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Echeveria 'Black Knight'
Echeveria 'Black Knight'
Echeveria 'Black Knight'
Echeveria 'Black Knight'
Hardiness Zones
Hardiness Zones
10 to 13
care guide

Care Guide for Echeveria 'Black Knight'

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Watering Care
Watering Care
Details on Watering Care Watering Care
Fertilizing Care
Fertilizing Care
Details on Fertilizing Care Fertilizing Care
Pruning
Pruning
Trim the diseased, withered leaves once a month.
Details on Pruning Pruning
Ideal Temperature
Ideal Temperature
10 to 13
Details on Temperature Ideal Temperature
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Echeveria 'Black Knight'
Water
Water
Every 3 weeks
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Questions About Echeveria 'Black Knight'

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Watering Watering Watering
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What should I do if I water my Echeveria 'Black Knight' too much or too little?
Underwatered Echeveria 'Black Knight' Echeveria 'Black Knight' and other succulents can endure long periods without water, so it’s unusual to find one of these suffering from underwatering. But, if you somehow forgot about your plant and neglected to water it for a month or more, you’ll probably find your Echeveria 'Black Knight' looking thirsty or with some damage from lack of watering. It is very easy to identify an underwatered Echeveria 'Black Knight' . Plant look lacklustre and wrinkled. Some may have dried up completely, turned brown and crispy, or dropped off the plant. And of course, the soil will be completely dried out. If your Echeveria 'Black Knight' is thirsty and underwatered, give it plenty of water as soon as possible. Submerging the pot entirely in water for about 5-10 minutes is a good way to make sure the soil and plant are rehydrated properly. When you feel a sense of moisture on the surface of the soil with your finger, it means the watering is done properly. Overwatered Echeveria 'Black Knight' Overwatering is dangerous to Echeveria 'Black Knight' and can be fatal to your plant if you don’t remedy the situation. Too much moisture over time leads to root rot, which prevents the roots from being able to absorb nutrients and water from the soil. Root rot occurs when wet conditions allow fungi and bacteria to flourish in the soil and feed on roots. When you find that it's overwatered, you'd better change the growing conditions, place it somewhere with more air ventilation and adjust water frequency, for example. The symptoms of overwatering are yellow, swollen, and translucent organs that may even burst open from being over-full with water. If the problem continues without being treated, plant might turn brown or black, and fall off the plant at the slightest touch. Be sure to check the soil to determine if overwatering is the culprit, as some other issues can cause similar symptoms. It’s a bit difficult (but not impossible) to save an overwatered plant. The key is catching it early before a lot of damage has occurred. If the roots become rotten, it is likely to kill the entire plant. If you suspect you have overwatered your Echeveria 'Black Knight' , the first step is to remove it from its pot and check the roots and soil. After removing the plant from its pot, gently remove wet soil from around the roots and then rinse them clean in room-temperature water. This helps with removing fungus that might be lurking in the soil and allows you to get a better sense of how healthy the roots are. If your plant has already developed root rot, you will see roots that are dark brown or black, soft, mushy, or slimy. If the majority of the roots are already affected by root rot, it may not be possible to save the plant. In this case, it is best to remove any healthy stem and try to use these to propagate a new Echeveria 'Black Knight' . If, on the other hand, only a portion of the roots have succumbed to rot and other healthy roots still remain, there is a chance it can be saved. Use a sterilized cutting tool to remove any unhealthy-looking roots. Once you're left with only the firm, pale roots, it’s a good idea to dip them in a fungicide to kill off any remaining spores. After that you can repot your Echeveria 'Black Knight' in fresh, free-draining potting soil. While this does not always work to save a succulent with root rot, in most cases this plant will be able to make a full recovery and will put out new growth starting in the next growing season.
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How often should I water my Echeveria 'Black Knight' ?
There’s not a hard-and-fast rule for how often to water Echeveria 'Black Knight' . The best way to determine this is to check the soil and only water when it’s bone dry. You can either stick your finger in the pot or use a moisture meter to check the soil below the surface. When you plant it in a deep pot, you can do this with a stick or chopstick. If it feels even a little bit moist, wait a few days and check it again. Most people will need to water Echeveria 'Black Knight' about every two weeks in summer and once a month in winter, but there are several factors that can change the frequency. The section below lists some considerations that can help you to determine how often to water.
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What should I consider when watering my Echeveria 'Black Knight' ?
There are several environmental conditions that will affect how your Echeveria 'Black Knight' needs to be watered, including the container size, soil type, temperature, and humidity. First off, the container and soil you use will determine how often to water and how much water to use each time. Be sure you use a container with plenty of drainage holes in the bottom so extra water can escape the pot. A small container has less room for soil, meaning it won’t hold as much moisture, while a larger pot will stay wet longer and need to be watered less often. It’s important not to keep your Echeveria 'Black Knight' in an oversized pot as this can easily lead to overwatering. When repotting, move to just one size larger than the current container. A shallow container works better than a deep one, since Echeveria 'Black Knight' has shallow root systems. Echeveria 'Black Knight' will need to be watered less often in winter and more often in the active growing season in spring and autumn. During the winter, growth slows down considerably and the plant isn’t using much energy or water. There is less water lost to evaporation in cooler winter air, meaning that soil stays wet for much longer than it would in the summer. This also applies to the general climate around your home. If you live in a humid location with a lot of rain, you will need to water less often than if you live in a dry, arid climate. Remember that conditions at the same geographic location can vary significantly with the season and the use of indoor heating and air conditioning. Outdoor Planting If Echeveria 'Black Knight' is planted in the ground, after establishing a root system, it shouldn’t need supplemental water beyond what it receives through precipitation and dew. But if there is a long dry period, you may want to water occasionally. In other areas where Echeveria 'Black Knight' can only be grown in a container, this plant can be moved outside in the spring and summer when the temperature is proper and then brought back inside when temperatures start to drop. A potted Echeveria 'Black Knight' kept outside usually needs more water than the same plant kept indoors, because there is a lot more sun exposure even on a shaded porch.
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How to water Echeveria 'Black Knight' ?
The best way to water Echeveria 'Black Knight' is to soak it thoroughly and then allow it to dry out before it gets watered again. Since this plant is somewhat drought tolerant, you can let it get quite dry before watering again. It is always better to give this type of plant too little water over too much. When you water, make sure the soil gets thoroughly soaked throughout the whole pot. Don’t pour the water in just one spot, but rather try to go around the whole rim of the planter to be sure that it has a chance to get wet on all sides of the plant. The correct amount of water will depend on the size of your container and how much water your soil absorbs. Give your Echeveria 'Black Knight' enough water that it drains out from the drainage holes and then (ideally) leave the drained water in the saucer for about 20-30 minutes to absorb into dry pockets of soil. After that, discard any excess water that’s still in the saucer to avoid the soil getting waterlogged. Bottom-watering is also an excellent method for Echeveria 'Black Knight' , as you can be sure that the soil gets thoroughly moistened. This process involves placing the pot into a saucer of water and allowing the soil to absorb moisture through the drainage holes. You will know that the soil has absorbed enough water when the top layer is moist. This takes a bit more time than top-watering, but is almost foolproof in getting an even distribution of water throughout the pot. The original habitat of Echeveria 'Black Knight' is relatively dry with little rain, but when it rains, the soil will be thoroughly moistened. So you can mimic this situation by bottom-watering your plant when the soil is totally dry. Deep soil bathing is better than frequent light watering for Echeveria 'Black Knight' .
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Key Facts About Echeveria 'Black Knight'

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Attributes of Echeveria 'Black Knight'

Lifespan
Perennial
Plant Type
Succulent
Leaf type
Evergreen
Ideal Temperature
20 - 41 ℃

Scientific Classification of Echeveria 'Black Knight'

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Common Pests & Diseases About Echeveria 'Black Knight'

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Common issues for Echeveria 'Black Knight' based on 10 million real cases
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Low light
Low light Low light
Low light
A lack of sunlight will cause the stems and leaves to elongate and appear lighter in color.
Solutions: Low light can only be addressed by increasing light availability, and these measures will only stop further etoliation; current distortion cannot be reversed. Move plant to a position where it receives more light. Check the requirements for specific species, as too much sunlight can cause a plant to burn. Introduce appropriate artificial lighting. Some people choose to prune the longest stems so the plant can concentrate on healthy new growth under the improved lighting.
Leaf rot
Leaf rot Leaf rot
Leaf rot
This pathogen can cause the leaves to rot.
Solutions: Bacterial infections need to be treated quickly to prevent the spread to neighboring, healthy plants, potentially wiping out large sections of your indoor or outdoor garden. In mild cases: Use sterilized (10% bleach solution) pruning shears or scissors to remove any infected plant parts, making sure to dispose of them off site. Use a copper-based bactericide to treat the unaffected foliage, as well as the soil, and neighboring plants. Follow the manufacturer’s rate and timing directions found on the product label. In severe cases, where more than half the leaves are affected: Remove all of the infected plants from the garden, disposing of them off site. Treat the soil and neighboring plants using a copper-based bactericide. Follow the manufacturer’s rate and timing directions found on the product label.
Soft rot
Soft rot Soft rot
Soft rot
Soft rot causes the entire plant to turn black and rot from the inside out.
Solutions: Once soft rot appears, it is difficult to control. For minor issues of soft rot where only a small area is affected: Reduce watering. Only water when the soil is completely dry. Prune away affected tissue. Remove all dead and/or rotting roots and leaves. Use sterile tools. Repot using new soil. If potted, repot the plant with new soil. Be sure to use a pot with proper drainage holes. For severe cases when a large amount of tissue is infected or black: Dispose of plant. Severely infected plants will not recover. Dispose of the plant so that other nearby plants are not infected. Do not compost the infected plant.
Brown spot
Brown spot Brown spot
Brown spot
This infection can cause brown spots or patches to appear on the plant.
Solutions: In minor cases of brown spot, there isn’t any need to treat the disease. However, if much of the foliage is affected and defoliation occurs, the plant will benefit from getting rid of the infection. It is recommended to start by applying organic treatment options, working up to the more potent synthetic, chemical fungicides if necessary. Organic options won’t kill the fungus, but will prevent it from spreading. Dissolve ½ teaspoon of baking soda and one teaspoon of liquid soap in a gallon of water. Using a spray bottle, spray on tops and bottoms of leaves until the mixture drips off. Repeat every two weeks until existing spots stop enlarging and new spots no longer appear. Spray a copper-based fungicidal soap on the leaves, coating the top and bottom leaf surfaces. Reapply as directed on the product label. Copper penetrates the leaf surface and prevents germination of spores so the fungus cannot spread. Apply an all-purpose fungicide to the entire plant, following the label instructions carefully.
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Low light
plant poor
Low light
A lack of sunlight will cause the stems and leaves to elongate and appear lighter in color.
Overview
Overview
All plants require light, and if they do not receive it in the quantities that they require this distorts their growth in a process known as etiolation. In essence, etiolated plants are diverting all of their energy to growing taller in a desperate attempt to reach a position where they can meet their light requirements. Many other growth factors are harmed by this, and so light-deprived plants can become weak and distorted until they are almost unrecognizable. Low light symptoms are most commonly seen in houseplants, but outdoor specimens can also be affected.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Although symptoms will vary in different plants, the general symptoms of low light are easy to spot.
  1. Plant stems grow tall and lanky.
  2. There are less leaves, and both leaves and stems tend to be pale and insipid looking. This is due to a shortage of chlorophyll.
  3. All plant parts become weakened and may droop, as energy is diverted toward too-fast growth as the plant stretches itself toward any source of light.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
Plants need sunlight in varying amounts for photosynthesis – a process that produces energy for growth and fruit and flower production. Low light causes a plant to divert all energy to upward (apical) growth in order to find better light. Plant hormones called auxins are transported from the actively-growing tip of the plant downwards, to suppress lateral growth. A drop in cellular pH triggers expansins, nonenzymatic cell wall proteins, to loosen cell walls and allow them to elongate. This elongation results in the abnormal lengthening of stems, especially internodes, or plant "legginess" which is observed in etoliated plants.
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Leaf rot
plant poor
Leaf rot
This pathogen can cause the leaves to rot.
Overview
Overview
Leaf rot is very common among both house plants and garden plants. It affects foliage and occurs mainly when the leaves become wet due to rain or misting by the gardener. The cause is fungal disease and this is facilitated by the fungal spores adhering to wet leaves then penetrating the leaf and expanding rapidly. Damp conditions and poor air circulation will increase chances of infection taking place. Another factor are leaves that are damaged or have been penetrated by sap sucking insects that facilitate plant penetration.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
  1. Spores are able to cling to a damp leaf and penetrate, often through an existing wound.
  2. A small dark brown mark appears which expands rapidly as sporulation starts to take place.
  3. Quite quickly these bull's eye like circles can link together and the whole leaf turns dark and loses texture.
  4. Leaf drop occurs.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
These symptoms are caused by a bacterial infection invading the plant. Bacteria from many sources in the environment (air, water, soil, diseased plants) enter a plant through wounds, or in some cases the stomata when they are open. Once inside the leaf tissue, the bacteria feed and reproduce quickly, breaking down healthy leaves.
Bacterial infections threaten most plant species, and are more prominent in wet weather that more easily transfers the bacteria from plant to plant, or from soil to plant.
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Soft rot
plant poor
Soft rot
Soft rot causes the entire plant to turn black and rot from the inside out.
Overview
Overview
Soft rot is a common disease affecting mostly fruits and vegetables. It can occur while plants are growing but is more common once the produce has been harvested. The most susceptible plants are fleshy vegetables like tomatoes, lettuce, sweet potato, capsicum, bananas, eggplants, squash, cucumber, avocados, and potatoes.
Many succulents are also susceptible to soft rot. This is especially the case when the plant has received some damage, as bacteria enters the succulent through the open wound.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Initially, the disease is spotted in the form of soft, wet, cream-to-tan necrotic spots. These may appear on fruits and vegetables, including tubers, or succulent leaves and stems. The spots are surrounded by a dark brown to black ring.
As the disease progresses, the plant part becomes infected with a soft and slimy rot that has a foul odor. A dark discoloration can be seen internally. Potatoes, sweet potatoes and other tubers will have evidence of this rot under the skin. Fruits like avocados exhibit a dark metallic sheen on the outside and the flesh is grey to black. The flesh also has a putrid odor.
Succulents with soft rot will have watery-looking scabs on the stems or leaves. As the disease progresses, the spots will turn brown to black and they may have a foul-smelling discharge. For succulents with shorter stems, it may be more difficult to notice the earliest symptoms, and soft rot may not be noticed until the plant has already begun rotting from the center.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
Soft rot is caused by the bacteria Erwinia cartovorum. This bacteria secretes enzymes that decompose the cell wall structure of the plant. This destroys the plant tissue and causes the plant or its fruit to rot.
The bacteria lives in crop debris as well as soil and water, including the ocean. It infects plants through open wounds, including those caused by overwatering in succulents. It is normally spread by splashing water, insects, and wind. Infection is worse in hot and humid weather.
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Brown spot
plant poor
Brown spot
This infection can cause brown spots or patches to appear on the plant.
Overview
Overview
Discolored spots on the foliage of plants are one of the most common disease problems people observe. These spots are caused by fungal and bacterial diseases, with most infections related to a fungal pathogen.
Brown spot can occurs on all houseplants, flowering ornamentals, vegetable plants, and leaves of trees, bushes, and shrubs. No plants are resistant to it, and the problem is worse in warm, wet environments. It can occur at any point in the life stage as long as leaves are present.
Small brownish spots appear on the foliage and enlarge as the disease progresses. In severe cases, the plant or tree is weakened when the lesions interrupt photosynthesis or cause defoliation.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
In most cases, brown spot only affects a small percentage of the whole plant, appearing on a small amount of the leaves. A small infection only puts minor stress on the plant. However, if left untreated and the disease progresses over numerous seasons, it will severely impact the health and productivity of the infected specimen.
  • Sporulation begins (reproduction of the fungal spores), and tiny spots appear on leaves.
  • Placement is often random and scattered as diseases are spread through raindrops.
  • May appear on lower leaves and the interior of the plant where humidity is higher.
  • Brown spots enlarge and grow large enough to touch neighboring spots to form a more prominent blotch.
  • Leaf margins may turn yellow.
  • Tiny black dots (fruiting bodies of the fungi) appear in the dead spots.
  • Blotches grow in size until the entire leaf is brown.
  • The leaf falls off the plant.
Severe Symptoms
  • Partial or complete premature defoliation
  • Reduced growth
  • Increased susceptibility to pests and other diseases
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
Brown spot, or leaf spot, is a common descriptive term given to several diseases affecting the leaves of plants and trees. Around 85% of diseases exhibiting leaf spots are due to fungus or fungus-like organisms. Sometimes brown spot is caused by a bacterial infection, or insect activity with similar symptoms.
When conditions are warm and the leaf surfaces are wet, fungal spores being transported by wind or rain land on the surface and cling to it. They do not rupture the cell walls but grow in the space between the plant plasma membrane and the plant cell wall. As the spores reproduce, they release toxins and enzymes that cause necrotic spots (i.e., dead tissue) on the leaves, allowing the fungi to consume the products released when the cells degrade.
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Echeveria 'Black Knight'
Echeveria 'Black Knight'
Echeveria 'Black Knight'
Echeveria 'Black Knight'
Hardiness Zones
Hardiness Zones
10 to 13
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Care Guide for Echeveria 'Black Knight'

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Questions About Echeveria 'Black Knight'

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Watering Watering Watering
Temperature Temperature Temperature
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What should I do if I water my Echeveria 'Black Knight' too much or too little?
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How often should I water my Echeveria 'Black Knight' ?
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What should I consider when watering my Echeveria 'Black Knight' ?
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How to water Echeveria 'Black Knight' ?
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Key Facts About Echeveria 'Black Knight'

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Attributes of Echeveria 'Black Knight'

Lifespan
Perennial
Plant Type
Succulent
Leaf type
Evergreen
Ideal Temperature
20 - 41 ℃
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Scientific Classification of Echeveria 'Black Knight'

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Common Pests & Diseases About Echeveria 'Black Knight'

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Common issues for Echeveria 'Black Knight' based on 10 million real cases
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Low light
Low light Low light Low light
A lack of sunlight will cause the stems and leaves to elongate and appear lighter in color.
Solutions: Low light can only be addressed by increasing light availability, and these measures will only stop further etoliation; current distortion cannot be reversed. Move plant to a position where it receives more light. Check the requirements for specific species, as too much sunlight can cause a plant to burn. Introduce appropriate artificial lighting. Some people choose to prune the longest stems so the plant can concentrate on healthy new growth under the improved lighting.
Learn More About the Low light more
Leaf rot
Leaf rot Leaf rot Leaf rot
This pathogen can cause the leaves to rot.
Solutions: Bacterial infections need to be treated quickly to prevent the spread to neighboring, healthy plants, potentially wiping out large sections of your indoor or outdoor garden. In mild cases: Use sterilized (10% bleach solution) pruning shears or scissors to remove any infected plant parts, making sure to dispose of them off site. Use a copper-based bactericide to treat the unaffected foliage, as well as the soil, and neighboring plants. Follow the manufacturer’s rate and timing directions found on the product label. In severe cases, where more than half the leaves are affected: Remove all of the infected plants from the garden, disposing of them off site. Treat the soil and neighboring plants using a copper-based bactericide. Follow the manufacturer’s rate and timing directions found on the product label.
Learn More About the Leaf rot more
Soft rot
Soft rot Soft rot Soft rot
Soft rot causes the entire plant to turn black and rot from the inside out.
Solutions: Once soft rot appears, it is difficult to control. For minor issues of soft rot where only a small area is affected: Reduce watering. Only water when the soil is completely dry. Prune away affected tissue. Remove all dead and/or rotting roots and leaves. Use sterile tools. Repot using new soil. If potted, repot the plant with new soil. Be sure to use a pot with proper drainage holes. For severe cases when a large amount of tissue is infected or black: Dispose of plant. Severely infected plants will not recover. Dispose of the plant so that other nearby plants are not infected. Do not compost the infected plant.
Learn More About the Soft rot more
Brown spot
Brown spot Brown spot Brown spot
This infection can cause brown spots or patches to appear on the plant.
Solutions: In minor cases of brown spot, there isn’t any need to treat the disease. However, if much of the foliage is affected and defoliation occurs, the plant will benefit from getting rid of the infection. It is recommended to start by applying organic treatment options, working up to the more potent synthetic, chemical fungicides if necessary. Organic options won’t kill the fungus, but will prevent it from spreading. Dissolve ½ teaspoon of baking soda and one teaspoon of liquid soap in a gallon of water. Using a spray bottle, spray on tops and bottoms of leaves until the mixture drips off. Repeat every two weeks until existing spots stop enlarging and new spots no longer appear. Spray a copper-based fungicidal soap on the leaves, coating the top and bottom leaf surfaces. Reapply as directed on the product label. Copper penetrates the leaf surface and prevents germination of spores so the fungus cannot spread. Apply an all-purpose fungicide to the entire plant, following the label instructions carefully.
Learn More About the Brown spot more
close
Low light
plant poor
Low light
A lack of sunlight will cause the stems and leaves to elongate and appear lighter in color.
Overview
Overview
All plants require light, and if they do not receive it in the quantities that they require this distorts their growth in a process known as etiolation. In essence, etiolated plants are diverting all of their energy to growing taller in a desperate attempt to reach a position where they can meet their light requirements. Many other growth factors are harmed by this, and so light-deprived plants can become weak and distorted until they are almost unrecognizable. Low light symptoms are most commonly seen in houseplants, but outdoor specimens can also be affected.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Although symptoms will vary in different plants, the general symptoms of low light are easy to spot.
  1. Plant stems grow tall and lanky.
  2. There are less leaves, and both leaves and stems tend to be pale and insipid looking. This is due to a shortage of chlorophyll.
  3. All plant parts become weakened and may droop, as energy is diverted toward too-fast growth as the plant stretches itself toward any source of light.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
Plants need sunlight in varying amounts for photosynthesis – a process that produces energy for growth and fruit and flower production. Low light causes a plant to divert all energy to upward (apical) growth in order to find better light. Plant hormones called auxins are transported from the actively-growing tip of the plant downwards, to suppress lateral growth. A drop in cellular pH triggers expansins, nonenzymatic cell wall proteins, to loosen cell walls and allow them to elongate. This elongation results in the abnormal lengthening of stems, especially internodes, or plant "legginess" which is observed in etoliated plants.
Solutions
Solutions
Low light can only be addressed by increasing light availability, and these measures will only stop further etoliation; current distortion cannot be reversed.
  • Move plant to a position where it receives more light. Check the requirements for specific species, as too much sunlight can cause a plant to burn.
  • Introduce appropriate artificial lighting.
  • Some people choose to prune the longest stems so the plant can concentrate on healthy new growth under the improved lighting.
Prevention
Prevention
To avoid etiolation, provide an adequate amount of light from the beginning.
  1. Choose a location that matches each plant's ideal light needs. Many indoor plants do best in or near a south-facing window, which will provide the longest hours of sunlight. Flowering plants and those with colored leaves typically need more light than purely-green plants, as photosynthesis occurs in the green portions of leaves.
  2. Select plants with light needs that match a location's conditions. Some cultivars and varieties require less light than others.
  3. Use a grow light. Darker locations may require artificial illumination. A grow light may also become more necessary during winter, when sunlit hours are at their shortest.
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Leaf rot
plant poor
Leaf rot
This pathogen can cause the leaves to rot.
Overview
Overview
Leaf rot is very common among both house plants and garden plants. It affects foliage and occurs mainly when the leaves become wet due to rain or misting by the gardener. The cause is fungal disease and this is facilitated by the fungal spores adhering to wet leaves then penetrating the leaf and expanding rapidly. Damp conditions and poor air circulation will increase chances of infection taking place. Another factor are leaves that are damaged or have been penetrated by sap sucking insects that facilitate plant penetration.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
  1. Spores are able to cling to a damp leaf and penetrate, often through an existing wound.
  2. A small dark brown mark appears which expands rapidly as sporulation starts to take place.
  3. Quite quickly these bull's eye like circles can link together and the whole leaf turns dark and loses texture.
  4. Leaf drop occurs.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
These symptoms are caused by a bacterial infection invading the plant. Bacteria from many sources in the environment (air, water, soil, diseased plants) enter a plant through wounds, or in some cases the stomata when they are open. Once inside the leaf tissue, the bacteria feed and reproduce quickly, breaking down healthy leaves.
Bacterial infections threaten most plant species, and are more prominent in wet weather that more easily transfers the bacteria from plant to plant, or from soil to plant.
Solutions
Solutions
Bacterial infections need to be treated quickly to prevent the spread to neighboring, healthy plants, potentially wiping out large sections of your indoor or outdoor garden.
In mild cases: Use sterilized (10% bleach solution) pruning shears or scissors to remove any infected plant parts, making sure to dispose of them off site. Use a copper-based bactericide to treat the unaffected foliage, as well as the soil, and neighboring plants. Follow the manufacturer’s rate and timing directions found on the product label.
In severe cases, where more than half the leaves are affected: Remove all of the infected plants from the garden, disposing of them off site. Treat the soil and neighboring plants using a copper-based bactericide. Follow the manufacturer’s rate and timing directions found on the product label.
Prevention
Prevention
  1. Clean up garden debris at the end of the season, especially if it contains any diseased plant tissue. Diseases can overwinter from season to season and infect new plants.
  2. Avoid overhead watering to prevent transferring pathogens from one plant to another, and to keep foliage dry.
  3. Mulch around the base of plants to prevent soil-borne bacteria from splashing up onto uninfected plants.
  4. Sterilize cutting tools using a 10% bleach solution when gardening and moving from one plant to another.
  5. Do not work in your garden when it is wet.
  6. Rotate crops to prevent the buildup of bacteria in one site due to continuous cropping.
  7. Use a copper or streptomycin-containing bactericide in early spring to prevent infection. Read label directions carefully as they are not suitable for all plants.
  8. Ensure plants are well spaced and thin leaves on densely leaved plants so that air circulation is maximised.
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Soft rot
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Soft rot
Soft rot causes the entire plant to turn black and rot from the inside out.
Overview
Overview
Soft rot is a common disease affecting mostly fruits and vegetables. It can occur while plants are growing but is more common once the produce has been harvested. The most susceptible plants are fleshy vegetables like tomatoes, lettuce, sweet potato, capsicum, bananas, eggplants, squash, cucumber, avocados, and potatoes.
Many succulents are also susceptible to soft rot. This is especially the case when the plant has received some damage, as bacteria enters the succulent through the open wound.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Initially, the disease is spotted in the form of soft, wet, cream-to-tan necrotic spots. These may appear on fruits and vegetables, including tubers, or succulent leaves and stems. The spots are surrounded by a dark brown to black ring.
As the disease progresses, the plant part becomes infected with a soft and slimy rot that has a foul odor. A dark discoloration can be seen internally. Potatoes, sweet potatoes and other tubers will have evidence of this rot under the skin. Fruits like avocados exhibit a dark metallic sheen on the outside and the flesh is grey to black. The flesh also has a putrid odor.
Succulents with soft rot will have watery-looking scabs on the stems or leaves. As the disease progresses, the spots will turn brown to black and they may have a foul-smelling discharge. For succulents with shorter stems, it may be more difficult to notice the earliest symptoms, and soft rot may not be noticed until the plant has already begun rotting from the center.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
Soft rot is caused by the bacteria Erwinia cartovorum. This bacteria secretes enzymes that decompose the cell wall structure of the plant. This destroys the plant tissue and causes the plant or its fruit to rot.
The bacteria lives in crop debris as well as soil and water, including the ocean. It infects plants through open wounds, including those caused by overwatering in succulents. It is normally spread by splashing water, insects, and wind. Infection is worse in hot and humid weather.
Solutions
Solutions
Once soft rot appears, it is difficult to control.
For minor issues of soft rot where only a small area is affected:
  1. Reduce watering. Only water when the soil is completely dry.
  2. Prune away affected tissue. Remove all dead and/or rotting roots and leaves. Use sterile tools.
  3. Repot using new soil. If potted, repot the plant with new soil. Be sure to use a pot with proper drainage holes.
For severe cases when a large amount of tissue is infected or black:
  1. Dispose of plant. Severely infected plants will not recover. Dispose of the plant so that other nearby plants are not infected. Do not compost the infected plant.
Prevention
Prevention
To prevent soft rot, do the following:
  1. Avoid overwatering. Only water succulents when soil is almost dry. Make sure potted plants are in containers with drainage holes.
  2. Ensure proper airflow. Do not crowd plants together. Make sure there is adequate space between plants to allow for airflow.
  3. Source healthy plants. Avoid introducing plants with soft rot into your garden or home. Buy plants for a reliable source and check for signs of soft rot.
  4. Sterilize pruning tools. Soft rot bacteria enter plants where tissue is cut. Make sure to sterilize pruning tools before using.
  5. Control pests. Pests can spread soft rot bacteria when they feed on plants. Controlling pests will help stop the spread of soft rot.
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Brown spot
plant poor
Brown spot
This infection can cause brown spots or patches to appear on the plant.
Overview
Overview
Discolored spots on the foliage of plants are one of the most common disease problems people observe. These spots are caused by fungal and bacterial diseases, with most infections related to a fungal pathogen.
Brown spot can occurs on all houseplants, flowering ornamentals, vegetable plants, and leaves of trees, bushes, and shrubs. No plants are resistant to it, and the problem is worse in warm, wet environments. It can occur at any point in the life stage as long as leaves are present.
Small brownish spots appear on the foliage and enlarge as the disease progresses. In severe cases, the plant or tree is weakened when the lesions interrupt photosynthesis or cause defoliation.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
In most cases, brown spot only affects a small percentage of the whole plant, appearing on a small amount of the leaves. A small infection only puts minor stress on the plant. However, if left untreated and the disease progresses over numerous seasons, it will severely impact the health and productivity of the infected specimen.
  • Sporulation begins (reproduction of the fungal spores), and tiny spots appear on leaves.
  • Placement is often random and scattered as diseases are spread through raindrops.
  • May appear on lower leaves and the interior of the plant where humidity is higher.
  • Brown spots enlarge and grow large enough to touch neighboring spots to form a more prominent blotch.
  • Leaf margins may turn yellow.
  • Tiny black dots (fruiting bodies of the fungi) appear in the dead spots.
  • Blotches grow in size until the entire leaf is brown.
  • The leaf falls off the plant.
Severe Symptoms
  • Partial or complete premature defoliation
  • Reduced growth
  • Increased susceptibility to pests and other diseases
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
Brown spot, or leaf spot, is a common descriptive term given to several diseases affecting the leaves of plants and trees. Around 85% of diseases exhibiting leaf spots are due to fungus or fungus-like organisms. Sometimes brown spot is caused by a bacterial infection, or insect activity with similar symptoms.
When conditions are warm and the leaf surfaces are wet, fungal spores being transported by wind or rain land on the surface and cling to it. They do not rupture the cell walls but grow in the space between the plant plasma membrane and the plant cell wall. As the spores reproduce, they release toxins and enzymes that cause necrotic spots (i.e., dead tissue) on the leaves, allowing the fungi to consume the products released when the cells degrade.
Solutions
Solutions
In minor cases of brown spot, there isn’t any need to treat the disease. However, if much of the foliage is affected and defoliation occurs, the plant will benefit from getting rid of the infection. It is recommended to start by applying organic treatment options, working up to the more potent synthetic, chemical fungicides if necessary.
Organic options won’t kill the fungus, but will prevent it from spreading.
  1. Dissolve ½ teaspoon of baking soda and one teaspoon of liquid soap in a gallon of water. Using a spray bottle, spray on tops and bottoms of leaves until the mixture drips off. Repeat every two weeks until existing spots stop enlarging and new spots no longer appear.
  2. Spray a copper-based fungicidal soap on the leaves, coating the top and bottom leaf surfaces. Reapply as directed on the product label. Copper penetrates the leaf surface and prevents germination of spores so the fungus cannot spread.
  3. Apply an all-purpose fungicide to the entire plant, following the label instructions carefully.
Prevention
Prevention
Like many other diseases, it is easier to prevent brown spot than cure it, and this is done through cultural practices.
  • Clear fall leaves from the ground before winter to minimize places where fungi and bacteria can overwinter.
  • Maintain good air movement between plants through proper plant spacing.
  • Increase air circulation through the center of plants through pruning.
  • Thoroughly clean all pruning tools after working with diseased plants.
  • Never dispose of disease plant material in a compost pile.
  • Avoid overhead watering to keep moisture off of the foliage.
  • Keep plants healthy by providing adequate sunlight, water, and fertilizer.
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