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Wax agarve
Wax agarve
Wax agarve
Echeveria agavoides 'Golden Maria'
Hardiness Zones
Hardiness Zones
9 to 12
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care guide

Care Guide for Wax agarve

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Watering Care
Watering Care
Details on Watering Care Watering Care
Fertilizing Care
Fertilizing Care
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Pruning
Pruning
Trim the diseased, withered leaves once a month.
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Soil Care
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Sand, Slightly acidic, Neutral
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Ideal Lighting
Full sun, Partial sun
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Wax agarve
Sunlight
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Hardiness Zones
Hardiness Zones
9 to 12
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Questions About Wax agarve

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Watering Watering Watering
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What is the best way to water my Wax agarve?
When watering the Wax agarve, you should aim to use filtered water that is at room temperature. Filtered water is better for this plant, as tap water can contain particles that are harmful to its health. The reason that the water should be at room temperature or slightly warmer is that the Wax agarve comes from a warm environment, and cold water can be somewhat of a shock to its system. Also, you should avoid overhead watering for this plant, as it can cause foliage complications. Instead, simply apply your filtered room temperature water to the soil until the soil is entirely soaked. Soaking the soil can be very beneficial for this plant as it moistens the roots and helps them continue to spread through the soil and collect the nutrients they need.
Read More more
What should I do if I water my Wax agarve too much or too little?
Both overwatering and underwatering will be detrimental to the health of your Wax agarve, but overwatering is a far more common issue. When this species receives too much water, its stems and leaves may begin to wilt and turn from green to yellow. Overwatering over a prolonged period may also lead to diseases such as root rot, mold, and mildew, all of which can kill your plant. Underwatering is far less common for the Wax agarve, as this plant has decent drought tolerance. However, underwatering remains a possibility, and when it occurs, you can expect to find that the leaves of your Wax agarve have become brittle and brown. It is crucial that you notice the signs of overwatering as soon as possible when caring for your Wax agarve. Some of the diseases that arise from overwatering, such as root rot, may not be correctable if you wait too long. If you see early signs of overwatering, you should reduce your watering schedule immediately. You may also want to assess the quality of soil in which your Wax agarve grows. If you find that the soil drains very poorly, you should replace it immediately with a loose, well-draining potting mix. On the other hand, if you find signs that your Wax agarve is receiving too little water, all you need to do is water more regularly until those signs have subsided.
Read More more
How often should I water my Wax agarve?
If your plant is in a pot. The most precise way to decide whether your Wax agarve needs water is to plunge your finger into the soil. If you notice that the first two to three inches of soil have become dry, it is time to add some water. If you grow your Wax agarve outdoors in the ground, you can use a similar method to test the soil. Again, when you find that the first few inches of soil have dried out, it is time to add water. During the spring and early fall, this method will often lead you to water this plant about once every week. When extremely hot weather arrives, you may need to increase your watering frequency to about twice or more per week. With that said, mature, well-established the Wax agarve can show an admirable ability to withstand drought.
Read More more
How much water does my Wax agarve need?
When it comes time to water your Wax agarve, you should not be shy about how much water you give. With the first two to three inches of soil dry, this plant will appreciate a long and thorough watering. Supply enough water to soak the soil entirely. The amount of water you add should be enough to cause excess water to flow through the drainage holes at the bottom of your pot. If you don’t see excess water draining from the pot, you have likely underwatered your plant. But do not let the water accumulate inside the soil, which will be very dangerous to the plant as well. Alternatively, a lack of water draining through the pot could indicate poorly draining soils, which is detrimental to the health of this plant and should be avoided. If the plant is outside, 1 inch of rain per week will be sufficient.
Read More more
How should I water my Wax agarve at different growth stages?
The water needs of the Wax agarve can change depending on growth stages as well. For example, when your Wax agarve is in the first few years of its life, or if you have just transplanted it to a new growing location, you will need to give more water than usual. During both of those stages, your Wax agarve will put a lot of energy towards sprouting new roots that will then support future growth. For those roots to perform their best, they need a bit more moisture than they would at a more mature phase. After a few seasons, your Wax agarve will need much less water. Another growth stage in which this plant may need more water is during the bloom period. Flower development can make use of a significant amount of moisture, which is why you might need to give your Wax agarve more water at this time.
Read More more
How should I water my Wax agarve through the seasons?
The Wax agarve will have its highest water needs during the hottest months of the year. During the height of summer, you may need to give this plant water more than once per week, depending on how fast the soil dries out. The opposite is true during the winter. In winter, your plant will enter a dormant phase, in which it will need far less water than usual. In fact, you may not need to water this plant at all during the winter months. However, if you do water during winter, you should not do so more than about once per month. Watering too much at this time will make it more likely that your Wax agarve will contract a disease.
Read More more
What's the difference between watering my Wax agarve indoors and outdoors?
It is most common to grow the Wax agarve indoors for any gardener that does not live in temperate and tropical regions. Those gardeners should consider the fact that soil in a container can dry out a bit faster than ground soil. Also, the presence of drying elements such as air conditioning units can cause your Wax agarve to need water on a more frequent basis as well. if you planted it outside. When that is the case, it’s likely you won’t need to water your Wax agarve very much at all. If you receive rainfall on a regular basis, that may be enough to keep your plant alive. Alternatively, those who grow this plant inside will need to water it more often, as allowing rainwater to soak the soil will not be an option.
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Key Facts About Wax agarve

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Attributes of Wax agarve

Lifespan
Perennial
Plant Type
Herb
Leaf Color
Yellow
Gold
Green
Red
Leaf type
Evergreen
Ideal Temperature
20 - 38 ℃

Scientific Classification of Wax agarve

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Common Pests & Diseases About Wax agarve

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Common issues for Wax agarve based on 10 million real cases
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Leaf rot
Leaf rot is a devastating disease affecting Wax agarve, causing soft, discolored leaves. Brought on by overwatering and poor ventilation, it can kill the plant if not treated promptly.
Low light
Low light Low light
Low light
A lack of sunlight will cause the stems and leaves to elongate and appear lighter in color.
Solutions: Low light can only be addressed by increasing light availability, and these measures will only stop further etoliation; current distortion cannot be reversed. Move plant to a position where it receives more light. Check the requirements for specific species, as too much sunlight can cause a plant to burn. Introduce appropriate artificial lighting. Some people choose to prune the longest stems so the plant can concentrate on healthy new growth under the improved lighting.
Leaf rot
Leaf rot Leaf rot
Leaf rot
This pathogen can cause the leaves to rot.
Solutions: Bacterial infections need to be treated quickly to prevent the spread to neighboring, healthy plants, potentially wiping out large sections of your indoor or outdoor garden. In mild cases: Use sterilized (10% bleach solution) pruning shears or scissors to remove any infected plant parts, making sure to dispose of them off site. Use a copper-based bactericide to treat the unaffected foliage, as well as the soil, and neighboring plants. Follow the manufacturer’s rate and timing directions found on the product label. In severe cases, where more than half the leaves are affected: Remove all of the infected plants from the garden, disposing of them off site. Treat the soil and neighboring plants using a copper-based bactericide. Follow the manufacturer’s rate and timing directions found on the product label.
Soft rot
Soft rot Soft rot
Soft rot
Soft rot causes the entire plant to turn black and rot from the inside out.
Solutions: Once soft rot appears, it is difficult to control. For minor issues of soft rot where only a small area is affected: Reduce watering. Only water when the soil is completely dry. Prune away affected tissue. Remove all dead and/or rotting roots and leaves. Use sterile tools. Repot using new soil. If potted, repot the plant with new soil. Be sure to use a pot with proper drainage holes. For severe cases when a large amount of tissue is infected or black: Dispose of plant. Severely infected plants will not recover. Dispose of the plant so that other nearby plants are not infected. Do not compost the infected plant.
Aged yellow and dry
Aged yellow and dry Aged yellow and dry
Aged yellow and dry
Natural aging can cause leaves to turn yellow and dry out.
Solutions: If the yellowing and drying of leaves and flowers is a natural progression due to age, nothing can be done to slow or stop the process. Once hormones within the plant begin the process of senescence, it’s irreversible.
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plant poor
Leaf rot
Overview
Symptom
Causes
Treatment
Prevention
Active Period
What is Leaf rot Disease on Wax agarve?
What is Leaf rot Disease on Wax agarve?
Leaf rot is a devastating disease affecting Wax agarve, causing soft, discolored leaves. Brought on by overwatering and poor ventilation, it can kill the plant if not treated promptly.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
The earliest signs of leaf rot on Wax agarve are yellowing and wilting of leaves. As the disease progresses, leaves turn brown to black and soften to the touch, with entire sections of the plant possibly falling off.
What Causes Leaf rot Disease on Wax agarve?
What Causes Leaf rot Disease on Wax agarve?
1
Overwatering
An excess of water forces oxygen out of the soil, creating an anaerobic environment that fosters rot-causing bacteria and fungi.
2
Poor ventilation
Without proper airflow, moisture builds up and promotes the growth of pathogens on leaf surfaces.
How to Treat Leaf rot Disease on Wax agarve?
How to Treat Leaf rot Disease on Wax agarve?
1
Non pesticide
Pruning: Remove and dispose of infected leaves immediately to prevent spreading. Ensure tools are cleaned after use.

Adjust watering and ventilation: Avoid overwatering and ensure adequate ventilation to limit moisture, thereby reducing fungal presence.
2
Pesticide
Fungicidal spray: Apply a fungicidal spray targeted at root rot fungi, ensuring to carefully follow the instructions on the packaging.
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Low light
plant poor
Low light
A lack of sunlight will cause the stems and leaves to elongate and appear lighter in color.
Overview
Overview
All plants require light, and if they do not receive it in the quantities that they require this distorts their growth in a process known as etiolation. In essence, etiolated plants are diverting all of their energy to growing taller in a desperate attempt to reach a position where they can meet their light requirements. Many other growth factors are harmed by this, and so light-deprived plants can become weak and distorted until they are almost unrecognizable. Low light symptoms are most commonly seen in houseplants, but outdoor specimens can also be affected.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Although symptoms will vary in different plants, the general symptoms of low light are easy to spot.
  1. Plant stems grow tall and lanky.
  2. There are less leaves, and both leaves and stems tend to be pale and insipid looking. This is due to a shortage of chlorophyll.
  3. All plant parts become weakened and may droop, as energy is diverted toward too-fast growth as the plant stretches itself toward any source of light.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
Plants need sunlight in varying amounts for photosynthesis – a process that produces energy for growth and fruit and flower production. Low light causes a plant to divert all energy to upward (apical) growth in order to find better light. Plant hormones called auxins are transported from the actively-growing tip of the plant downwards, to suppress lateral growth. A drop in cellular pH triggers expansins, nonenzymatic cell wall proteins, to loosen cell walls and allow them to elongate. This elongation results in the abnormal lengthening of stems, especially internodes, or plant "legginess" which is observed in etoliated plants.
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Leaf rot
plant poor
Leaf rot
This pathogen can cause the leaves to rot.
Overview
Overview
Leaf rot is very common among both house plants and garden plants. It affects foliage and occurs mainly when the leaves become wet due to rain or misting by the gardener. The cause is fungal disease and this is facilitated by the fungal spores adhering to wet leaves then penetrating the leaf and expanding rapidly. Damp conditions and poor air circulation will increase chances of infection taking place. Another factor are leaves that are damaged or have been penetrated by sap sucking insects that facilitate plant penetration.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
  1. Spores are able to cling to a damp leaf and penetrate, often through an existing wound.
  2. A small dark brown mark appears which expands rapidly as sporulation starts to take place.
  3. Quite quickly these bull's eye like circles can link together and the whole leaf turns dark and loses texture.
  4. Leaf drop occurs.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
These symptoms are caused by a bacterial infection invading the plant. Bacteria from many sources in the environment (air, water, soil, diseased plants) enter a plant through wounds, or in some cases the stomata when they are open. Once inside the leaf tissue, the bacteria feed and reproduce quickly, breaking down healthy leaves.
Bacterial infections threaten most plant species, and are more prominent in wet weather that more easily transfers the bacteria from plant to plant, or from soil to plant.
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Soft rot
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Soft rot
Soft rot causes the entire plant to turn black and rot from the inside out.
Overview
Overview
Soft rot is a common disease affecting mostly fruits and vegetables. It can occur while plants are growing but is more common once the produce has been harvested. The most susceptible plants are fleshy vegetables like tomatoes, lettuce, sweet potato, capsicum, bananas, eggplants, squash, cucumber, avocados, and potatoes.
Many succulents are also susceptible to soft rot. This is especially the case when the plant has received some damage, as bacteria enters the succulent through the open wound.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Initially, the disease is spotted in the form of soft, wet, cream-to-tan necrotic spots. These may appear on fruits and vegetables, including tubers, or succulent leaves and stems. The spots are surrounded by a dark brown to black ring.
As the disease progresses, the plant part becomes infected with a soft and slimy rot that has a foul odor. A dark discoloration can be seen internally. Potatoes, sweet potatoes and other tubers will have evidence of this rot under the skin. Fruits like avocados exhibit a dark metallic sheen on the outside and the flesh is grey to black. The flesh also has a putrid odor.
Succulents with soft rot will have watery-looking scabs on the stems or leaves. As the disease progresses, the spots will turn brown to black and they may have a foul-smelling discharge. For succulents with shorter stems, it may be more difficult to notice the earliest symptoms, and soft rot may not be noticed until the plant has already begun rotting from the center.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
Soft rot is caused by the bacteria Erwinia cartovorum. This bacteria secretes enzymes that decompose the cell wall structure of the plant. This destroys the plant tissue and causes the plant or its fruit to rot.
The bacteria lives in crop debris as well as soil and water, including the ocean. It infects plants through open wounds, including those caused by overwatering in succulents. It is normally spread by splashing water, insects, and wind. Infection is worse in hot and humid weather.
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Aged yellow and dry
plant poor
Aged yellow and dry
Natural aging can cause leaves to turn yellow and dry out.
Overview
Overview
Regardless of the type of plant or where it is grown, at some point, it will begin to aged yellow and dry. This is a natural, unavoidable process that happens when the plant has completed all of the steps in its life.
Annual plants go through this process at the end of a single growing season. Perennial plants live for multiple years, if not tens or hundreds of years, but will still ultimately exhibit these symptoms.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
When plants have progressed through their natural developmental stages and are nearing the end of their lifecycle, they begin showing signs of decline. Leaves will start to yellow and droop, and over time they turn papery brown and dry.
Once completely dry, the leaves begin to fall from the plant until the entire plant has dried out.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
At the end of its life, genetic coding within the plant increases the production of ethylene, a phytohormone that controls senescence or natural aging and death. Cell division stops, and the plant begins catabolizing resources to use in other parts of the plant.
As this happens, the tissues begin yellow and drying until the entire plant is desiccated and perishes.
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More Info on Wax Agarve Growth and Care

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Basic Care Guide
Common Pests & Diseases
Transplant
6-9 inches
The best period to relocate wax agarve encompasses the warmth of midsummer stretching to the waning days of autumn, providing optimal root establishment. Choose a sunny spot with well-draining soil. Transitional comfort is enhanced by moderate, indirect light.
Transplant Techniques
Temperature
0 - 43 ℃
Wax agarve is adapted to warmth, thriving in native habitats with temperatures ranging from 68 to 100.4°F (20 to 38°C). To maintain health, avoid exposure to temperatures below 50°F (10°C) during colder months.
Temp for Healthy Growth
Pruning
Spring, Summer, Autumn
This succulent, featuring rosettes of pointed leaves and often mistaken for an agave, benefits from limited, strategic pruning. Remove dead or damaged leaves at the base of wax agarve during spring, summer, or fall to encourage healthy growth and air circulation. Timely pruning during active growth phases yields the best results. Avoid excessive cutting to maintain wax agarve's natural shape, which also helps prevent infections in the cut areas. Pruning enhances wax agarve's appearance and promotes more vigorous growth.
Pruning techniques
Leaf rot
Leaf rot is a devastating disease affecting Wax agarve, causing soft, discolored leaves. Brought on by overwatering and poor ventilation, it can kill the plant if not treated promptly.
Read More
Leaf wilting
Leaf wilting is a plant malady characterized by a loss of rigidity and drooping of leaves on Wax agarve. This can lead to a decline in plant health, reduced aesthetic appeal, and in severe cases, plant death.
Read More
Yellow edges
Yellow edges is a disease affecting Wax agarve, caused by factors such as excessive watering and fatal pathogens. It manifests as yellowing leaf margins and is most active during spring and wet seasons due to higher moisture. Early detection and intervention can prevent serious harm.
Read More
Dark blotch
Dark blotch is a disease affecting Wax agarve, caused by fungal pathogens. It leads to darkened, sunken spots on leaves, negatively affecting the plant's aesthetic appeal and general health. With proper cultural practices and treatments, it can be managed successfully.
Read More
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Wax agarve
Wax agarve
Wax agarve
Echeveria agavoides 'Golden Maria'
Hardiness Zones
Hardiness Zones
9 to 12
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Care Guide for Wax agarve

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Questions About Wax agarve

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Watering Watering Watering
Pruning Pruning Pruning
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What is the best way to water my Wax agarve?
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What should I do if I water my Wax agarve too much or too little?
more
How often should I water my Wax agarve?
more
How much water does my Wax agarve need?
more
How should I water my Wax agarve at different growth stages?
more
How should I water my Wax agarve through the seasons?
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What's the difference between watering my Wax agarve indoors and outdoors?
more
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Key Facts About Wax agarve

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Feedback
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Attributes of Wax agarve

Lifespan
Perennial
Plant Type
Herb
Leaf Color
Yellow
Gold
Green
Red
Leaf type
Evergreen
Ideal Temperature
20 - 38 ℃
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Scientific Classification of Wax agarve

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Common Pests & Diseases About Wax agarve

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Common issues for Wax agarve based on 10 million real cases
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Plant disease auto-diagnose & prevention
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Leaf rot
Leaf rot is a devastating disease affecting Wax agarve, causing soft, discolored leaves. Brought on by overwatering and poor ventilation, it can kill the plant if not treated promptly.
Learn More About the Leaf rot more
Low light
Low light Low light Low light
A lack of sunlight will cause the stems and leaves to elongate and appear lighter in color.
Solutions: Low light can only be addressed by increasing light availability, and these measures will only stop further etoliation; current distortion cannot be reversed. Move plant to a position where it receives more light. Check the requirements for specific species, as too much sunlight can cause a plant to burn. Introduce appropriate artificial lighting. Some people choose to prune the longest stems so the plant can concentrate on healthy new growth under the improved lighting.
Learn More About the Low light more
Leaf rot
Leaf rot Leaf rot Leaf rot
This pathogen can cause the leaves to rot.
Solutions: Bacterial infections need to be treated quickly to prevent the spread to neighboring, healthy plants, potentially wiping out large sections of your indoor or outdoor garden. In mild cases: Use sterilized (10% bleach solution) pruning shears or scissors to remove any infected plant parts, making sure to dispose of them off site. Use a copper-based bactericide to treat the unaffected foliage, as well as the soil, and neighboring plants. Follow the manufacturer’s rate and timing directions found on the product label. In severe cases, where more than half the leaves are affected: Remove all of the infected plants from the garden, disposing of them off site. Treat the soil and neighboring plants using a copper-based bactericide. Follow the manufacturer’s rate and timing directions found on the product label.
Learn More About the Leaf rot more
Soft rot
Soft rot Soft rot Soft rot
Soft rot causes the entire plant to turn black and rot from the inside out.
Solutions: Once soft rot appears, it is difficult to control. For minor issues of soft rot where only a small area is affected: Reduce watering. Only water when the soil is completely dry. Prune away affected tissue. Remove all dead and/or rotting roots and leaves. Use sterile tools. Repot using new soil. If potted, repot the plant with new soil. Be sure to use a pot with proper drainage holes. For severe cases when a large amount of tissue is infected or black: Dispose of plant. Severely infected plants will not recover. Dispose of the plant so that other nearby plants are not infected. Do not compost the infected plant.
Learn More About the Soft rot more
Aged yellow and dry
Aged yellow and dry Aged yellow and dry Aged yellow and dry
Natural aging can cause leaves to turn yellow and dry out.
Solutions: If the yellowing and drying of leaves and flowers is a natural progression due to age, nothing can be done to slow or stop the process. Once hormones within the plant begin the process of senescence, it’s irreversible.
Learn More About the Aged yellow and dry more
close
plant poor
Leaf rot
Overview
Symptom
Causes
Treatment
Prevention
Active Period
What is Leaf rot Disease on Wax agarve?
What is Leaf rot Disease on Wax agarve?
Leaf rot is a devastating disease affecting Wax agarve, causing soft, discolored leaves. Brought on by overwatering and poor ventilation, it can kill the plant if not treated promptly.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
The earliest signs of leaf rot on Wax agarve are yellowing and wilting of leaves. As the disease progresses, leaves turn brown to black and soften to the touch, with entire sections of the plant possibly falling off.
What Causes Leaf rot Disease on Wax agarve?
What Causes Leaf rot Disease on Wax agarve?
1
Overwatering
An excess of water forces oxygen out of the soil, creating an anaerobic environment that fosters rot-causing bacteria and fungi.
2
Poor ventilation
Without proper airflow, moisture builds up and promotes the growth of pathogens on leaf surfaces.
How to Treat Leaf rot Disease on Wax agarve?
How to Treat Leaf rot Disease on Wax agarve?
1
Non pesticide
Pruning: Remove and dispose of infected leaves immediately to prevent spreading. Ensure tools are cleaned after use.

Adjust watering and ventilation: Avoid overwatering and ensure adequate ventilation to limit moisture, thereby reducing fungal presence.
2
Pesticide
Fungicidal spray: Apply a fungicidal spray targeted at root rot fungi, ensuring to carefully follow the instructions on the packaging.
Continue reading in our app - it's better
A database of 400000+ plants
unlimited guides at your fingertips...
close
Low light
plant poor
Low light
A lack of sunlight will cause the stems and leaves to elongate and appear lighter in color.
Overview
Overview
All plants require light, and if they do not receive it in the quantities that they require this distorts their growth in a process known as etiolation. In essence, etiolated plants are diverting all of their energy to growing taller in a desperate attempt to reach a position where they can meet their light requirements. Many other growth factors are harmed by this, and so light-deprived plants can become weak and distorted until they are almost unrecognizable. Low light symptoms are most commonly seen in houseplants, but outdoor specimens can also be affected.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Although symptoms will vary in different plants, the general symptoms of low light are easy to spot.
  1. Plant stems grow tall and lanky.
  2. There are less leaves, and both leaves and stems tend to be pale and insipid looking. This is due to a shortage of chlorophyll.
  3. All plant parts become weakened and may droop, as energy is diverted toward too-fast growth as the plant stretches itself toward any source of light.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
Plants need sunlight in varying amounts for photosynthesis – a process that produces energy for growth and fruit and flower production. Low light causes a plant to divert all energy to upward (apical) growth in order to find better light. Plant hormones called auxins are transported from the actively-growing tip of the plant downwards, to suppress lateral growth. A drop in cellular pH triggers expansins, nonenzymatic cell wall proteins, to loosen cell walls and allow them to elongate. This elongation results in the abnormal lengthening of stems, especially internodes, or plant "legginess" which is observed in etoliated plants.
Solutions
Solutions
Low light can only be addressed by increasing light availability, and these measures will only stop further etoliation; current distortion cannot be reversed.
  • Move plant to a position where it receives more light. Check the requirements for specific species, as too much sunlight can cause a plant to burn.
  • Introduce appropriate artificial lighting.
  • Some people choose to prune the longest stems so the plant can concentrate on healthy new growth under the improved lighting.
Prevention
Prevention
To avoid etiolation, provide an adequate amount of light from the beginning.
  1. Choose a location that matches each plant's ideal light needs. Many indoor plants do best in or near a south-facing window, which will provide the longest hours of sunlight. Flowering plants and those with colored leaves typically need more light than purely-green plants, as photosynthesis occurs in the green portions of leaves.
  2. Select plants with light needs that match a location's conditions. Some cultivars and varieties require less light than others.
  3. Use a grow light. Darker locations may require artificial illumination. A grow light may also become more necessary during winter, when sunlit hours are at their shortest.
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Leaf rot
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Leaf rot
This pathogen can cause the leaves to rot.
Overview
Overview
Leaf rot is very common among both house plants and garden plants. It affects foliage and occurs mainly when the leaves become wet due to rain or misting by the gardener. The cause is fungal disease and this is facilitated by the fungal spores adhering to wet leaves then penetrating the leaf and expanding rapidly. Damp conditions and poor air circulation will increase chances of infection taking place. Another factor are leaves that are damaged or have been penetrated by sap sucking insects that facilitate plant penetration.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
  1. Spores are able to cling to a damp leaf and penetrate, often through an existing wound.
  2. A small dark brown mark appears which expands rapidly as sporulation starts to take place.
  3. Quite quickly these bull's eye like circles can link together and the whole leaf turns dark and loses texture.
  4. Leaf drop occurs.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
These symptoms are caused by a bacterial infection invading the plant. Bacteria from many sources in the environment (air, water, soil, diseased plants) enter a plant through wounds, or in some cases the stomata when they are open. Once inside the leaf tissue, the bacteria feed and reproduce quickly, breaking down healthy leaves.
Bacterial infections threaten most plant species, and are more prominent in wet weather that more easily transfers the bacteria from plant to plant, or from soil to plant.
Solutions
Solutions
Bacterial infections need to be treated quickly to prevent the spread to neighboring, healthy plants, potentially wiping out large sections of your indoor or outdoor garden.
In mild cases: Use sterilized (10% bleach solution) pruning shears or scissors to remove any infected plant parts, making sure to dispose of them off site. Use a copper-based bactericide to treat the unaffected foliage, as well as the soil, and neighboring plants. Follow the manufacturer’s rate and timing directions found on the product label.
In severe cases, where more than half the leaves are affected: Remove all of the infected plants from the garden, disposing of them off site. Treat the soil and neighboring plants using a copper-based bactericide. Follow the manufacturer’s rate and timing directions found on the product label.
Prevention
Prevention
  1. Clean up garden debris at the end of the season, especially if it contains any diseased plant tissue. Diseases can overwinter from season to season and infect new plants.
  2. Avoid overhead watering to prevent transferring pathogens from one plant to another, and to keep foliage dry.
  3. Mulch around the base of plants to prevent soil-borne bacteria from splashing up onto uninfected plants.
  4. Sterilize cutting tools using a 10% bleach solution when gardening and moving from one plant to another.
  5. Do not work in your garden when it is wet.
  6. Rotate crops to prevent the buildup of bacteria in one site due to continuous cropping.
  7. Use a copper or streptomycin-containing bactericide in early spring to prevent infection. Read label directions carefully as they are not suitable for all plants.
  8. Ensure plants are well spaced and thin leaves on densely leaved plants so that air circulation is maximised.
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Soft rot
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Soft rot
Soft rot causes the entire plant to turn black and rot from the inside out.
Overview
Overview
Soft rot is a common disease affecting mostly fruits and vegetables. It can occur while plants are growing but is more common once the produce has been harvested. The most susceptible plants are fleshy vegetables like tomatoes, lettuce, sweet potato, capsicum, bananas, eggplants, squash, cucumber, avocados, and potatoes.
Many succulents are also susceptible to soft rot. This is especially the case when the plant has received some damage, as bacteria enters the succulent through the open wound.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Initially, the disease is spotted in the form of soft, wet, cream-to-tan necrotic spots. These may appear on fruits and vegetables, including tubers, or succulent leaves and stems. The spots are surrounded by a dark brown to black ring.
As the disease progresses, the plant part becomes infected with a soft and slimy rot that has a foul odor. A dark discoloration can be seen internally. Potatoes, sweet potatoes and other tubers will have evidence of this rot under the skin. Fruits like avocados exhibit a dark metallic sheen on the outside and the flesh is grey to black. The flesh also has a putrid odor.
Succulents with soft rot will have watery-looking scabs on the stems or leaves. As the disease progresses, the spots will turn brown to black and they may have a foul-smelling discharge. For succulents with shorter stems, it may be more difficult to notice the earliest symptoms, and soft rot may not be noticed until the plant has already begun rotting from the center.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
Soft rot is caused by the bacteria Erwinia cartovorum. This bacteria secretes enzymes that decompose the cell wall structure of the plant. This destroys the plant tissue and causes the plant or its fruit to rot.
The bacteria lives in crop debris as well as soil and water, including the ocean. It infects plants through open wounds, including those caused by overwatering in succulents. It is normally spread by splashing water, insects, and wind. Infection is worse in hot and humid weather.
Solutions
Solutions
Once soft rot appears, it is difficult to control.
For minor issues of soft rot where only a small area is affected:
  1. Reduce watering. Only water when the soil is completely dry.
  2. Prune away affected tissue. Remove all dead and/or rotting roots and leaves. Use sterile tools.
  3. Repot using new soil. If potted, repot the plant with new soil. Be sure to use a pot with proper drainage holes.
For severe cases when a large amount of tissue is infected or black:
  1. Dispose of plant. Severely infected plants will not recover. Dispose of the plant so that other nearby plants are not infected. Do not compost the infected plant.
Prevention
Prevention
To prevent soft rot, do the following:
  1. Avoid overwatering. Only water succulents when soil is almost dry. Make sure potted plants are in containers with drainage holes.
  2. Ensure proper airflow. Do not crowd plants together. Make sure there is adequate space between plants to allow for airflow.
  3. Source healthy plants. Avoid introducing plants with soft rot into your garden or home. Buy plants for a reliable source and check for signs of soft rot.
  4. Sterilize pruning tools. Soft rot bacteria enter plants where tissue is cut. Make sure to sterilize pruning tools before using.
  5. Control pests. Pests can spread soft rot bacteria when they feed on plants. Controlling pests will help stop the spread of soft rot.
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Aged yellow and dry
plant poor
Aged yellow and dry
Natural aging can cause leaves to turn yellow and dry out.
Overview
Overview
Regardless of the type of plant or where it is grown, at some point, it will begin to aged yellow and dry. This is a natural, unavoidable process that happens when the plant has completed all of the steps in its life.
Annual plants go through this process at the end of a single growing season. Perennial plants live for multiple years, if not tens or hundreds of years, but will still ultimately exhibit these symptoms.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
When plants have progressed through their natural developmental stages and are nearing the end of their lifecycle, they begin showing signs of decline. Leaves will start to yellow and droop, and over time they turn papery brown and dry.
Once completely dry, the leaves begin to fall from the plant until the entire plant has dried out.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
At the end of its life, genetic coding within the plant increases the production of ethylene, a phytohormone that controls senescence or natural aging and death. Cell division stops, and the plant begins catabolizing resources to use in other parts of the plant.
As this happens, the tissues begin yellow and drying until the entire plant is desiccated and perishes.
Solutions
Solutions
If the yellowing and drying of leaves and flowers is a natural progression due to age, nothing can be done to slow or stop the process. Once hormones within the plant begin the process of senescence, it’s irreversible.
Prevention
Prevention
Unfortunately, there is no way to prevent plants from dying of “old age.” To help prolong their life, and put off symptoms of aged yellow and dry for as long as possible, take care of them by giving them enough water, fertilizing them appropriately, and making sure they get enough sunlight.
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Temperature
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Requirements
Ideal
Tolerable
Unsuitable
Just like people, each plant has its own preferences. Learn about your plants' temperature needs and create a comforting environment for them to flourish. As you care for your plants, your bond with them will deepen. Trust your intuition as you learn about their temperature needs, celebrating the journey you share. Lovingly monitor the temperature around your plants and adjust their environment as needed. A thermometer can be your ally in this heartfelt endeavor. Be patient and gentle with yourself as you explore your plants' temperature needs. Cherish your successes, learn from challenges, and nurture your garden with love, creating a haven that reflects the warmth of your care.
Essentials
Wax agarve is adapted to warmth, thriving in native habitats with temperatures ranging from 68 to 100.4°F (20 to 38°C). To maintain health, avoid exposure to temperatures below 50°F (10°C) during colder months.
Regional wintering strategies
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