make your dogs or cats ill or worse if they eat them. Try to have an idea of what toxic plants grow in your area and keep them under control and your pets away from them.
pets
Common Toxic Houseplants
Common Toxic Houseplants
When it comes to decorating a house, there is nothing more refreshing than adding some beautiful houseplants. Some common house plants can also be toxic.

Aloe

aloe
Aloe is famous for its sunburn-soothing properties and its gorgeous desert design. However, many people do not realize that the latex the aloe vera plant produces can be mildly toxic to pets and children.

The latex contains a chemical compound known as saponin. Which when ingested, can cause vomiting, diarrhea, and low blood sugar. This, if left unchecked, can lead to dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. The proper response is to contact poison control or a veterinarian to know what to do in your particular circumstance if either your child or pet consumes aloe.

The latex of the plant is similar to the sap of the tree. It is inside the leaf, but sticks mainly toward the edges. If aloe gel is prepared properly it should be safe for use, but be sure to apply it only topically when treating burns.

Philodendron

Philodendron
Philodendron, also known as sweetheart vine, has become a resident at many houses and even businesses. They are glossy green and the leaves elegantly split, displaying interesting designs. Behind this beauty there is a needle-like toxin called calcium oxalate crystals.

These crystals are held within the plant and only affect you, your pets, or your loved ones if the plant tissue is broken. If ingested, the crystals can cause severe swelling, difficulty breathing, stomach pain, burning and pain. If they are accidentally caught on the skin, they can cause skin irritation.

If anyone accidentally ingests philodendron and they find it difficult to breathe or their tongue starts to swell up, it is important to seek medical attention immediately to avoid suffocation. If you have very young children or pets who have a tendency to tear at plants, keep them away from any philodendrons.

Peace Lily

Peace Lily
Peace lilies produce stunningly white flowers that bring to mind peace and serenity. This is one reason they are invited into our homes and given a place to stay. However, similar to philodendrons, the peace lily contains oxalate crystals known as raphides.

The raphides, once ingested, will cause swelling and burning sensations and can also cause skin irritation. Both pets and humans can get these symptoms so it is important to keep these plants from anyone who is likely to tear or chew it. Symptoms can become dire if the raphides cause the tongue and throat to swell to a point where the person or pet is having difficulty breathing. Seek proper medical attention if this is the case.

Snake Plant

Snake Plant
The snake plant is an interesting and popular house plant. Its stark architecture and wavy coloring has made it a fan favorite. This plant too, however, is toxic when ingested or if the sap touches your skin.

Snake plant sap will cause rashes if it comes into contact with your skin. In addition, it will cause diarrhea and vomiting when ingested. Again these symptoms are very serious and would be best avoided by keeping snake plants out of reach or by choosing a different houseplant.
Common Toxic Garden Plants
Common Toxic Garden Plants

Daffodil

Daffodil
Daffodils are a strikingly colorful flower. This can sometimes bring them much attention not from just onlooking adults but children as well. Since kids are more drawn to colorful objects, they may have a higher chance of just grabbing the flower and eating it. Adults have also been known to accidentally grab daffodil bulbs instead of onions.

Why are these mistakes so dangerous? Daffodils contain lycorine, which can induce nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. It also contains oxalates which can cause swelling and pain. The symptoms can be worse in animals, because if your pets eat daffodils they may experience drowsiness, low blood pressure or even liver damage.

Make sure to call poison control when these symptoms set in. The vomiting and diarrhea have been known to go away after 3 hours, but it is better to be safe than sorry. Ingesting liquids to keep hydration up can be important. If the patient is having difficulty breathing, seek medical attention immediately.

Hydrangea

Hydrangea
Hydrangeas are unique, with their soft blue and pink flowers. They are a great addition to any garden, but should not be snacked on—not that you would want to. Hydrangeas can be especially nasty because they contain compounds known as glycosides. These will release hydrogen cyanide into the bloodstream when consumed. This will block your body’s ability to uptake oxygen to the cells in your body.

The way to combat this kind of poisoning is through getting IVs from the vet or doctor. It is important to contact your medical professional immediately since the symptoms can be fatal within minutes or hours.

Rhododendrons

Rhododendrons
Rhododendron, the state flower of Washington, is also toxic. The multitudinous, pink flowers can be quite dangerous. All parts of this plant are toxic, the leaves and seeds more so than the flowers. However, even the nectar of the flower is toxic and in the Mediterranean, where rhododendrons grow in more dense quantities, the honey from bees who gather rhododendron nectar can be poisonous.

Normally kids and pets do not eat enough to experience the full poisoning effect. However, just eating two leaves is enough to be considered dangerous. The grayanotoxin glycosides within the rhododendron can cause vomiting, diarrhea and irregular heartbeats. Things can get very serious when too much rhododendron is consumed and can lead to necessary medical intervention.

Start by calling poison control first if you suspect anyone has been munching on rhododendrons. The experts there will be able to help guide you through the necessary processes to cure your loved one.

Rhubarb

Rhubarb
Yummy rhubarb has a nasty side to it. While the stems are used in many recipes, including for rhubarb strawberry pie, the leaves are toxic. They contain oxalic acid which is known to blister the mouth, cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and kidney stones. The leaves are known to be more toxic to pets than humans, but in either case, it is important to contact poison control immediately to figure out necessary steps to cure the patient.
Common Toxic Weeds in the Yard
Common Toxic Weeds in the Yard

Bittersweet Nightshade

Bittersweet Nightshade
Nightshade is an invasive, noxious weed that is extremely poisonous. It has been found along the East and West Coast of the U.S. It makes its home in areas with disturbed soil. This could be near your garden or areas that have recently had bushes/trees put in.

These plants are dark green with purple flowers that develop into bright red berries. The whole plant is toxic and should be avoided by pets and children alike. If ingested it can cause nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. The colorful berries are especially enticing to young children. If you see any plants that look similar to tomato or pepper plants that you did not plant in your yard, it is best to just pull them immediately.

Call poison control immediately if you think someone has fallen victim to nightshade.

Buttercups

Buttercups
Buttercups are found throughout the United States, especially in wet areas. The shiny, yellow flowers will pop up in the springtime, accompanying their dandelion friends. However, unlike dandelions, buttercups are not edible.

Buttercups will release a compound called protoanemonin. This toxin is known to cause vomiting, diarrhea, bloody stool, hypersalivation, depression, blisters, and more. These symptoms will affect both humans and animals. The sap may also cause irritation when it comes into contact with skin. These yellow flowers are dangerous and children should be observed cautiously when around them.

Foxgloves

Foxgloves
Foxgloves are beautiful plants that build towers out of vivid purple bell-shaped blossoms. They are very pretty to look at, but they contain a compound known as digoxin. This chemical is used in certain medicines to help people with certain heart conditions. However, the medicine is made by specialists, whereas someone eating foxgloves will receive unregulated amounts of the chemical.

This toxin can make you vomit and lower your heartbeat. This often causes dizziness and faintness. It is extremely important to call poison control immediately to know what to do in the case of foxglove poisoning. Some people have confused the young leaves of foxglove with borage, making adult foragers at risk as well as kids and pets.
How to Tend to or Get Rid of Toxic Plants
How to Tend to or Get Rid of Toxic Plants
Now that you know where to start with toxic plant identification, let us discuss how to either tend to the poisonous plants you decide to keep or get rid of them that plague your yard.

How to Tend to Poisonous Plants

Many plants that are toxic when ingested are also skin irritants. The philodendron is a good example of this. When the sap comes into contact with skin, it can cause a rash to form. To help protect yourself when tending to toxic plants, it is important to wear some sort of gloves.
Tend
Latex gloves may be the best solution due to their disposability. Regular gloves could potentially keep the poisonous sap on their surface. If the gloves aren’t cleaned then you could accidentally touch the irritant or pass it to someone else.

In addition you will want to plan where to keep your deadly beauties. If you have a toxic indoor plant try to keep it up high or out of reach of children and pets. This will keep accidents few and far between. Another idea is keeping your plants in areas that are usually inaccessible to children or pets. Areas such as an office, study room, or guest bedroom could be good locations. If applicable, you could also set up a terrarium for your little plant baby, making it more difficult for curious hands or paws to access.
tend2
If you plan to have outdoor plants, location will be key. You will want to put plants in an area that will be inaccessible to children, pets and even wild animals. You will probably want to avoid planting the plants in the front of your house if kids walk by on a regular basis, just to be cautious. Having the plants behind a fence will be best, but use your discretion when choosing a spot.

How to Get Rid of Poisonous Plants

plants
The easiest but possibly most controversial way to get rid of poisonous plants is by using herbicides. This can be especially easy if you own a grass lawn and use an herbicide that targets broadleaf (non-grass) species. You can find many herbicides meant for yard use by simply searching the term online. Once you have purchased the herbicide you will want to make sure to follow the label posted on the container. If you follow the instructions precisely, then everything should run smoothly for you.

If you don’t plan on using herbicides, there are a few organic methods you can use to try to get rid of toxic plants. You can manually pull the plants out of the ground. This is probably one of the most difficult methods because there is no assurance that you will get the whole plant out this way.

You can also try pouring boiling hot water or spraying white vinegar on the target plants. This may take more time than using a synthetic herbicide, but you can feel a little better about using these products.

You can also try to use wood chips to cover a certain area where you do not want anything to grow. This will not stop all the weeds, but the few that make it through can be easily picked by hand.
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Who Is Most at Risk of Plant Poisoning?
Everyone should keep the following in mind to prevent being poisoned:
1
Do not eat any parts, nor contact with the sap of toxic or unknown plants;
2
If you need to kill it, wear long-sleeved shirts, pants and gloves with sharp tools to dig it out completely;
3
Clean the tools with rubbing alcohol or soap and water but do not do that with bare hands;
4
Clean your hands and skin once exposed to plants with soap and water;
5
Consider using barrier creams that contain bentoquatam to prevent poison oak, ivy and sumac rashes;
6
Dump it in special trash cans in sealed garbage packages;
7
Wear properly when you hiking or working in the wilderness. Long pants, long sleeves, gloves, hiking shoes, etc., that protect you from being hurt by any plants;
8
Once you or your family aren’t feeling well after eating, touching or inhaling anything from toxic plants, please call your doctor for help ASAP!
Outdoor Workers
Outdoor Workers and Recreationalists
Those who enjoy the outdoors either as a hobby or as part of their work will rarely see a plant and decide to munch on it (although the scenario is not unheard of). However, they do tend to deal with moving through and brushing aside plants. These people are more at risk of being poisoned by touching toxic plants than by ingesting them.
Outdoor Workers
Foragers
Foragers
Foraging for food and medicinal plants is a desirable skill among people who want to feel at one with the land. This hobby can be very useful and enjoyable, but if done wrong , it can lead to disastrous effects. People who forage are picking and grabbing plants with the full intention of using those plants, most of the time to ingest them.
Foragers
Children
Children
While outdoor workers are more likely to touch poison and foragers are more likely to ingest poison, children can easily do both. These bundles of joy just love to run around and explore the world. They enjoy touching things and occasionally shoving random stuff in their mouth; this is a terrible combination with toxic plants in the mix.
If you let your children run about, it is important to know what are the local toxic plants that they could accidentally get into. Try to educate the children and steer them away from where the toxic plants are located.
Children
Common Toxic Houseplants
Common Toxic Houseplants
When it comes to decorating a house, there is nothing more refreshing than adding some beautiful houseplants. Some common house plants can also be toxic.

Aloe

aloe
Aloe is famous for its sunburn-soothing properties and its gorgeous desert design. However, many people do not realize that the latex the aloe vera plant produces can be mildly toxic to pets and children.

The latex contains a chemical compound known as saponin. Which when ingested, can cause vomiting, diarrhea, and low blood sugar. This, if left unchecked, can lead to dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. The proper response is to contact poison control or a veterinarian to know what to do in your particular circumstance if either your child or pet consumes aloe.

The latex of the plant is similar to the sap of the tree. It is inside the leaf, but sticks mainly toward the edges. If aloe gel is prepared properly it should be safe for use, but be sure to apply it only topically when treating burns.

Philodendron

Philodendron
Philodendron, also known as sweetheart vine, has become a resident at many houses and even businesses. They are glossy green and the leaves elegantly split, displaying interesting designs. Behind this beauty there is a needle-like toxin called calcium oxalate crystals.

These crystals are held within the plant and only affect you, your pets, or your loved ones if the plant tissue is broken. If ingested, the crystals can cause severe swelling, difficulty breathing, stomach pain, burning and pain. If they are accidentally caught on the skin, they can cause skin irritation.

If anyone accidentally ingests philodendron and they find it difficult to breathe or their tongue starts to swell up, it is important to seek medical attention immediately to avoid suffocation. If you have very young children or pets who have a tendency to tear at plants, keep them away from any philodendrons.

Peace Lily

Peace Lily
Peace lilies produce stunningly white flowers that bring to mind peace and serenity. This is one reason they are invited into our homes and given a place to stay. However, similar to philodendrons, the peace lily contains oxalate crystals known as raphides.

The raphides, once ingested, will cause swelling and burning sensations and can also cause skin irritation. Both pets and humans can get these symptoms so it is important to keep these plants from anyone who is likely to tear or chew it. Symptoms can become dire if the raphides cause the tongue and throat to swell to a point where the person or pet is having difficulty breathing. Seek proper medical attention if this is the case.

Snake Plant

Snake Plant
The snake plant is an interesting and popular house plant. Its stark architecture and wavy coloring has made it a fan favorite. This plant too, however, is toxic when ingested or if the sap touches your skin.

Snake plant sap will cause rashes if it comes into contact with your skin. In addition, it will cause diarrhea and vomiting when ingested. Again these symptoms are very serious and would be best avoided by keeping snake plants out of reach or by choosing a different houseplant.
Common Toxic Garden Plants
Common Toxic Garden Plants

Daffodil

Daffodil
Daffodils are a strikingly colorful flower. This can sometimes bring them much attention not from just onlooking adults but children as well. Since kids are more drawn to colorful objects, they may have a higher chance of just grabbing the flower and eating it. Adults have also been known to accidentally grab daffodil bulbs instead of onions.

Why are these mistakes so dangerous? Daffodils contain lycorine, which can induce nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. It also contains oxalates which can cause swelling and pain. The symptoms can be worse in animals, because if your pets eat daffodils they may experience drowsiness, low blood pressure or even liver damage.

Make sure to call poison control when these symptoms set in. The vomiting and diarrhea have been known to go away after 3 hours, but it is better to be safe than sorry. Ingesting liquids to keep hydration up can be important. If the patient is having difficulty breathing, seek medical attention immediately.

Hydrangea

Hydrangea
Hydrangeas are unique, with their soft blue and pink flowers. They are a great addition to any garden, but should not be snacked on—not that you would want to. Hydrangeas can be especially nasty because they contain compounds known as glycosides. These will release hydrogen cyanide into the bloodstream when consumed. This will block your body’s ability to uptake oxygen to the cells in your body.

The way to combat this kind of poisoning is through getting IVs from the vet or doctor. It is important to contact your medical professional immediately since the symptoms can be fatal within minutes or hours.

Rhododendrons

Rhododendrons
Rhododendron, the state flower of Washington, is also toxic. The multitudinous, pink flowers can be quite dangerous. All parts of this plant are toxic, the leaves and seeds more so than the flowers. However, even the nectar of the flower is toxic and in the Mediterranean, where rhododendrons grow in more dense quantities, the honey from bees who gather rhododendron nectar can be poisonous.

Normally kids and pets do not eat enough to experience the full poisoning effect. However, just eating two leaves is enough to be considered dangerous. The grayanotoxin glycosides within the rhododendron can cause vomiting, diarrhea and irregular heartbeats. Things can get very serious when too much rhododendron is consumed and can lead to necessary medical intervention.

Start by calling poison control first if you suspect anyone has been munching on rhododendrons. The experts there will be able to help guide you through the necessary processes to cure your loved one.

Rhubarb

Rhubarb
Yummy rhubarb has a nasty side to it. While the stems are used in many recipes, including for rhubarb strawberry pie, the leaves are toxic. They contain oxalic acid which is known to blister the mouth, cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and kidney stones. The leaves are known to be more toxic to pets than humans, but in either case, it is important to contact poison control immediately to figure out necessary steps to cure the patient.
Common Toxic Weeds in the Yard
Common Toxic Weeds in the Yard

Bittersweet Nightshade

Bittersweet Nightshade
Nightshade is an invasive, noxious weed that is extremely poisonous. It has been found along the East and West Coast of the U.S. It makes its home in areas with disturbed soil. This could be near your garden or areas that have recently had bushes/trees put in.

These plants are dark green with purple flowers that develop into bright red berries. The whole plant is toxic and should be avoided by pets and children alike. If ingested it can cause nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. The colorful berries are especially enticing to young children. If you see any plants that look similar to tomato or pepper plants that you did not plant in your yard, it is best to just pull them immediately.

Call poison control immediately if you think someone has fallen victim to nightshade.

Buttercups

Buttercups
Buttercups are found throughout the United States, especially in wet areas. The shiny, yellow flowers will pop up in the springtime, accompanying their dandelion friends. However, unlike dandelions, buttercups are not edible.

Buttercups will release a compound called protoanemonin. This toxin is known to cause vomiting, diarrhea, bloody stool, hypersalivation, depression, blisters, and more. These symptoms will affect both humans and animals. The sap may also cause irritation when it comes into contact with skin. These yellow flowers are dangerous and children should be observed cautiously when around them.

Foxgloves

Foxgloves
Foxgloves are beautiful plants that build towers out of vivid purple bell-shaped blossoms. They are very pretty to look at, but they contain a compound known as digoxin. This chemical is used in certain medicines to help people with certain heart conditions. However, the medicine is made by specialists, whereas someone eating foxgloves will receive unregulated amounts of the chemical.

This toxin can make you vomit and lower your heartbeat. This often causes dizziness and faintness. It is extremely important to call poison control immediately to know what to do in the case of foxglove poisoning. Some people have confused the young leaves of foxglove with borage, making adult foragers at risk as well as kids and pets.
How to Tend to or Get Rid of Toxic Plants
How to Tend to or Get Rid of Toxic Plants
Now that you know where to start with toxic plant identification, let us discuss how to either tend to the poisonous plants you decide to keep or get rid of them that plague your yard.

How to Tend to Poisonous Plants

Many plants that are toxic when ingested are also skin irritants. The philodendron is a good example of this. When the sap comes into contact with skin, it can cause a rash to form. To help protect yourself when tending to toxic plants, it is important to wear some sort of gloves.
Tend
Latex gloves may be the best solution due to their disposability. Regular gloves could potentially keep the poisonous sap on their surface. If the gloves aren’t cleaned then you could accidentally touch the irritant or pass it to someone else.

In addition you will want to plan where to keep your deadly beauties. If you have a toxic indoor plant try to keep it up high or out of reach of children and pets. This will keep accidents few and far between. Another idea is keeping your plants in areas that are usually inaccessible to children or pets. Areas such as an office, study room, or guest bedroom could be good locations. If applicable, you could also set up a terrarium for your little plant baby, making it more difficult for curious hands or paws to access.
tend2
If you plan to have outdoor plants, location will be key. You will want to put plants in an area that will be inaccessible to children, pets and even wild animals. You will probably want to avoid planting the plants in the front of your house if kids walk by on a regular basis, just to be cautious. Having the plants behind a fence will be best, but use your discretion when choosing a spot.

How to Get Rid of Poisonous Plants

plants
The easiest but possibly most controversial way to get rid of poisonous plants is by using herbicides. This can be especially easy if you own a grass lawn and use an herbicide that targets broadleaf (non-grass) species. You can find many herbicides meant for yard use by simply searching the term online. Once you have purchased the herbicide you will want to make sure to follow the label posted on the container. If you follow the instructions precisely, then everything should run smoothly for you.

If you don’t plan on using herbicides, there are a few organic methods you can use to try to get rid of toxic plants. You can manually pull the plants out of the ground. This is probably one of the most difficult methods because there is no assurance that you will get the whole plant out this way.

You can also try pouring boiling hot water or spraying white vinegar on the target plants. This may take more time than using a synthetic herbicide, but you can feel a little better about using these products.

You can also try to use wood chips to cover a certain area where you do not want anything to grow. This will not stop all the weeds, but the few that make it through can be easily picked by hand.
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care_more_info

More About Blackthorn

Plant Type
Plant Type
Tree, Shrub
Lifespan
Lifespan
Perennial
Spread
Spread
4 m
Bloom Time
Bloom Time
Spring
Flower Color
Flower Color
White
Leaf Color
Leaf Color
Green
Flower Size
Flower Size
1 to 1.5 cm
Plant Height
Plant Height
4 to 8 m

Name story

Blackthorn
Prunus indicates the tree is a member of the plum family, and spinosa means thorny. The common name blackthorn refers to its dark bark, which is sometimes used to make ink.

Usages

Garden Use
Blackthorn is a fast-growing tree or shrub that is popularly cultivated as natural fencing or hedges. Proving itself highly attractive to wildlife, this is a plant that can prove key for wildlife gardens or meadows. It provides seasonal interest with delicate white flowers in the spring and dark-colored sloe berries in the autumn.
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Common Problems

Why does my blackthorn lack water and why are its leaves wilting?

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Blackthorn has a shallow root system. If the water level below the planting site is very deep, it will be difficult for the tree to absorb water, causing it to be continually short of water and resulting in withered leaves. Also, the soil may not be loose and well-ventilated, which can cause root rot and affect the plant's ability to absorb water.
If the tree has been recently transplanted, the root system may have been injured during the transplantation process. Sufficient water should be provided, while any excess branches and leaves should be removed to reduce transpiration. Moderate shade is conducive to the survival of transplanted trees.

Why does my blackthorn grow leaves but hardly any flowers?

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This is usually caused by a lack of nutrition. Prior to its blooming period, you should apply some phosphorus and potassium fertilizer to induce blossoms. After blooming has finished, apply an additional round of fertilizer. This can help new buds to grow and also means that the tree will accumulate nutrients for the following year.
Ample sunshine, increased air circulation, and appropriate watering are essential for good blooming. Pay attention to the trimming of any overly crowded branches and trim off any excessive flowers and fruit to improve the quality of the fruit.

Why do leaves of blackthorn turn yellow or wither?

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There can be multiple reasons for this problem. It needs to be determined whether the problem is caused by environmental factors or whether it is caused by diseases or pests. Insufficient sunshine, sunburn, prolonged dry soil, and a lack of nutrition are all environmental factors that can cause the leaves to turn yellow and wilt.
If the problem is caused by pests, you will often see the marks made by bugs chewing on the leaves. if you cannot find these marks, the problem may be caused by a disease. If the plant has a disease, you will need to cut off the infected area and treat the cut with fungicide or bactericide to disinfect the area.
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About
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Toxicity
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FAQ
Blackthorn
Blackthorn
Blackthorn
Blackthorn
Blackthorn

How to Care for Blackthorn

Blackthorn (Prunus spinosa) is a large deciduous shrub species that is also commonly called a sloe. Blackthorn is indigenous to Europe, Asia, and Africa. In Britain, this species is used to make a liquor called sloe gin. In Ireland, its wood is made into walking sticks.
symbolism

Symbolism

Waning and Dark Moon
Water
Every 2 weeks
Water
Sunlight
Full sun
Sunlight Sunlight detail
Toxic to Pets
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Basic Care Guide

Cultivation:WaterDetail

How to Water Blackthorn?

Cultivation:WaterDetail
You should water blackthorn and adjust the frequency of watering based on its stage of growth, the local weather, and the condition of the soil. Before budding (in mid-spring), it should be watered once. From mid-spring to just before the fall, it should be watered every month. It needs to be thoroughly watered each time you water it, until the water on the soil surface stops draining away. This will ensure that it has sufficient water for growth.
After watering, remember to loosen the soil and remove any weeds in a timely fashion. Stop watering in the autumn and especially in the winter, otherwise it will suffer from frost damage.
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Cultivation:FertilizerDetail

How to Fertilize Blackthorn?

Cultivation:FertilizerDetail
Blackthorn likes to be fertilized. A sufficient amount of fertilizer will ensure that it grows healthily and bears fruit. Organic fertilizer is usually used for its base fertilizer. When applying fertilizer, dig a circular trench around the external circumference of the tree crown, at a depth of 38 cm and a width of 28 cm. Apply the fertilizer evenly throughout the trench, then backfill the soil.
Fertilizer should be applied twice a year, the first time prior to blooming, to supply nutrients for the flowers, and the second time when the fruit is growing larger, to supply nutrients for fruit growth and to increase the yield.
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Fertilizer

Blackthorn is generally grown in order to produce edible fruit, and requires ample nutrients to be able to yield the most fruit with the best flavor. Without enough nutrients, the leaves and flowers may be underdeveloped, and the Blackthorn fails to thrive overall. This is why many gardeners prefer to fertilize.
The growth of plants continues to deplete the soil of nutrients, especially those of the fast growing types. So regular fertilization to give Blackthorn some extra supply of nutrients will not only help it stay healthy, but will also allow it to grow more and more delicious fruit.
Plants may face many problems if they have not been fertilized for a long time. Nutrient deficiency can cause foliage issues, most commonly yellow leaves. Leaves may also develop a reddish color, shape deformities, withered tips, or dieback across large portions of the plant. Some types of nutrient deficiency can cause bark disorders, slow growth, poor shoot development, and a lack of fruit production.
The best time to fertilize is in the early spring, before the buds emerge. As Blackthorn energes from winter dormancy, it uses the reserves that were stored up over the winter to put out new growth. Lots of energy will be needed to support the development of blooms, so fertilizing about 2 to 4 weeks before you expect it to bloom provides enough time for the nutrients to soak into the soil and then be absorbed and dispersed throughout the plant.You can continue to feed Blackthorn during the spring, but it is best not to fertilize in the autumn because this can cause too much foliage to develop late in the season. That makes the leaves susceptible to damage in winter.
Usually the use of some fertilizer with balanced nutrition (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) can bring many benefits. The main nutrients that plants need are nitrogen for leaf growth and chlorophyll. Phosphorus supports the root system as well as to produce blossoms, fruits, and seeds. Potassium develops the systems used for photosynthesis and transporting water and nutrients throughout the plant.You may choose to use a commercial fertilizer specialized for a certain type of tree, or you can use organic nitrogen sources such as manure, feather meal, or blood meal. Conducting a soil test can help you get a good idea of the condition of your soil and apply fertilizer more precisely. For commercial fertilizers, you could use a balanced granular fertilizer with an NPK of 10-10-10 or similar if your soil does not have sufficient phosphorus and potassium according to your soil test. In most cases the nitrogen in the soil is continuously lost with rainfall. If your soil has sufficient levels of phosphorus and potassium, a high-nitrogen fertilizer with a ratio of 6-2-1 or 10-2-2 would be more suitable.Always follow directions for the specific type of fertilizer and do research on how to use it for the Blackthorn you are growing.
Granular fertilizers and organic fertilizers such as blood meal are applied by sprinkling the substance around the base of the tree all the way to the drip line (the space below the farthest-reaching branches) but do not let fertilizer come in contact with the trunk. Over time, the granules break down and filter into the soil to be absorbed into the roots. After fertilizing, spread an inch-deep layer of compost around the base of the tree and water thoroughly.
It is far better to under-fertilize than over-fertilize, since you can always add more but you cannot easily take away excess fertilizer. Over-fertilizing your Blackthorn may cause brown leaf tips and edges, yellowing, wilting leaves, and possibly a visible crust of fertilizer salts on the surface of the soil around the plant. This condition is called fertilizer burn and results from too many accumulated salts in the plant’s cells. If excess nitrogen is the issue, the Blackthorn will produce a lot of leaves but won’t grow much fruit since nitrogen supports foliage growth.
Avoid fertilizing Blackthorn at all in the first year of growth, and be cautious about providing fertilizer if it is not necessary. You also should not fertilize if you pruned 20% of the plant or more the previous year. Hold off on fertilizing plants that are diseased or damaged, as this can do more harm than good. Remember that fertilizer is not medicine, and instead get to the root cause of the issue before you think about feeding the plant again.Do not fertilize after the peak of summer, which can cause too much growth just before winter. Also, Blackthorn should not be fertilized during hot and dry times of year, since dry soil does not deliver fertilizer as effectively as moist soil. Fertilizing at this time can also stimulate growth which in turn needs more water that may not be available. It is best to keep fertilizer for earlier in the season when temperatures are cooler. Finally, remember that Blackthorn can absorb fertilizer that has been applied to nearby plants or lawns, so be cautious about inadvertently giving plants a double-dose of fertilizer.
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Cultivation:SunlightDetail

What Are the Sunlight Requirements for Blackthorn?

Cultivation:SunlightDetail
Blackthorn likes sunshine. As a fruit tree, ample sunlight for photosynthesis is necessary for its growth and to provide sufficient nutrition to develop fruit. It should be planted in a spot that ensures it can receive at least 6 hours of sunlight, and ideally no less than 8 hours of sunlight.
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Cultivation:PruningDetail

How to Prune Blackthorn?

Cultivation:PruningDetail
Blackthorn sprouts on branches that have strong budding capabilities. However, the branches can easily become overcrowded and need frequent pruning to maintain the shape, air circulation, and light exposure within the tree. This also helps to prevent pests and diseases while at the same time helping the leaves receive more sunlight.
Blackthorn can generate a large amount of fruit without any artificial pollination. Because blackthorn can produce a large number of flowers with a high yield of fruit, to maintain its growth and the quality of fruit, it is recommended that some flowers and fruit be removed to concentrate the nutrients for the remaining fruit. As a result, there will not be a large amount of fruit, but those left will be of higher quality and have an improved flavor.
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Advanced Care Guide

Cultivation:WaterAndHardinessDetail

What is the Ideal Temperature Range for Blackthorn?

Cultivation:WaterAndHardinessDetail
Blackthorn is fairly good at surviving in low temperatures. The temperature it can tolerate ranges from -22 ℃ to 42 ℃. It is also not very picky when it comes to water. It does not need a lot of water and is resistant to both drought and flood.
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Cultivation:SoilDetail

What Soil is Best for Blackthorn?

Cultivation:SoilDetail
When planting blackthorn, you should select a sandy loam soil or loam that is thick, rich in organic matter, and with a slight to medium alkaline pH of 7-8.5. Avoid planting it in a place where salt and alkalis are concentrated. Additionally, make sure that the soil is moist but drains well. It is best not to grow blackthorn in clay soil.
Cultivation:PropagationDetail

How to Propagate Blackthorn?

Cultivation:PropagationDetail
Blackthorn can be propagated by grafting. Select healthy and strong that have 3-4 fully developed buds for grafting in mid-spring, or directly use buds for grafting in the summer.
Cut a T-shaped opening in the stock, and insert the branch or bud into the cut between its xylem and phloem, while making sure the phloem vessels are in contact with each other. Then, use plastic wrapping to bind them together. After 10-20 days, when the cut has healed and the branch or bud has survived, the plastic wrap can be removed.
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Propagation

Grafting is the most common way to propagate fruit trees, which can help you get plants with good flavor and yield in the shortest possible time.
While the precise timing for when you should graft a plant will vary based on the type of plant in question, it is generally best to graft most plants from late winter to early spring. It is also crucial to ensure that the plant onto which you are attaching your scion is in a stage of active growth. The seedlings that have just started to grow cannot be grafted until it's 2 years old.
Anyone who wants to graft a plant will be wise to set themselves up with the best tools for the job before they get started. Here is a quick list of the items you’ll need to graft a plant.
What you will need:
  1. A sharp cutting tool, preferably a grafting knife
  2. Diluted bleach solution or isopropyl alcohol to clean tools
  3. Grafting wax
  4. Twine or string
  5. Grafting tape
Steps:
The size of the understock determines which of the two basic types of grafting teachniques should be used in propagation. A graft may be made to join a nearly equal sized scion and understock together, or several small scions to a larger understock as in cleft or bark grafting.
Grafts with similar scion and understock sizes
Step 1: Remove a branch with a few healthy buds on it as scions. The understock needs to be selected from seedlings of good varieties. The scion and the understock should be of the similar size of thickness.
Step 2: Cutting the stock and scion. Create similar slanted cuts at the bottom of the scion and the top of stock. Split the incision along the longitudinal direction in the middle of the bevel of the understock and scion body for better contact of the incision.
Step 3: Match up the cuts on the scion and the rootstock.
Step 4: Use your twine to secure the connection between the branch and the rootstock. Consider applying grafting wax to protect the wounds.
Grafts with small scions and large understocks
Step 1: Remove a branch with a few healthy buds on it as scions. The understock needs to be selected from seedlings of good varieties and needs to be larger than the the scion. The scion should preferably be a branch over one year old.
Step 2: After removing the leaves and buds from the understock seedling stem. Use a razor blade to make avertical cut from the stem cross-section from the tip. The bottom of the scion should be cut in the shape of a wedge. A slight outward tilt of the scion facilitates wound contact. Leaving a maximum of 3 buds at the end and cut off excess buds on the top.
Step 3: Match up the cuts on the grafted branch and the rootstock.
Step 4: Consider applying grafting wax to protect the wounds.
Step 5: Wrap the graft with grafting tape to protect it while it heals.
Caution: Grafting between the same species is usually successful. Grafting between different genera is occasionally successful. And grafting between families usually cannot be performed.
It can also be propagated by the means of layering.
Pay attention to the age of the branch you want to propagate to know when to start air layering. If you're working with a branch that is old-growth, preferably from the previous year’s growth, spring is the best time for layering. If your chosen branch is new growth, mid-summer is your best bet. These warm months are the best time to encourage new root growth in your plants. A pencil-thick branch could be a good choice.
Since air layering is a little more complicated than other types of layering, you’ll need a few extra tools before you begin the process. Make sure you have everything on hand and then begin!
  1. A sharp, sanitized knife
  2. Peat moss for wrapping
  3. Plastic wrap for wrapping
  4. Rubber bands or twist ties
  5. (optional) aluminum foil
  6. (optional) plant growth hormones
Steps:
Step 1: Choose a thick upper stem and clear off the leaves around a chosen node.
Step 2: Below this node, ring peel the plant to a length of 0.5 to 1 inches, completely stripping the bark of the plant. It is necessary to pay attention to safety of the plant when ring stripping.
Step 3: Apply moist (not wet) peat moss to the cut area. Hold the moss in place by tightly wrapping the area with plastic wrap and ties. Apply an extra layer of aluminum foil for sun protection if needed.
Step 4: Remove the stem for propagation once the peat moss is visibly filled with roots. Make sure the wrapped moss is moist during rooting. Use a syringe to inject water if you find that the peat moss is already dry.
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Cultivation:PlantingDetail

How to Plant Blackthorn?

Cultivation:PlantingDetail
You can purchase blackthorn saplings in garden centers. Pay attention to two things before planting. First, choose an area of the garden that has a lower altitude to plant your blackthorn. This will help it to acquire enough water because its roots are shallow. Additionally, apply sufficient base fertilizer before planting it, mostly organic fertilizer. Once planted, remember to water it soon after, until the water on the surface of the soil stops draining away. When this happens you have provided sufficient water.
We generally do not sow seeds to propagate blackthorn because the seeds need to undergo post-ripening effects. This means that the seeds are not yet mature when they are harvested. It is only after a period of special treatment that the seeds can complete their biochemical processes and reach the condition of being mature seeds that are able to germinate.
Cultivation:HarvestDetail

How to Harvest Blackthorn?

Cultivation:HarvestDetail
The fruits of blackthorn usually ripen in the early fall and can be picked for eating. If the fruit needs to be stored or transported a long distance, it is better to harvest the fruit before it softens, such as during the late summer or early fall. Note that fruit should be handled gently and, ideally, and the twig should remain on the fruit.
PlantCare:TransplantSummary

How to Transplant Blackthorn?

PlantCare:TransplantSummary
Blackthorn is best transplanted during cooler months of S1-S2, as mild temperatures reduce plant stress and promote root establishment. The ideal spot is sunny to semi-shaded with well-drained soil. Remember to water frequently after transplantation to encourage healthy growth.
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More Info on Blackthorn Growth and Care

Basic Care Guide
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Seasonal Care Tips

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Spring

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Summer

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Fall

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Winter

This plant and other temperate fruiting trees and shrubs require care in the early spring.

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Prune back old growth but wait until after the last frost.
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Spring is also the best time for planting, but do not fertilize new plants. Mature specimens will benefit from a monthly application of organic fertilizer.
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3
Water the plant deeply every couple of weeks.
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4
Container plants require sunlight in the spring. Move the container to a location receiving several hours of sunlight a day.

Fruiting temperate trees and shrubs like this plant benefit from care during the summer.

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A monthly application of organic fertilizer throughout the summer helps to support growth and encourage fruiting.
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2
Keep an eye on soil moisture, watering whenever the soil is beginning to dry out.
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Remove any dead and dying leaves from the plant and around the base to help avoid issues with pests and diseases.
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4
Prune back old growth to help avoid potential issues with broken branches.
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Move container plants to a partially shady location if they are in a consistently sunny area.

You should provide frequent care to your plant throughout the fall.

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Up until your plant reaches dormancy in the cold winter months, continue to water it in cases of little to no rainfall to ensure the soil stays moist and the plant stays productive.
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Make sure it received plenty of direct sun as well.
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Fertilize it once at the beginning of fall, with a citrus fertilizer, then stop fertilizing and pruning during this season, especially as winter approaches. This will help your plant enter winter dormancy more easily.
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Rake up any fallen fall foliage to deter pests and diseases, as bacteria can easily grow in the fallen leaves at the base of the plant.

While your plant is dormant in the winter, let it rest. You’ll need to provide only minimal care at this time.

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Water your plant infrequently, providing it with water it only after the soil dries out to avoid waking it up.
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At the very end of winter, before new growth begins, prune away dead, diseased, or overcrowded branches to jumpstart fresh growth in the spring.
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If you have a potted variety, you can overwinter it indoors in bright sunlight, and you can possibly enjoy the harvest from your plant throughout the season.
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Common Pests & Diseases

Common issues for Blackthorn based on 10 million real cases
Brown spot
Brown spot Brown spot Brown spot
This infection can cause brown spots or patches to appear on the plant.
Solutions: In minor cases of brown spot, there isn’t any need to treat the disease. However, if much of the foliage is affected and defoliation occurs, the plant will benefit from getting rid of the infection. It is recommended to start by applying organic treatment options, working up to the more potent synthetic, chemical fungicides if necessary. Organic options won’t kill the fungus, but will prevent it from spreading. Dissolve ½ teaspoon of baking soda and one teaspoon of liquid soap in a gallon of water. Using a spray bottle, spray on tops and bottoms of leaves until the mixture drips off. Repeat every two weeks until existing spots stop enlarging and new spots no longer appear. Spray a copper-based fungicidal soap on the leaves, coating the top and bottom leaf surfaces. Reapply as directed on the product label. Copper penetrates the leaf surface and prevents germination of spores so the fungus cannot spread. Apply an all-purpose fungicide to the entire plant, following the label instructions carefully.
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Leaf beetles
Leaf beetles Leaf beetles Leaf beetles
Leaf beetles are a class of colored insects 1 to 2 cm in size. They gnaw on leaves and petals resulting in small, round holes scattered over the surface.
Solutions: For less serious cases: Remove beetles, nymphs, and eggs. Remove all life stages of the beetles and kill them by placing them in a bucket of warm, soapy water. This can be done more easily by placing the bucket under affected leaves and shaking the plant. This method is most effective in the afternoon when leaf beetles are more active. Always dispose of insects in a sealed bag or container to avoid escape and spread. To treat more serious infestations: Apply organic insecticides. Use naturally-derived insecticides before moving on to synthetic insecticides. Neem oil and pyrethrum are naturally-derived insecticides that should be applied following label instructions. Apply synthetic insecticides. Examples of insecticides effective for leaf beetles include carbaryl, permethrin, and bifenthrin. Apply insecticides according to label instructions.
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Shot hole disease
Shot hole disease Shot hole disease Shot hole disease
Bacterial perforation disease creates brown spots on the leaves which eventually dry up and fall away, leaving perforations in the leaf surface.
Solutions: In the case of mild disease symptoms: Remove diseased leaves immediately. Also remove any foliage on the ground near the plants, including leaves without the disease. Take care not to touch healthy foliage during removal to avoid spreading. It is best to remove leaves in dry, cool weather. When holes and spots are numerous, and leaves start to drop, take these actions immediately. Remove diseased leaves right away. Just like in mild cases, remove all foliage on the ground near the plant. Avoid touching non-diseased foliage, and only remove leaves when they are dry. Apply fungicide and bactericide. Apply a copper-based fungicide. Spray young leaves about once every week. It's best to apply these products in spring when damage is beginning. After mid-summer, they will have little benefit.
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Aged yellow and dry
Aged yellow and dry Aged yellow and dry Aged yellow and dry
Natural aging can cause leaves to turn yellow and dry out.
Solutions: If the yellowing and drying of leaves and flowers is a natural progression due to age, nothing can be done to slow or stop the process. Once hormones within the plant begin the process of senescence, it’s irreversible.
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Underwatering
Underwatering Underwatering Underwatering
Leaves may wilt for a variety of reasons.
Solutions: The easiest (and most obvious) way to address underwatering is to fully hydrate the plant. However, this must be done carefully. A common mistake that many gardeners make is to douse their underwatered plants with water. This can overwhelm the roots of the plant and shock its system, something that can be even more damaging than the lack of water to begin with. Instead, water thoroughly and slowly, taking breaks to let the water slowly saturate through the soil to get to the roots. Use room temperature water, as cold water might be too much of a shock. In the future, shorten the time between waterings. A good rule of thumb is to check the soil around each plant daily. If it’s dry to at least two inches down, it’s time to water. If a container plant is repeatedly drying out very quickly, repotting into a slower-draining container might be a good idea, too.
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Underwatering yellow
Underwatering yellow Underwatering yellow Underwatering yellow
A lack of water will cause the leaves to gradually turn yellow starting at the base of the branch while the entire plant appears to wilt.
Solutions: Your plant is very thirsty and needs water promptly. You can revive your plant by giving it water. The easiest technique is to slowly pour water into your plant’s soil so that the whole surface is moistened. If you pour the water too quickly, the water will flow directly through rather than diffusing throughout the soil. If your plant’s pot does not have drainage holes, do not give your plant more than about a third of the pot’s volume of water. If your plant’s pot does have drainage holes, you can add water slowly until the soil is thoroughly moistened and the water flows freely through the pot. If you trim off yellow leaves to improve the plant’s appearance, do not remove more than a third of the plant’s leaves. It may be better to wait until leaves have died and fallen off to remove them.
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Brown spot
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Brown spot
This infection can cause brown spots or patches to appear on the plant.
Overview
Overview
Discolored spots on the foliage of plants are one of the most common disease problems people observe. These spots are caused by fungal and bacterial diseases, with most infections related to a fungal pathogen.
Brown spot can occurs on all houseplants, flowering ornamentals, vegetable plants, and leaves of trees, bushes, and shrubs. No plants are resistant to it, and the problem is worse in warm, wet environments. It can occur at any point in the life stage as long as leaves are present.
Small brownish spots appear on the foliage and enlarge as the disease progresses. In severe cases, the plant or tree is weakened when the lesions interrupt photosynthesis or cause defoliation.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
In most cases, brown spot only affects a small percentage of the whole plant, appearing on a small amount of the leaves. A small infection only puts minor stress on the plant. However, if left untreated and the disease progresses over numerous seasons, it will severely impact the health and productivity of the infected specimen.
  • Sporulation begins (reproduction of the fungal spores), and tiny spots appear on leaves.
  • Placement is often random and scattered as diseases are spread through raindrops.
  • May appear on lower leaves and the interior of the plant where humidity is higher.
  • Brown spots enlarge and grow large enough to touch neighboring spots to form a more prominent blotch.
  • Leaf margins may turn yellow.
  • Tiny black dots (fruiting bodies of the fungi) appear in the dead spots.
  • Blotches grow in size until the entire leaf is brown.
  • The leaf falls off the plant.
Severe Symptoms
  • Partial or complete premature defoliation
  • Reduced growth
  • Increased susceptibility to pests and other diseases
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
Brown spot, or leaf spot, is a common descriptive term given to several diseases affecting the leaves of plants and trees. Around 85% of diseases exhibiting leaf spots are due to fungus or fungus-like organisms. Sometimes brown spot is caused by a bacterial infection, or insect activity with similar symptoms.
When conditions are warm and the leaf surfaces are wet, fungal spores being transported by wind or rain land on the surface and cling to it. They do not rupture the cell walls but grow in the space between the plant plasma membrane and the plant cell wall. As the spores reproduce, they release toxins and enzymes that cause necrotic spots (i.e., dead tissue) on the leaves, allowing the fungi to consume the products released when the cells degrade.
Solutions
Solutions
In minor cases of brown spot, there isn’t any need to treat the disease. However, if much of the foliage is affected and defoliation occurs, the plant will benefit from getting rid of the infection. It is recommended to start by applying organic treatment options, working up to the more potent synthetic, chemical fungicides if necessary.
Organic options won’t kill the fungus, but will prevent it from spreading.
  1. Dissolve ½ teaspoon of baking soda and one teaspoon of liquid soap in a gallon of water. Using a spray bottle, spray on tops and bottoms of leaves until the mixture drips off. Repeat every two weeks until existing spots stop enlarging and new spots no longer appear.
  2. Spray a copper-based fungicidal soap on the leaves, coating the top and bottom leaf surfaces. Reapply as directed on the product label. Copper penetrates the leaf surface and prevents germination of spores so the fungus cannot spread.
  3. Apply an all-purpose fungicide to the entire plant, following the label instructions carefully.
Prevention
Prevention
Like many other diseases, it is easier to prevent brown spot than cure it, and this is done through cultural practices.
  • Clear fall leaves from the ground before winter to minimize places where fungi and bacteria can overwinter.
  • Maintain good air movement between plants through proper plant spacing.
  • Increase air circulation through the center of plants through pruning.
  • Thoroughly clean all pruning tools after working with diseased plants.
  • Never dispose of disease plant material in a compost pile.
  • Avoid overhead watering to keep moisture off of the foliage.
  • Keep plants healthy by providing adequate sunlight, water, and fertilizer.
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Leaf beetles
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Leaf beetles
Leaf beetles are a class of colored insects 1 to 2 cm in size. They gnaw on leaves and petals resulting in small, round holes scattered over the surface.
Overview
Overview
Leaf beetles range in size from 1.5 mm to 2 cm. Both adult beetles and their larvae eat the leaves of many different types of plants. There are over 35,000 different species of leaf beetles, in a variety of colors including gold, green, yellow-striped, and red striped. Some of these have been mistaken for ladybirds because of their shape and coloring. They can be oval, round, or elongated in shape. These insect pests are most active in spring and summer.
If not controlled, leaf beetles can do a lot of damage to vegetable crops and ornamental plants. They feed on the leaves, flowers, stems, roots, and fruits of different plants. They can fly, which means it's easy for them to move from one plant to another. Some species of leaf beetles only target one specific crop, while others will target many different types of plants. Although a lot of the damage that they cause is cosmetic, an infestation can weaken a plant and leave it prone to other more problematic diseases.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
The first signs of a leaf beetles infestation are small visible holes in leaves. Leaves then become discolored and dark beetle droppings can be seen. As the leaves turn yellow and brown, they will drop off the plant onto the ground. Some leaves will appear skeletonized with only the veins still remaining.
Infestation begins in spring, when the adult beetles emerge from the soil and lay their eggs on the leaves of plants. When these eggs hatch, the young nymphs start munching on the leaves as they grow up. Once leaf beetles are large and mature, they'll fall to the ground and pupate in the soil over winter before starting the cycle all over again.
Leaf beetles also eat holes in fruits and vegetables. These can be seen as small round holes that sometimes have a larger brown area surrounding them.
Solutions
Solutions
For less serious cases:
  1. Remove beetles, nymphs, and eggs. Remove all life stages of the beetles and kill them by placing them in a bucket of warm, soapy water. This can be done more easily by placing the bucket under affected leaves and shaking the plant. This method is most effective in the afternoon when leaf beetles are more active. Always dispose of insects in a sealed bag or container to avoid escape and spread.
To treat more serious infestations:
  1. Apply organic insecticides. Use naturally-derived insecticides before moving on to synthetic insecticides. Neem oil and pyrethrum are naturally-derived insecticides that should be applied following label instructions.
  2. Apply synthetic insecticides. Examples of insecticides effective for leaf beetles include carbaryl, permethrin, and bifenthrin. Apply insecticides according to label instructions.
Prevention
Prevention
To prevent infestations of leaf beetles, follow these practices.
  1. Regularly check for beetles. To prevent large pest infestations, be proactive about frequently checking plants for pests and removing them quickly.
  2. Clear debris. Clear weeds and debris to remove areas where these beetles may overwinter and hide.
  3. Attract natural predators. Birds and other insects, such as wasps and ladybugs, are effective natural predators of leaf beetles. Encourage them to visit by including a diverse array of plants to provide habitat and food. Also, avoid applying broad-spectrum herbicides that can harm and kill beneficial insects.
  4. Plant aromatic herbs like mint, garlic, or rosemary, as these can repel leaf beetles.
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Shot hole disease
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Shot hole disease
Bacterial perforation disease creates brown spots on the leaves which eventually dry up and fall away, leaving perforations in the leaf surface.
Overview
Overview
Shot hole disease (coryneum blight) most commonly affects mature trees, particularly fruit trees. The fungus can infect the buds, fruit, and leaves of the tree. It causes spots on the leaves that eventually die and drop out. This makes the leaves look tattered and affects the overall health of the tree. If the fruit is affected, it will result in cracks in the skin and generally make the fruit inedible.
The disease is very difficult to eliminate entirely but further infection can be prevented with good cultural practices and by removing diseased parts of the tree. Some of the more common fruit trees affected by this disease include plums, peaches, cherries, nectarines, apricot, and almonds.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Small red spots appear on the leaves. These spots then become larger and turn purple with a white center. Finally, the spots drop out of the leaves altogether, leaving small round holes. These almost look like gunshot holes, hence the name of the disease.
As the disease progresses, more holes will form in the leaves with some joining together to make larger holes.
As the infection spreads to developing fruit, purple-red spots appear on the outer skin. Eventually, these spots will cause the skin to crack and some of the juice will ooze out.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
Shot hole disease is a fungal disease (Wilsonomyces**carpophilus) that primarily targets mature trees. The fungal spores are carried onto the tree through water-splashing and wind.
The disease thrives in wet conditions when there has been excessive rainfall. New growth in spring is particularly susceptible to this disease.
The fungal spores overwinter inside buds on the tree and also lesions on twigs.
Solutions
Solutions
In the case of mild disease symptoms:
  1. Remove diseased leaves immediately. Also remove any foliage on the ground near the plants, including leaves without the disease. Take care not to touch healthy foliage during removal to avoid spreading. It is best to remove leaves in dry, cool weather.
When holes and spots are numerous, and leaves start to drop, take these actions immediately.
  1. Remove diseased leaves right away. Just like in mild cases, remove all foliage on the ground near the plant. Avoid touching non-diseased foliage, and only remove leaves when they are dry.
  2. Apply fungicide and bactericide. Apply a copper-based fungicide. Spray young leaves about once every week. It's best to apply these products in spring when damage is beginning. After mid-summer, they will have little benefit.
Prevention
Prevention
Here are the best ways to prevent shot hole disease:
  1. Use drip irrigation. To stop the fungal spores from splashing onto the tree, use drip irrigation that directs water straight to the roots.
  2. Inspect trees when the leaves have dropped. Remove any dead or diseased branches that may have fungal spores in them. A good pruning will also open up the tree and encourage more airflow.
  3. Rake and keep dropped foliage clear. Raking leaves from around trees and shrubs regularly is one of the best ways to prevent shot hole disease and keep it at bay.
  4. Remove lower branches. This makes it harder for the fungal spores to be splashed up onto the vulnerable parts of the tree, and also increases airflow.
  5. Remove old and very diseased trees. Though shot hole disease can't be completely prevented, this can help remove the biggest disease vector. It can also create more space and help air circulation, which further prevents spread.
  6. Apply preventative chemical control. To prevent the disease from occurring in the spring, apply a fungicide in late winter just before bud swell.
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Aged yellow and dry
plant poor
Aged yellow and dry
Natural aging can cause leaves to turn yellow and dry out.
Overview
Overview
Regardless of the type of plant or where it is grown, at some point, it will begin to aged yellow and dry. This is a natural, unavoidable process that happens when the plant has completed all of the steps in its life.
Annual plants go through this process at the end of a single growing season. Perennial plants live for multiple years, if not tens or hundreds of years, but will still ultimately exhibit these symptoms.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
When plants have progressed through their natural developmental stages and are nearing the end of their lifecycle, they begin showing signs of decline. Leaves will start to yellow and droop, and over time they turn papery brown and dry.
Once completely dry, the leaves begin to fall from the plant until the entire plant has dried out.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
At the end of its life, genetic coding within the plant increases the production of ethylene, a phytohormone that controls senescence or natural aging and death. Cell division stops, and the plant begins catabolizing resources to use in other parts of the plant.
As this happens, the tissues begin yellow and drying until the entire plant is desiccated and perishes.
Solutions
Solutions
If the yellowing and drying of leaves and flowers is a natural progression due to age, nothing can be done to slow or stop the process. Once hormones within the plant begin the process of senescence, it’s irreversible.
Prevention
Prevention
Unfortunately, there is no way to prevent plants from dying of “old age.” To help prolong their life, and put off symptoms of aged yellow and dry for as long as possible, take care of them by giving them enough water, fertilizing them appropriately, and making sure they get enough sunlight.
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Underwatering
plant poor
Underwatering
Leaves may wilt for a variety of reasons.
Overview
Overview
Underwatering plants is one of the quickest ways to kill them. This is something that most gardeners are well aware of. Unfortunately, knowing exactly how much water a plant needs can be tricky, especially considering that underwatering and overwatering present similar symptoms in plants.
Therefore, it’s important to be vigilant and attentive to each plants’ individual needs.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
As mentioned earlier, overwatering and underwatering present similar symptoms in plants. These symptoms include poor growth, wilted leaves, defoliation, and brown leaf tips or margins. Ultimately, both underwatering and overwatering can lead to the death of a plant.
The easiest way to determine whether a plant has too much water or too little is to look at the leaves. If underwatering is the culprit, the leaves will look brown and crunchy, while if it’s overwatering, they will appear yellow or a pale green in color.
When this issue first begins, there may be no noticeable symptoms at all, particularly in hardy or drought-tolerant plants. However, they will begin to wilt once they start suffering from a lack of water. The edges of the plant’s leaves will become brown or curled. Soil pulling away from the edges of the planter is a telltale sign, or a crispy, brittle stem.
Prolonged underwatering can cause a plant’s growth to become stunted. The leaves might drop and the plant can be more susceptible to pest infestations, too.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
Underwatering is caused by, quite simply, not watering plants often or deeply enough. There is a heightened risk of underwatering if any of these situations apply:
  • Extreme heat and dry weather (when growing outdoors)
  • Grow lights or indoor lighting that is too bright or intense for the type of plant
  • Using fast-draining growing media such as sand
Solutions
Solutions
The easiest (and most obvious) way to address underwatering is to fully hydrate the plant. However, this must be done carefully. A common mistake that many gardeners make is to douse their underwatered plants with water. This can overwhelm the roots of the plant and shock its system, something that can be even more damaging than the lack of water to begin with.
Instead, water thoroughly and slowly, taking breaks to let the water slowly saturate through the soil to get to the roots. Use room temperature water, as cold water might be too much of a shock.
In the future, shorten the time between waterings. A good rule of thumb is to check the soil around each plant daily. If it’s dry to at least two inches down, it’s time to water. If a container plant is repeatedly drying out very quickly, repotting into a slower-draining container might be a good idea, too.
Prevention
Prevention
Always check the soil before watering. If the top inch of soil feels moist, though not wet, the watering is perfect. If it’s dry, water it immediately. If it feels soggy, you avoid watering until it dries out a bit more.
Also, make sure the lighting is sufficient for the species. Plants grow faster and need more water when there is intense light or lots of heat. Being aware of these conditions and modifying them, if possible, is a good way to prevent underwatering. Many container plants are potted in soil mixtures mean to be well-draining. Adding materials that retain moisture, like compost or peat moss, can also prevent these symptoms.
Other tips to prevent underwatering include:
  • Choose pots with adequately-sized drainage holes
  • Avoid warm temperatures
  • Use large pots with additional soil (these take longer to dry out)
  • Avoid terracotta pots, which lose water quickly
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Underwatering yellow
plant poor
Underwatering yellow
A lack of water will cause the leaves to gradually turn yellow starting at the base of the branch while the entire plant appears to wilt.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Your plant’s leaves are turning yellow due to underwatering, the oldest leaves turn yellow first. Leaves yellow from the edges towards the middle. Other signs of underwatering include the soil feeling very dry or pulling away from the edge of its pot.
Solutions
Solutions
Your plant is very thirsty and needs water promptly.
  1. You can revive your plant by giving it water. The easiest technique is to slowly pour water into your plant’s soil so that the whole surface is moistened. If you pour the water too quickly, the water will flow directly through rather than diffusing throughout the soil. If your plant’s pot does not have drainage holes, do not give your plant more than about a third of the pot’s volume of water. If your plant’s pot does have drainage holes, you can add water slowly until the soil is thoroughly moistened and the water flows freely through the pot.
  2. If you trim off yellow leaves to improve the plant’s appearance, do not remove more than a third of the plant’s leaves. It may be better to wait until leaves have died and fallen off to remove them.
Prevention
Prevention
  1. When you get a new plant, research its specific watering needs. Set reminders so that you remember to water your plants consistently. Not all plants are the same, so make sure to differentiate all of your plants in your watering schedule.
  2. You may wish to purchase a commercial soil water meter which has a long probe that you place near your plant’s roots. Be sure to check it frequently and water your plant when the soil water meter indicates that it needs watering.
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care_toxicity

Blackthorn and Their Toxicity

* The judgment on toxicity and danger is for reference only. We DO NOT GUARANTEE any accuracy of such judgment. Therefore, you SHALL NOT rely on such judgment. It is IMPORTANT TO SEEK PROFESSIONAL ADVICE in advance when necessary.
Toxic to Dogs
Aside from the ripened pulp found around the seeds of this plant, all of its parts contain cyanide and are toxic to dogs. Signs of poisoning include trouble breathing, gums that turn bright reed, shock, dilated pupils, and even death. The blackthorn is at its most dangerous to dogs when it is in the process of wilting. If you think there is a risk your dog has ingested this plant, consult your veterinarian as soon as possible.
Toxic to Cats
Many plants of the Prunus spinosa genus, including apricot, cherry, and plum, contain cyanogenic chemicals that are fatally toxic to cats; immediate medical treatment is mandatory if a cat has eaten any part of one of these plants. Depending on the species, the leaves, stems, seeds, flower buds, pits, fruit, and (or) berries can be toxic. The symptoms of blackthorn poisoning include red gums, drooling, vomiting, dilated pupils, difficulty breathing, rapid heartbeat, panting, and shock.
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Who Is Most at Risk of Plant Poisoning?
Your pets like cats and dogs can be poisoned by them as well!
1
Do not let your lovely pets eat any parts, nor contact with the sap of toxic or unknown plants;
2
It’s better to kill those growing around your house. Wear long-sleeved shirts, pants and gloves with sharp tools to dig it out completely;
3
Clean the tools with rubbing alcohol or soap and water but do not do that with bare hands;
4
Clean your hands and skin once exposed to plants with soap and water;
5
Consider using barrier creams that contain bentoquatam to prevent poison oak, ivy and sumac rashes;
6
Dump it in special trash cans in sealed garbage packages, and do not let your pets reach it;Do not let your lovely pets eat any parts, nor contact with the sap of toxic or unknown plants;
7
If you take your pets to hike with you in the wild, please don’t let them eat any plants that you don’t know;
8
Once your pets eat, touch or inhale anything from toxic plants and act abnormally, please call the doctors for help ASAP!
pets
Pets
Some pets are less likely than children to eat and touch just about everything. This is good, as a pet owner. However, you know your pet best, and it is up to you to keep them safe. There are plenty of poisonous weeds that can grow within the confines of your lawn, which might make your dogs or cats ill or worse if they eat them. Try to have an idea of what toxic plants grow in your area and keep them under control and your pets away from them.
pets
Common Toxic Houseplants
Common Toxic Houseplants
When it comes to decorating a house, there is nothing more refreshing than adding some beautiful houseplants. Some common house plants can also be toxic.

Aloe

aloe
Aloe is famous for its sunburn-soothing properties and its gorgeous desert design. However, many people do not realize that the latex the aloe vera plant produces can be mildly toxic to pets and children.

The latex contains a chemical compound known as saponin. Which when ingested, can cause vomiting, diarrhea, and low blood sugar. This, if left unchecked, can lead to dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. The proper response is to contact poison control or a veterinarian to know what to do in your particular circumstance if either your child or pet consumes aloe.

The latex of the plant is similar to the sap of the tree. It is inside the leaf, but sticks mainly toward the edges. If aloe gel is prepared properly it should be safe for use, but be sure to apply it only topically when treating burns.

Philodendron

Philodendron
Philodendron, also known as sweetheart vine, has become a resident at many houses and even businesses. They are glossy green and the leaves elegantly split, displaying interesting designs. Behind this beauty there is a needle-like toxin called calcium oxalate crystals.

These crystals are held within the plant and only affect you, your pets, or your loved ones if the plant tissue is broken. If ingested, the crystals can cause severe swelling, difficulty breathing, stomach pain, burning and pain. If they are accidentally caught on the skin, they can cause skin irritation.

If anyone accidentally ingests philodendron and they find it difficult to breathe or their tongue starts to swell up, it is important to seek medical attention immediately to avoid suffocation. If you have very young children or pets who have a tendency to tear at plants, keep them away from any philodendrons.

Peace Lily

Peace Lily
Peace lilies produce stunningly white flowers that bring to mind peace and serenity. This is one reason they are invited into our homes and given a place to stay. However, similar to philodendrons, the peace lily contains oxalate crystals known as raphides.

The raphides, once ingested, will cause swelling and burning sensations and can also cause skin irritation. Both pets and humans can get these symptoms so it is important to keep these plants from anyone who is likely to tear or chew it. Symptoms can become dire if the raphides cause the tongue and throat to swell to a point where the person or pet is having difficulty breathing. Seek proper medical attention if this is the case.

Snake Plant

Snake Plant
The snake plant is an interesting and popular house plant. Its stark architecture and wavy coloring has made it a fan favorite. This plant too, however, is toxic when ingested or if the sap touches your skin.

Snake plant sap will cause rashes if it comes into contact with your skin. In addition, it will cause diarrhea and vomiting when ingested. Again these symptoms are very serious and would be best avoided by keeping snake plants out of reach or by choosing a different houseplant.
Common Toxic Garden Plants
Common Toxic Garden Plants

Daffodil

Daffodil
Daffodils are a strikingly colorful flower. This can sometimes bring them much attention not from just onlooking adults but children as well. Since kids are more drawn to colorful objects, they may have a higher chance of just grabbing the flower and eating it. Adults have also been known to accidentally grab daffodil bulbs instead of onions.

Why are these mistakes so dangerous? Daffodils contain lycorine, which can induce nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. It also contains oxalates which can cause swelling and pain. The symptoms can be worse in animals, because if your pets eat daffodils they may experience drowsiness, low blood pressure or even liver damage.

Make sure to call poison control when these symptoms set in. The vomiting and diarrhea have been known to go away after 3 hours, but it is better to be safe than sorry. Ingesting liquids to keep hydration up can be important. If the patient is having difficulty breathing, seek medical attention immediately.

Hydrangea

Hydrangea
Hydrangeas are unique, with their soft blue and pink flowers. They are a great addition to any garden, but should not be snacked on—not that you would want to. Hydrangeas can be especially nasty because they contain compounds known as glycosides. These will release hydrogen cyanide into the bloodstream when consumed. This will block your body’s ability to uptake oxygen to the cells in your body.

The way to combat this kind of poisoning is through getting IVs from the vet or doctor. It is important to contact your medical professional immediately since the symptoms can be fatal within minutes or hours.

Rhododendrons

Rhododendrons
Rhododendron, the state flower of Washington, is also toxic. The multitudinous, pink flowers can be quite dangerous. All parts of this plant are toxic, the leaves and seeds more so than the flowers. However, even the nectar of the flower is toxic and in the Mediterranean, where rhododendrons grow in more dense quantities, the honey from bees who gather rhododendron nectar can be poisonous.

Normally kids and pets do not eat enough to experience the full poisoning effect. However, just eating two leaves is enough to be considered dangerous. The grayanotoxin glycosides within the rhododendron can cause vomiting, diarrhea and irregular heartbeats. Things can get very serious when too much rhododendron is consumed and can lead to necessary medical intervention.

Start by calling poison control first if you suspect anyone has been munching on rhododendrons. The experts there will be able to help guide you through the necessary processes to cure your loved one.

Rhubarb

Rhubarb
Yummy rhubarb has a nasty side to it. While the stems are used in many recipes, including for rhubarb strawberry pie, the leaves are toxic. They contain oxalic acid which is known to blister the mouth, cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and kidney stones. The leaves are known to be more toxic to pets than humans, but in either case, it is important to contact poison control immediately to figure out necessary steps to cure the patient.
Common Toxic Weeds in the Yard
Common Toxic Weeds in the Yard

Bittersweet Nightshade

Bittersweet Nightshade
Nightshade is an invasive, noxious weed that is extremely poisonous. It has been found along the East and West Coast of the U.S. It makes its home in areas with disturbed soil. This could be near your garden or areas that have recently had bushes/trees put in.

These plants are dark green with purple flowers that develop into bright red berries. The whole plant is toxic and should be avoided by pets and children alike. If ingested it can cause nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. The colorful berries are especially enticing to young children. If you see any plants that look similar to tomato or pepper plants that you did not plant in your yard, it is best to just pull them immediately.

Call poison control immediately if you think someone has fallen victim to nightshade.

Buttercups

Buttercups
Buttercups are found throughout the United States, especially in wet areas. The shiny, yellow flowers will pop up in the springtime, accompanying their dandelion friends. However, unlike dandelions, buttercups are not edible.

Buttercups will release a compound called protoanemonin. This toxin is known to cause vomiting, diarrhea, bloody stool, hypersalivation, depression, blisters, and more. These symptoms will affect both humans and animals. The sap may also cause irritation when it comes into contact with skin. These yellow flowers are dangerous and children should be observed cautiously when around them.

Foxgloves

Foxgloves
Foxgloves are beautiful plants that build towers out of vivid purple bell-shaped blossoms. They are very pretty to look at, but they contain a compound known as digoxin. This chemical is used in certain medicines to help people with certain heart conditions. However, the medicine is made by specialists, whereas someone eating foxgloves will receive unregulated amounts of the chemical.

This toxin can make you vomit and lower your heartbeat. This often causes dizziness and faintness. It is extremely important to call poison control immediately to know what to do in the case of foxglove poisoning. Some people have confused the young leaves of foxglove with borage, making adult foragers at risk as well as kids and pets.
How to Tend to or Get Rid of Toxic Plants
How to Tend to or Get Rid of Toxic Plants
Now that you know where to start with toxic plant identification, let us discuss how to either tend to the poisonous plants you decide to keep or get rid of them that plague your yard.

How to Tend to Poisonous Plants

Many plants that are toxic when ingested are also skin irritants. The philodendron is a good example of this. When the sap comes into contact with skin, it can cause a rash to form. To help protect yourself when tending to toxic plants, it is important to wear some sort of gloves.
Tend
Latex gloves may be the best solution due to their disposability. Regular gloves could potentially keep the poisonous sap on their surface. If the gloves aren’t cleaned then you could accidentally touch the irritant or pass it to someone else.

In addition you will want to plan where to keep your deadly beauties. If you have a toxic indoor plant try to keep it up high or out of reach of children and pets. This will keep accidents few and far between. Another idea is keeping your plants in areas that are usually inaccessible to children or pets. Areas such as an office, study room, or guest bedroom could be good locations. If applicable, you could also set up a terrarium for your little plant baby, making it more difficult for curious hands or paws to access.
tend2
If you plan to have outdoor plants, location will be key. You will want to put plants in an area that will be inaccessible to children, pets and even wild animals. You will probably want to avoid planting the plants in the front of your house if kids walk by on a regular basis, just to be cautious. Having the plants behind a fence will be best, but use your discretion when choosing a spot.

How to Get Rid of Poisonous Plants

plants
The easiest but possibly most controversial way to get rid of poisonous plants is by using herbicides. This can be especially easy if you own a grass lawn and use an herbicide that targets broadleaf (non-grass) species. You can find many herbicides meant for yard use by simply searching the term online. Once you have purchased the herbicide you will want to make sure to follow the label posted on the container. If you follow the instructions precisely, then everything should run smoothly for you.

If you don’t plan on using herbicides, there are a few organic methods you can use to try to get rid of toxic plants. You can manually pull the plants out of the ground. This is probably one of the most difficult methods because there is no assurance that you will get the whole plant out this way.

You can also try pouring boiling hot water or spraying white vinegar on the target plants. This may take more time than using a synthetic herbicide, but you can feel a little better about using these products.

You can also try to use wood chips to cover a certain area where you do not want anything to grow. This will not stop all the weeds, but the few that make it through can be easily picked by hand.
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Who Is Most at Risk of Plant Poisoning?
Everyone should keep the following in mind to prevent being poisoned:
1
Do not eat any parts, nor contact with the sap of toxic or unknown plants;
2
If you need to kill it, wear long-sleeved shirts, pants and gloves with sharp tools to dig it out completely;
3
Clean the tools with rubbing alcohol or soap and water but do not do that with bare hands;
4
Clean your hands and skin once exposed to plants with soap and water;
5
Consider using barrier creams that contain bentoquatam to prevent poison oak, ivy and sumac rashes;
6
Dump it in special trash cans in sealed garbage packages;
7
Wear properly when you hiking or working in the wilderness. Long pants, long sleeves, gloves, hiking shoes, etc., that protect you from being hurt by any plants;
8
Once you or your family aren’t feeling well after eating, touching or inhaling anything from toxic plants, please call your doctor for help ASAP!
Outdoor Workers
Outdoor Workers and Recreationalists
Those who enjoy the outdoors either as a hobby or as part of their work will rarely see a plant and decide to munch on it (although the scenario is not unheard of). However, they do tend to deal with moving through and brushing aside plants. These people are more at risk of being poisoned by touching toxic plants than by ingesting them.
Outdoor Workers
Foragers
Foragers
Foraging for food and medicinal plants is a desirable skill among people who want to feel at one with the land. This hobby can be very useful and enjoyable, but if done wrong , it can lead to disastrous effects. People who forage are picking and grabbing plants with the full intention of using those plants, most of the time to ingest them.
Foragers
Children
Children
While outdoor workers are more likely to touch poison and foragers are more likely to ingest poison, children can easily do both. These bundles of joy just love to run around and explore the world. They enjoy touching things and occasionally shoving random stuff in their mouth; this is a terrible combination with toxic plants in the mix.
If you let your children run about, it is important to know what are the local toxic plants that they could accidentally get into. Try to educate the children and steer them away from where the toxic plants are located.
Children
Common Toxic Houseplants
Common Toxic Houseplants
When it comes to decorating a house, there is nothing more refreshing than adding some beautiful houseplants. Some common house plants can also be toxic.

Aloe

aloe
Aloe is famous for its sunburn-soothing properties and its gorgeous desert design. However, many people do not realize that the latex the aloe vera plant produces can be mildly toxic to pets and children.

The latex contains a chemical compound known as saponin. Which when ingested, can cause vomiting, diarrhea, and low blood sugar. This, if left unchecked, can lead to dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. The proper response is to contact poison control or a veterinarian to know what to do in your particular circumstance if either your child or pet consumes aloe.

The latex of the plant is similar to the sap of the tree. It is inside the leaf, but sticks mainly toward the edges. If aloe gel is prepared properly it should be safe for use, but be sure to apply it only topically when treating burns.

Philodendron

Philodendron
Philodendron, also known as sweetheart vine, has become a resident at many houses and even businesses. They are glossy green and the leaves elegantly split, displaying interesting designs. Behind this beauty there is a needle-like toxin called calcium oxalate crystals.

These crystals are held within the plant and only affect you, your pets, or your loved ones if the plant tissue is broken. If ingested, the crystals can cause severe swelling, difficulty breathing, stomach pain, burning and pain. If they are accidentally caught on the skin, they can cause skin irritation.

If anyone accidentally ingests philodendron and they find it difficult to breathe or their tongue starts to swell up, it is important to seek medical attention immediately to avoid suffocation. If you have very young children or pets who have a tendency to tear at plants, keep them away from any philodendrons.

Peace Lily

Peace Lily
Peace lilies produce stunningly white flowers that bring to mind peace and serenity. This is one reason they are invited into our homes and given a place to stay. However, similar to philodendrons, the peace lily contains oxalate crystals known as raphides.

The raphides, once ingested, will cause swelling and burning sensations and can also cause skin irritation. Both pets and humans can get these symptoms so it is important to keep these plants from anyone who is likely to tear or chew it. Symptoms can become dire if the raphides cause the tongue and throat to swell to a point where the person or pet is having difficulty breathing. Seek proper medical attention if this is the case.

Snake Plant

Snake Plant
The snake plant is an interesting and popular house plant. Its stark architecture and wavy coloring has made it a fan favorite. This plant too, however, is toxic when ingested or if the sap touches your skin.

Snake plant sap will cause rashes if it comes into contact with your skin. In addition, it will cause diarrhea and vomiting when ingested. Again these symptoms are very serious and would be best avoided by keeping snake plants out of reach or by choosing a different houseplant.
Common Toxic Garden Plants
Common Toxic Garden Plants

Daffodil

Daffodil
Daffodils are a strikingly colorful flower. This can sometimes bring them much attention not from just onlooking adults but children as well. Since kids are more drawn to colorful objects, they may have a higher chance of just grabbing the flower and eating it. Adults have also been known to accidentally grab daffodil bulbs instead of onions.

Why are these mistakes so dangerous? Daffodils contain lycorine, which can induce nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. It also contains oxalates which can cause swelling and pain. The symptoms can be worse in animals, because if your pets eat daffodils they may experience drowsiness, low blood pressure or even liver damage.

Make sure to call poison control when these symptoms set in. The vomiting and diarrhea have been known to go away after 3 hours, but it is better to be safe than sorry. Ingesting liquids to keep hydration up can be important. If the patient is having difficulty breathing, seek medical attention immediately.

Hydrangea

Hydrangea
Hydrangeas are unique, with their soft blue and pink flowers. They are a great addition to any garden, but should not be snacked on—not that you would want to. Hydrangeas can be especially nasty because they contain compounds known as glycosides. These will release hydrogen cyanide into the bloodstream when consumed. This will block your body’s ability to uptake oxygen to the cells in your body.

The way to combat this kind of poisoning is through getting IVs from the vet or doctor. It is important to contact your medical professional immediately since the symptoms can be fatal within minutes or hours.

Rhododendrons

Rhododendrons
Rhododendron, the state flower of Washington, is also toxic. The multitudinous, pink flowers can be quite dangerous. All parts of this plant are toxic, the leaves and seeds more so than the flowers. However, even the nectar of the flower is toxic and in the Mediterranean, where rhododendrons grow in more dense quantities, the honey from bees who gather rhododendron nectar can be poisonous.

Normally kids and pets do not eat enough to experience the full poisoning effect. However, just eating two leaves is enough to be considered dangerous. The grayanotoxin glycosides within the rhododendron can cause vomiting, diarrhea and irregular heartbeats. Things can get very serious when too much rhododendron is consumed and can lead to necessary medical intervention.

Start by calling poison control first if you suspect anyone has been munching on rhododendrons. The experts there will be able to help guide you through the necessary processes to cure your loved one.

Rhubarb

Rhubarb
Yummy rhubarb has a nasty side to it. While the stems are used in many recipes, including for rhubarb strawberry pie, the leaves are toxic. They contain oxalic acid which is known to blister the mouth, cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and kidney stones. The leaves are known to be more toxic to pets than humans, but in either case, it is important to contact poison control immediately to figure out necessary steps to cure the patient.
Common Toxic Weeds in the Yard
Common Toxic Weeds in the Yard

Bittersweet Nightshade

Bittersweet Nightshade
Nightshade is an invasive, noxious weed that is extremely poisonous. It has been found along the East and West Coast of the U.S. It makes its home in areas with disturbed soil. This could be near your garden or areas that have recently had bushes/trees put in.

These plants are dark green with purple flowers that develop into bright red berries. The whole plant is toxic and should be avoided by pets and children alike. If ingested it can cause nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. The colorful berries are especially enticing to young children. If you see any plants that look similar to tomato or pepper plants that you did not plant in your yard, it is best to just pull them immediately.

Call poison control immediately if you think someone has fallen victim to nightshade.

Buttercups

Buttercups
Buttercups are found throughout the United States, especially in wet areas. The shiny, yellow flowers will pop up in the springtime, accompanying their dandelion friends. However, unlike dandelions, buttercups are not edible.

Buttercups will release a compound called protoanemonin. This toxin is known to cause vomiting, diarrhea, bloody stool, hypersalivation, depression, blisters, and more. These symptoms will affect both humans and animals. The sap may also cause irritation when it comes into contact with skin. These yellow flowers are dangerous and children should be observed cautiously when around them.

Foxgloves

Foxgloves
Foxgloves are beautiful plants that build towers out of vivid purple bell-shaped blossoms. They are very pretty to look at, but they contain a compound known as digoxin. This chemical is used in certain medicines to help people with certain heart conditions. However, the medicine is made by specialists, whereas someone eating foxgloves will receive unregulated amounts of the chemical.

This toxin can make you vomit and lower your heartbeat. This often causes dizziness and faintness. It is extremely important to call poison control immediately to know what to do in the case of foxglove poisoning. Some people have confused the young leaves of foxglove with borage, making adult foragers at risk as well as kids and pets.
How to Tend to or Get Rid of Toxic Plants
How to Tend to or Get Rid of Toxic Plants
Now that you know where to start with toxic plant identification, let us discuss how to either tend to the poisonous plants you decide to keep or get rid of them that plague your yard.

How to Tend to Poisonous Plants

Many plants that are toxic when ingested are also skin irritants. The philodendron is a good example of this. When the sap comes into contact with skin, it can cause a rash to form. To help protect yourself when tending to toxic plants, it is important to wear some sort of gloves.
Tend
Latex gloves may be the best solution due to their disposability. Regular gloves could potentially keep the poisonous sap on their surface. If the gloves aren’t cleaned then you could accidentally touch the irritant or pass it to someone else.

In addition you will want to plan where to keep your deadly beauties. If you have a toxic indoor plant try to keep it up high or out of reach of children and pets. This will keep accidents few and far between. Another idea is keeping your plants in areas that are usually inaccessible to children or pets. Areas such as an office, study room, or guest bedroom could be good locations. If applicable, you could also set up a terrarium for your little plant baby, making it more difficult for curious hands or paws to access.
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If you plan to have outdoor plants, location will be key. You will want to put plants in an area that will be inaccessible to children, pets and even wild animals. You will probably want to avoid planting the plants in the front of your house if kids walk by on a regular basis, just to be cautious. Having the plants behind a fence will be best, but use your discretion when choosing a spot.

How to Get Rid of Poisonous Plants

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The easiest but possibly most controversial way to get rid of poisonous plants is by using herbicides. This can be especially easy if you own a grass lawn and use an herbicide that targets broadleaf (non-grass) species. You can find many herbicides meant for yard use by simply searching the term online. Once you have purchased the herbicide you will want to make sure to follow the label posted on the container. If you follow the instructions precisely, then everything should run smoothly for you.

If you don’t plan on using herbicides, there are a few organic methods you can use to try to get rid of toxic plants. You can manually pull the plants out of the ground. This is probably one of the most difficult methods because there is no assurance that you will get the whole plant out this way.

You can also try pouring boiling hot water or spraying white vinegar on the target plants. This may take more time than using a synthetic herbicide, but you can feel a little better about using these products.

You can also try to use wood chips to cover a certain area where you do not want anything to grow. This will not stop all the weeds, but the few that make it through can be easily picked by hand.
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More About Blackthorn

Plant Type
Plant Type
Tree, Shrub
Lifespan
Lifespan
Perennial
Spread
Spread
4 m
Bloom Time
Bloom Time
Spring
Flower Color
Flower Color
White
Leaf Color
Leaf Color
Green
Flower Size
Flower Size
1 to 1.5 cm
Plant Height
Plant Height
4 to 8 m

Name story

Blackthorn
Prunus indicates the tree is a member of the plum family, and spinosa means thorny. The common name blackthorn refers to its dark bark, which is sometimes used to make ink.

Usages

Garden Use
Blackthorn is a fast-growing tree or shrub that is popularly cultivated as natural fencing or hedges. Proving itself highly attractive to wildlife, this is a plant that can prove key for wildlife gardens or meadows. It provides seasonal interest with delicate white flowers in the spring and dark-colored sloe berries in the autumn.
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Common Problems

Why does my blackthorn lack water and why are its leaves wilting?

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Blackthorn has a shallow root system. If the water level below the planting site is very deep, it will be difficult for the tree to absorb water, causing it to be continually short of water and resulting in withered leaves. Also, the soil may not be loose and well-ventilated, which can cause root rot and affect the plant's ability to absorb water.
If the tree has been recently transplanted, the root system may have been injured during the transplantation process. Sufficient water should be provided, while any excess branches and leaves should be removed to reduce transpiration. Moderate shade is conducive to the survival of transplanted trees.

Why does my blackthorn grow leaves but hardly any flowers?

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This is usually caused by a lack of nutrition. Prior to its blooming period, you should apply some phosphorus and potassium fertilizer to induce blossoms. After blooming has finished, apply an additional round of fertilizer. This can help new buds to grow and also means that the tree will accumulate nutrients for the following year.
Ample sunshine, increased air circulation, and appropriate watering are essential for good blooming. Pay attention to the trimming of any overly crowded branches and trim off any excessive flowers and fruit to improve the quality of the fruit.

Why do leaves of blackthorn turn yellow or wither?

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There can be multiple reasons for this problem. It needs to be determined whether the problem is caused by environmental factors or whether it is caused by diseases or pests. Insufficient sunshine, sunburn, prolonged dry soil, and a lack of nutrition are all environmental factors that can cause the leaves to turn yellow and wilt.
If the problem is caused by pests, you will often see the marks made by bugs chewing on the leaves. if you cannot find these marks, the problem may be caused by a disease. If the plant has a disease, you will need to cut off the infected area and treat the cut with fungicide or bactericide to disinfect the area.
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Lighting
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Indoor
Indoor
Outdoor
Choose a site here for personalized care tips.
Requirements
Full sun
Ideal
Above 6 hours sunlight
Partial sun
Tolerance
About 3-6 hours sunlight
Watch how sunlight gracefully moves through your garden, and choose spots that provide the perfect balance of light and shade for your plants, ensuring their happiness.
Essentials
Blackthorn thrives in areas exposed adequately to sunlight, supporting its robust growth. Its native habitats provide it mainly with abundant daily sun. During different growth stages, it can also manage with fewer sunlit hours. Excessive sun might cause damage, whereas inadequate light may impair growth and flowering.
Preferred
Tolerable
Unsuitable
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Artificial lighting
Indoor plants require adequate lighting for optimal growth. When natural sunlight is insufficient, particularly in winter or in less sunny spaces, artificial lights offer a vital solution, promoting faster, healthier growth.
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Indoor plants require adequate lighting for optimal growth. When natural sunlight is insufficient, particularly in winter or in less sunny spaces, artificial lights offer a vital solution, promoting faster, healthier growth.
1. Choose the right type of artificial light: LED lights are a popular choice for indoor plant lighting because they can be customized to provide the specific wavelengths of light that your plants need.
Full sun plants need 30-50W/sq ft of artificial light, partial sun plants need 20-30W/sq ft, and full shade plants need 10-20W/sq ft.
2. Determine the appropriate distance: Place the light source 12-36 inches above the plant to mimic natural sunlight.
3. Determine the duration: Mimic the length of natural daylight hours for your plant species. most plants need 8-12 hours of light per day.
Important Symptoms
Insufficient light
Blackthorn thrives in full sunlight but is sensitive to heat. As a plant commonly grown outdoors with abundant sunlight, it may exhibit subtle symptoms of light deficiency when placed in rooms with suboptimal lighting.
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(Symptom details and solutions)
Small leaves
New leaves may grow smaller in size compared to the previous ones once they have matured.
Leggy or sparse growth
The spaces between leaves or stems of your Blackthorn may become longer, resulting in a thin and stretched-out appearance. This can make the plant look sparse and weak, and it may easily break or lean due to its own weight.
Faster leaf drop
When plants are exposed to low light conditions, they tend to shed older leaves early to conserve resources. Within a limited time, these resources can be utilized to grow new leaves until the plant's energy reserves are depleted.
Slower or no new growth
Blackthorn enters a survival mode when light conditions are poor, which leads to a halt in leaf production. As a result, the plant's growth becomes delayed or stops altogether.
Lighter-colored new leaves
Insufficient sunlight can cause leaves to develop irregular color patterns or appear pale. This indicates a lack of chlorophyll and essential nutrients.
Solutions
1. To ensure optimal growth, gradually move plants to a sunnier location each week, until they receive at least 6 hours of direct sunlight daily. Use a south-facing window and keep curtains open during the day for maximum sunlight exposure and nutrient accumulation.2. To provide additional light for your plant, consider using artificial light if it's large or not easily movable. Keep a desk or ceiling lamp on for at least 8 hours daily, or invest in professional plant grow lights for ample light.
Excessive light
Blackthorn thrives in full sun exposure but is sensitive to heat. Although sunburn symptoms occasionally occur, they are unable to withstand intense sunlight in high-temperature environments.
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(Symptom details and solutions)
Chlorosis
Chlorosis is a condition where the plant's leaves lose their green color and turn yellow. This is due to the breakdown of chlorophyll from excessive sunlight, which negatively affects the plant's ability to photosynthesize.
Sunscald
Sunscald occurs when the plant's leaves or stems are damaged by intense sunlight exposure. It appears as pale, bleached, or necrotic areas on the plant tissue and can reduce the plant's overall health.
Leaf Curling
Leaf curling is a symptom where leaves curl or twist under extreme sunlight conditions. This is a defense mechanism used by the plant to reduce its surface area exposed to sunlight, minimizing water loss and damage.
Wilting
Wilting occurs when a plant loses turgor pressure and its leaves and stems begin to droop. Overexposure to sunlight can cause wilting by increasing the plant's water loss through transpiration, making it difficult for the plant to maintain adequate hydration.
Leaf Scorching
Leaf scorching is a symptom characterized by the appearance of brown, dry, and crispy edges or patches on leaves due to excessive sunlight. This can lead to a reduction in photosynthetic capacity and overall plant health.
Solutions
1. Move your plant to the optimal position where it can receive abundant sunlight but also have some shade. An east-facing window is an ideal choice as the morning sunlight is gentler. This way, your plant can enjoy ample sunlight while reducing the risk of sunburn.2. It is recommended to trim off any completely dehydrated or withered parts of the plant.
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Temperature
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Indoor
Indoor
Outdoor
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Requirements
Ideal
Tolerable
Unsuitable
Just like people, each plant has its own preferences. Learn about your plants' temperature needs and create a comforting environment for them to flourish. As you care for your plants, your bond with them will deepen. Trust your intuition as you learn about their temperature needs, celebrating the journey you share. Lovingly monitor the temperature around your plants and adjust their environment as needed. A thermometer can be your ally in this heartfelt endeavor. Be patient and gentle with yourself as you explore your plants' temperature needs. Cherish your successes, learn from challenges, and nurture your garden with love, creating a haven that reflects the warmth of your care.
Essentials
Blackthorn is native to environments where temperatures range from 50 to 95 °F (10 to 35 ℃). It prefers these moderate conditions. To ensure healthy growth, maintain these temperatures throughout the year, increasing indoor heating in winter if needed.
Regional wintering strategies
Blackthorn has strong cold resistance, so special frost protection measures are usually not necessary during winter. However, if the winter temperatures are expected to drop below {Limit_growth_temperature}, it is still important to provide cold protection. This can be achieved by wrapping the trunk and branches with materials such as non-woven fabric or cloth. Before the first freeze in autumn, it is recommended to water the plant abundantly, ensuring the soil remains moist and enters a frozen state. This helps prevent drought and water scarcity for the plant during winter and early spring.
Important Symptoms
Low Temperature
Blackthorn is cold-tolerant and thrives best when the temperature is above {Suitable_growth_temperature_min}. During winter, it should be kept above {Tolerable_growing_temperature_min}. When the temperature falls below {Limit_growth_temperature}, although there may not be any noticeable changes during winter, the branches may become brittle and dry during springtime, and no new shoots will emerge.
Solutions
In spring, prune away any dead branches that have failed to produce new leaves.
High Temperature
During summer, Blackthorn should be kept below {Suitable_growth_temperature_max}. When the temperature exceeds {Tolerable_growing_temperature_max}, the leaves of the plant may become lighter in color, the tips may become dry and withered, and the plant becomes more susceptible to sunburn.
Solutions
Trim away the sunburned and dried-up parts. Move the plant to a location that provides shade from the midday and afternoon sun, or use a shade cloth to create shade. Water the plant in the morning and evening to keep the soil moist.
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Transplant
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How to Successfully Transplant Blackthorn?
Blackthorn is best transplanted during cooler months of S1-S2, as mild temperatures reduce plant stress and promote root establishment. The ideal spot is sunny to semi-shaded with well-drained soil. Remember to water frequently after transplantation to encourage healthy growth.
What Preparations are Needed Before Transplanting Blackthorn?
What is the Ideal Time for Transplanting Blackthorn?
The best time to move blackthorn is during the dormant period, typically between autumn and early spring. This season provides the greatest chances of success as the plant can recover from transplant stress before the growing season. The benefit of transplanting blackthorn during this period is that it allows the plant's root system to develop strongly and get established before the intense growth of spring. You'll be pleased to see how well blackthorn thrives when moved at the right time. No guesswork needed, just a step to healthier blackthorn!
How Much Space Should You Leave Between Blackthorn Plants?
When transplanting blackthorn, leave space! These plants grow best with a roomy 10-15 feet (3-4.5 meters) of space between them. This allows plenty of room for them to spread their branches and establish a strong root system. Happy gardening!
What is the Best Soil Mix for Blackthorn Transplanting?
Get your soil ready for blackthorn. They prefer light, well-draining soil, with a slight preference for limestone. Base fertilizer with calcium can enhance the quality of the soil. Lime can be used, but in moderation, avoiding over alkalizing the ground.
Where Should You Relocate Your Blackthorn?
Interested in the perfect spot for blackthorn? Well, they love full sunlight, but will tolerate partial shade. A sunny location is ideal, but if there's a bit of afternoon shade, blackthorn won't mind at all. Here's to successful transplanting!
What Equipments Should You Prepare Before Transplantation Blackthorn?
Gardening Gloves
To protect your hands from the sharp thorns of blackthorn while working with the soil and plant.
Shovel or Spade
These will be used to dig the hole for the blackthorn plant and to remove it from its original location.
Hand Trowel
A smaller tool useful for precise digging, especially in clay or compacted soils.
Pruning Shears
To prune the roots and branches of blackthorn. This keeps the plant healthy and aids transportation.
Wheelbarrow
For transporting the blackthorn plant to the new location.
Watering Can/Hose
To water the plant after it has been transplanted.
Compost or Organic Matter
This will give the blackthorn plant extra nutrients to help it grow in its new location.
Mulch
To help maintain moisture levels in the soil after transplanting.
How Do You Remove Blackthorn from the Soil?
From Ground: Start by carefully pruning back some of the blackthorn's spiny branches. Then, water the blackthorn plant to dampen the soil. Use a shovel or spade to dig a wide trench around the plant, ensuring that the plant's root ball remains intact. Carefully work the spade under the root ball to lift the plant from its original location. Make sure to be far enough away from the main stem to avoid damage to the roots.
From Pot: If the blackthorn is in a pot, water the plant thoroughly and allow it drain for a few minutes. Turn the pot sideways, and while supporting the main stem of the plant, gently tap the edges of the pot to loosen the root ball. Finally, ease the plant out of the pot.
From Seedling Tray: Gently loosen the soil around the blackthorn seedlings. Carefully lift the blackthorn by the leaves (not the stem) to remove it from the cell, keeping the root ball intact.
Step-by-Step Guide for Transplanting Blackthorn
Step1 Prepare the Hole
Begin by digging a hole twice as wide and a little deeper than the root ball of the blackthorn. Mix some compost or organic matter into the soil you've removed.
Step2 Plant Placement
Place the blackthorn in the center of the hole. Ensure that the top of the root ball is level with or slightly below the surface of the ground.
Step3 Backfill the Hole
Fill the hole back with the amended soil. Firm the soil gently around the roots but do not compact it heavily.
Step4 Watering
Thoroughly water the blackthorn to settle the soil and eliminate any air pockets.
Step5 Mulching
After watering, spread a layer of mulch around the base of the blackthorn (avoiding the stem) to retain moisture and control weeds.
How Do You Care For Blackthorn After Transplanting?
Pruning
Trim back the blackthorn in the early spring to promote bushier growth. This also helps to manage the size of the plant.
Watering
Water the newly transplanted blackthorn thoroughly, and then water regularly. In the first few weeks, blackthorn will need a lot of water to develop its root system.
Pest Control
Watch out for pests and diseases. If you notice leaves turning yellow or spots appearing, you may need to treat the blackthorn with a suitable remedy.
Protection
Although blackthorn is a hardy plant, young, newly transplanted bushes may need some protection from harsh weather conditions.
Troubleshooting Common Issues with Blackthorn Transplantation.
When is the best time to transplant blackthorn?
The ideal period is during seasons S1 and S2. This ensures the plant has enough time to establish roots before more extreme weather conditions.
What should be the ideal spacing between blackthorn plants?
The ideal spacing between blackthorn plants should be about 10-15 feet (3-4.5 meters). This allows each plant ample space to grow and thrive.
What if the transplanted blackthorn appears wilted after transplanting?
Don't worry too much! It's common for blackthorn to wilt a bit after transplanting. Keep a consistent watering schedule and it should bounce back in a few days.
What should be the depth of the hole when transplanting blackthorn?
Depth of the hole should be twice the size of the root ball. This allows roots enough space to spread out and establish in the new location.
How to ensure that roots of blackthorn don’t dry out during transplantation?
Water the plant well before beginning the transplant process and cover the roots with a wet cloth during the move. This keeps them moist and healthy.
What if leaves of blackthorn are turning yellow after transplantation?
Yellow leaves can be a sign of water stress. Make sure your blackthorn is getting enough water, but also ensure that the site is well-drained to prevent a waterlogged condition.
How can I ease the transplantation shock for blackthorn?
Trim some of its upper part, especially if the plant is large. This reduces the work for its root system and helps the plant to recover faster after transplantation.
What to do if blackthorn is not showing any growth after transplantation?
Patience is key, as blackthorn can take time to establish. Ensure it's getting enough water and sun. If still no results after a few weeks, check roots for possible diseases.
Can I add fertilizer while transplanting blackthorn?
While fertilizing can help, it's best to wait until the plant has settled into its new environment. Too soon and it can cause root burn and stress the plant.
What should be the type of soil for successful transplantation of blackthorn?
Blackthorn prefers well-draining soil. Enrich the site with organic matter like compost to boost nutrient levels. Avoid overly clay-like soil as it can hold too much water and cause rot.
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