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Euphorbia
Euphorbia
Add to My Garden
Euphorbia
Euphorbia neriifolia var. cristata
Also known as: Hedge Euphorbia
Euphorbia (Euphorbia neriifolia var. cristata) is a fast-growing succulent native to India, Sri Lanka, and Myanmar. Euphorbia is valued for its crested nature and ability to grow into unique sculptural shapes. This species is considered easy to grow when cultivated as a houseplant. It should be grown in well-drained soil in plentiful sunlight.
Planting Time
Planting Time
Late spring, Summer
Toxic to Humans
care guide

Care Guide for Euphorbia

Drought-tolerant. Allow the soil to dry completely between watering.
Fertilization
Fertilization
See Details
A few times a year, apply fertilizer to the euphorbia to boost its growth rate. Use a slow-release houseplant fertilizer that can be mixed into the soil around the plant's base. Don't feed this plant over its dormant season in the winter.
Deadhead (or remove) withered flowers after flowering.
Loam
Sunlight
Sunlight
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Full sun, Partial sun
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Euphorbia
Sunlight
Sunlight
Full sun
Hardiness Zones
Hardiness Zones
10 to 12
Planting Time
Planting Time
Late spring, Summer
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Euphorbia
Sunlight
Sunlight
Full sun
Hardiness Zones
Hardiness Zones
10 to 12
Planting Time
Planting Time
Late spring, Summer
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Euphorbia
Sunlight
Sunlight
Full sun
Hardiness Zones
Hardiness Zones
10 to 12
Planting Time
Planting Time
Late spring, Summer
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Questions About Euphorbia

Watering Watering Watering
Sunlight Sunlight Sunlight
Temperature Temperature Temperature
Fertilizing Fertilizing Fertilizing
What should I do if I water my Euphorbia too much or too little?
Underwatered Euphorbia
Euphorbia and other succulents can endure long periods without water, so it’s unusual to find one of these suffering from underwatering. But, if you somehow forgot about your plant and neglected to water it for a month or more, you’ll probably find your Euphorbia looking thirsty or with some leaf damage from lack of watering.
It is very easy to identify an underwatered Euphorbia. The leaves will look shriveled, dry, and flat. Some may have dried up completely, turned brown and crispy, or dropped off the plant, starting with the lower leaves and moving upward as the dry conditions continue. And of course, the soil will be completely dried out.
If your Euphorbia is thirsty and underwatered, give it plenty of water as soon as possible. Submerging the pot entirely in water for about 5-10 minutes is a good way to make sure the soil and plant are rehydrated properly. When you feel a sense of moisture on the surface of the soil with your finger, it means the watering is done properly. If there are dried out leaves still attached, go ahead and pluck them off to make room for new growth.
Overwatered Euphorbia
Overwatering is dangerous to Euphorbia and can be fatal to your plant if you don’t remedy the situation. Too much moisture over time leads to root rot, which prevents the roots from being able to absorb nutrients and water from the soil. Root rot occurs when wet conditions allow fungi and bacteria to flourish in the soil and feed on roots. When you find that it's overwatered, you'd better change the growing conditions, place it somewhere with more air ventilation and adjust water frequency, for example.
The symptoms of overwatering are yellow, swollen, and translucent leaves that may even burst open from being over-full with water. If the problem continues without being treated, leaves might turn brown or black, and fall off the plant at the slightest touch. Be sure to check the soil to determine if overwatering is the culprit, as some other issues can cause similar symptoms.
It’s a bit difficult (but not impossible) to save an overwatered plant. The key is catching it early before a lot of damage has occurred. If the roots become rotten, it is likely to kill the entire plant. If you suspect you have overwatered your Euphorbia, the first step is to remove it from its pot and check the roots and soil.
After removing the plant from its pot, gently remove wet soil from around the roots and then rinse them clean in room-temperature water. This helps with removing fungus that might be lurking in the soil and allows you to get a better sense of how healthy the roots are. If your plant has already developed root rot, you will see roots that are dark brown or black, soft, mushy, or slimy.
If the majority of the roots are already affected by root rot, it may not be possible to save the plant. In this case, it is best to remove any healthy leaves and try to use these to propagate a new Euphorbia. Luckily, this plant is easy to propagate even from a single leaf. If, on the other hand, only a portion of the roots have succumbed to rot and other healthy roots still remain, there is a chance it can be saved.
Use a sterilized cutting tool to remove any unhealthy-looking roots. Once you're left with only the firm, pale roots, it’s a good idea to dip them in a fungicide to kill off any remaining spores. After that you can repot your Euphorbia in fresh, free-draining potting soil. While this does not always work to save a succulent with root rot, in most cases this plant will be able to make a full recovery and will put out new growth starting in the next growing season.
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How often should I water my Euphorbia?
There’s not a hard-and-fast rule for how often to water Euphorbia. The best way to determine this is to check the soil and only water when it’s bone dry. You can either stick your finger in the pot or use a moisture meter to check the soil below the surface. When you plant it in a deep pot, you can do this with a stick or chopstick. If it feels even a little bit moist, wait a few days and check it again.
Most people will need to water Euphorbia about every two weeks in summer and once a month in winter, but there are several factors that can change the frequency. The section below lists some considerations that can help you to determine how often to water.
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What should I consider when watering my Euphorbia?
There are several environmental conditions that will affect how your Euphorbia needs to be watered, including the container size, soil type, temperature, and humidity.
First off, the container and soil you use will determine how often to water and how much water to use each time. Be sure you use a container with plenty of drainage holes in the bottom so extra water can escape the pot. A small container has less room for soil, meaning it won’t hold as much moisture, while a larger pot will stay wet longer and need to be watered less often. It’s important not to keep your Euphorbia in an oversized pot as this can easily lead to overwatering. When repotting, move to just one size larger than the current container. A shallow container works better than a deep one, since Euphorbia has shallow root systems.
Euphorbia will need to be watered less often in winter and more often in the active growing season in spring and autumn. During the winter, growth slows down considerably and the plant isn’t using much energy or water. There is less water lost to evaporation in cooler winter air, meaning that soil stays wet for much longer than it would in the summer.
This also applies to the general climate around your home. If you live in a humid location with a lot of rain, you will need to water less often than if you live in a dry, arid climate. Remember that conditions at the same geographic location can vary significantly with the season and the use of indoor heating and air conditioning.
Outdoor Planting
If Euphorbia is planted in the ground, after establishing a root system, it shouldn’t need supplemental water beyond what it receives through precipitation and dew. But if there is a long dry period, you may want to water occasionally. In other areas where Euphorbia can only be grown in a container, this plant can be moved outside in the spring and summer when the temperature is proper and then brought back inside when temperatures start to drop. A potted Euphorbia kept outside usually needs more water than the same plant kept indoors, because there is a lot more sun exposure even on a shaded porch.
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How to water Euphorbia?
The best way to water Euphorbia is to soak it thoroughly and then allow it to dry out before it gets watered again. Since this plant is somewhat drought tolerant, you can let it get quite dry before watering again. It is always better to give this type of plant too little water over too much.
When you water, make sure the soil gets thoroughly soaked throughout the whole pot. Don’t pour the water in just one spot, but rather try to go around the whole rim of the planter to be sure that it has a chance to get wet on all sides of the plant. The correct amount of water will depend on the size of your container and how much water your soil absorbs. Give your Euphorbia enough water that it drains out from the drainage holes and then (ideally) leave the drained water in the saucer for about 20-30 minutes to absorb into dry pockets of soil. After that, discard any excess water that’s still in the saucer to avoid the soil getting waterlogged.
Bottom-watering is also an excellent method for the Euphorbia, as you can be sure that the soil gets thoroughly moistened. This process involves placing the pot into a saucer of water and allowing the soil to absorb moisture through the drainage holes. You will know that the soil has absorbed enough water when the top layer is moist. This takes a bit more time than top-watering, but is almost foolproof in getting an even distribution of water throughout the pot.
The original habitat of Euphorbia is relatively dry with little rain, but when it rains, the soil will be thoroughly moistened. So you can mimic this situation by bottom-watering your plant when the soil is totally dry. Deep soil bathing is better than frequent light watering for Euphorbia.
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More About How-Tos

Explore 5 of plant how-tos on Feng shui direction, Water, Lighting, Temperature, Transplant spacing, etc.
Feng shui direction
Southwest
The euphorbia contributes subtly to balance when placed in a Southwest-facing direction. This may stem from its inherent earthly energy, which harmonizes well with the Earth element associated with this orientation. As a Feng Shui practice, this does not apply universally and should be reinforced through personal empathy with the plant's vibrancy. The nature of Feng Shui mirrors the concept of uniqueness - what works for one may not work for others.
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Water
Every 3 weeks
The euphorbia prefers a slightly dry environment and requires infrequent, deep watering. Its natural habitat consists of arid and semi-arid areas. To accommodate seasonal changes, reduce watering during colder months to prevent root rot.
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Lighting
Full sun
Euphorbia craves abundant illumination, thriving in areas where the sun is copious. It can manage under less radiant conditions as well. Its native habitat consists of areas that provide plentiful sun exposure. Both insufficient and excessive sun exposure might induce plant stress, potentially affecting its robust growth.
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Temperature
15 to 35 ℃
The euphorbia plant is native to regions with a temperate to tropical climate and prefers temperatures between 68 to 100 ℉ (20 to 38 ℃). During cooler seasons, it is important to keep the temperature above 60 ℉ (15.5 ℃) to prevent damage to the plant. In hotter months, it may benefit from some shade or misting to prevent drying out.
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Transplant spacing
12-18 inches
The perfect time for transplanting euphorbia is early spring to mid-spring or late fall to late winter, offering a mild climate for better root establishment. Ensure euphorbia is placed in well-draining soil with partial to full sun exposure. For a successful transplant, gently loosen the root ball without disturbing its structure.
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pests

Common Pests & Diseases

Common issues for Euphorbia based on 10 million real cases
Scars
Scars Scars
Scars
Any light-colored markings that appear on stems but which do not enlarge or multiply are simply scars that have healed.
Solutions: Each source of scarring requires a different approach to help your plant recover. Protect the trunk and leaves from physical damage like scrapes. If pests or disease are the cause of scarring, isolate the plant from others to avoid further spread. Some pests can be removed with organic remedies such as a soft cloth and soapy water solution or diluted isopropyl alcohol spray. Stop sunburn by moving your plant away from direct sunlight and making sure it has the water it needs. Frequent leaf or bud loss may be due to insufficient light or nutrients.
Brown spot
Brown spot Brown spot
Brown spot
This infection can cause brown spots or patches to appear on the plant.
Solutions: In minor cases of brown spot, there isn’t any need to treat the disease. However, if much of the foliage is affected and defoliation occurs, the plant will benefit from getting rid of the infection. It is recommended to start by applying organic treatment options, working up to the more potent synthetic, chemical fungicides if necessary. Organic options won’t kill the fungus, but will prevent it from spreading. Dissolve ½ teaspoon of baking soda and one teaspoon of liquid soap in a gallon of water. Using a spray bottle, spray on tops and bottoms of leaves until the mixture drips off. Repeat every two weeks until existing spots stop enlarging and new spots no longer appear. Spray a copper-based fungicidal soap on the leaves, coating the top and bottom leaf surfaces. Reapply as directed on the product label. Copper penetrates the leaf surface and prevents germination of spores so the fungus cannot spread. Apply an all-purpose fungicide to the entire plant, following the label instructions carefully.
Caterpillars
Caterpillars Caterpillars
Caterpillars
Caterpillars are fleshy moth or butterfly larvae that come in an array of colors, patterns, and even hairstyles. They chew on leaves and flower petals, creating large, irregular holes.
Solutions: Even though caterpillars are diverse, they all chew on plant parts and can cause significant damage if present in large numbers. For severe cases: Apply insecticide. For an organic solution, spray plants with a Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), which specifically affects the larval stage of moths and butterflies. Be sure to coat plants, since caterpillars need to ingest Bt for it to be effective. This will not harm other insects. Spray a chili extract. Chili seeds can be cooked in water to make a spicy spray that caterpillars don't like. Spray this mixture on the plants, but be aware it will also be spicy to humans. Introduce beneficial insects. Release beneficial insects to the garden that eat caterpillars, such as parasitic wasps. For less severe cases: Hand pick. Using gloves, pick off caterpillars on plants and dispose of them in a bucket of soapy water. Dust plants with diatomaceous earth. This powder is harmless to humans but irritates caterpillars. Therefore, it will make it difficult for caterpillars to move and eat.
Fruit withering
Fruit withering Fruit withering
Fruit withering
Fungal infection or normal ripening can cause the fruit to dry out.
Solutions: There are a number of appropriate solutions to control fruit withering: Remove any fruit as soon as it shows any signs of infection. Do not compost. Use a fungicide prior to leaf bud and then as per manufacturers instructions throughout the season.
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Scars
plant poor
Scars
Any light-colored markings that appear on stems but which do not enlarge or multiply are simply scars that have healed.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Scars form when the plant repairs wounds. They can be the result of people or pets passing by and scraping the plant. Once the underlying issue is resolved, the plant will heal but a scar may remain.
Pests and pathogens can also cause scarring. Insects may attack the plant for a meal, resulting in extensive scarring when a few invaders turn into an infestation. Diseases such as fungus and bacteria can weaken the plant, causing brown spots, mushy areas, or blisters that lead to scars.
Scars occur on stems when a leaf or bud has been lost and the plant has healed. The harder tissue is like a scab that protects a wound.
On other occasions, scars can signal problems from environmental conditions, such as overexposure to sunlight or heat. It might surprise you to know that plants can suffer from sunburn, even desert dwellers like cactus!
Solutions
Solutions
Each source of scarring requires a different approach to help your plant recover.
  1. Protect the trunk and leaves from physical damage like scrapes.
  2. If pests or disease are the cause of scarring, isolate the plant from others to avoid further spread. Some pests can be removed with organic remedies such as a soft cloth and soapy water solution or diluted isopropyl alcohol spray.
  3. Stop sunburn by moving your plant away from direct sunlight and making sure it has the water it needs.
  4. Frequent leaf or bud loss may be due to insufficient light or nutrients.
Prevention
Prevention
Preventing some sources of scarring is easier than others, but all start with careful attention to your plants once you decide to bring them home.
  1. Review specific guidelines for your plant, including soil drainage, watering, and fertilizer requirements.
  2. Inspect plants before planting and use sterile pots and fresh potting soil or media to limit transfer of fungi or bacteria.
  3. Once established, check your plants regularly for signs of scarring or the presence of pests, as it is better to catch problems as early as possible.
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Brown spot
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Brown spot
This infection can cause brown spots or patches to appear on the plant.
Overview
Overview
Discolored spots on the foliage of plants are one of the most common disease problems people observe. These spots are caused by fungal and bacterial diseases, with most infections related to a fungal pathogen.
Brown spot can occurs on all houseplants, flowering ornamentals, vegetable plants, and leaves of trees, bushes, and shrubs. No plants are resistant to it, and the problem is worse in warm, wet environments. It can occur at any point in the life stage as long as leaves are present.
Small brownish spots appear on the foliage and enlarge as the disease progresses. In severe cases, the plant or tree is weakened when the lesions interrupt photosynthesis or cause defoliation.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
In most cases, brown spot only affects a small percentage of the whole plant, appearing on a small amount of the leaves. A small infection only puts minor stress on the plant. However, if left untreated and the disease progresses over numerous seasons, it will severely impact the health and productivity of the infected specimen.
  • Sporulation begins (reproduction of the fungal spores), and tiny spots appear on leaves.
  • Placement is often random and scattered as diseases are spread through raindrops.
  • May appear on lower leaves and the interior of the plant where humidity is higher.
  • Brown spots enlarge and grow large enough to touch neighboring spots to form a more prominent blotch.
  • Leaf margins may turn yellow.
  • Tiny black dots (fruiting bodies of the fungi) appear in the dead spots.
  • Blotches grow in size until the entire leaf is brown.
  • The leaf falls off the plant.
Severe Symptoms
  • Partial or complete premature defoliation
  • Reduced growth
  • Increased susceptibility to pests and other diseases
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
Brown spot, or leaf spot, is a common descriptive term given to several diseases affecting the leaves of plants and trees. Around 85% of diseases exhibiting leaf spots are due to fungus or fungus-like organisms. Sometimes brown spot is caused by a bacterial infection, or insect activity with similar symptoms.
When conditions are warm and the leaf surfaces are wet, fungal spores being transported by wind or rain land on the surface and cling to it. They do not rupture the cell walls but grow in the space between the plant plasma membrane and the plant cell wall. As the spores reproduce, they release toxins and enzymes that cause necrotic spots (i.e., dead tissue) on the leaves, allowing the fungi to consume the products released when the cells degrade.
Solutions
Solutions
In minor cases of brown spot, there isn’t any need to treat the disease. However, if much of the foliage is affected and defoliation occurs, the plant will benefit from getting rid of the infection. It is recommended to start by applying organic treatment options, working up to the more potent synthetic, chemical fungicides if necessary.
Organic options won’t kill the fungus, but will prevent it from spreading.
  1. Dissolve ½ teaspoon of baking soda and one teaspoon of liquid soap in a gallon of water. Using a spray bottle, spray on tops and bottoms of leaves until the mixture drips off. Repeat every two weeks until existing spots stop enlarging and new spots no longer appear.
  2. Spray a copper-based fungicidal soap on the leaves, coating the top and bottom leaf surfaces. Reapply as directed on the product label. Copper penetrates the leaf surface and prevents germination of spores so the fungus cannot spread.
  3. Apply an all-purpose fungicide to the entire plant, following the label instructions carefully.
Prevention
Prevention
Like many other diseases, it is easier to prevent brown spot than cure it, and this is done through cultural practices.
  • Clear fall leaves from the ground before winter to minimize places where fungi and bacteria can overwinter.
  • Maintain good air movement between plants through proper plant spacing.
  • Increase air circulation through the center of plants through pruning.
  • Thoroughly clean all pruning tools after working with diseased plants.
  • Never dispose of disease plant material in a compost pile.
  • Avoid overhead watering to keep moisture off of the foliage.
  • Keep plants healthy by providing adequate sunlight, water, and fertilizer.
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Caterpillars
plant poor
Caterpillars
Caterpillars are fleshy moth or butterfly larvae that come in an array of colors, patterns, and even hairstyles. They chew on leaves and flower petals, creating large, irregular holes.
Overview
Overview
Caterpillars can cause problems for home gardeners. If not managed, these insects can defoliate a plant in just a matter of days. However, home gardeners face a challenge because these caterpillars eventually turn into beautiful butterflies and moths, which are important for pollination and the general ecosystem.
There are thousands of different species of caterpillars and many will only target certain plants. If caterpillars are posing a problem, they can be removed by hand, or gardeners can use insect-proof netting to protect their valuable plants.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Caterpillars are the larvae of butterflies and moths. During the warmer months, butterflies and moths that visit gardens will lay their eggs on the underside of leaves.
When the tiny eggs hatch, the young larvae emerge and start feeding on the leaves of the plant. Depending on how many larvae have hatched, they can easily defoliate the plant in a very short period of time. Caterpillars will shed their skin as they grow, around 4 or 5 times during this feeding cycle.
Symptoms of caterpillars eating plants appear as holes in the leaves. The edges of the leaves may be eaten away as well, and flowers can be affected as well.
Some are easy to see, but others need to be searched for. This is because their bodies are often camouflaged to look like part of the plant. Gardeners need to look carefully along the stems of the plant as well as under the leaves. Also, look for tiny white, yellow, or brown eggs that can be found in groups on the underside of leaves.
Once the caterpillar is fully grown, it transforms into a pupa or chrysalis. Then, after a period of time that varies according to the species, a butterfly or moth will emerge from the pupa and the cycle begins again.
Solutions
Solutions
Even though caterpillars are diverse, they all chew on plant parts and can cause significant damage if present in large numbers.
For severe cases:
  1. Apply insecticide. For an organic solution, spray plants with a Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), which specifically affects the larval stage of moths and butterflies. Be sure to coat plants, since caterpillars need to ingest Bt for it to be effective. This will not harm other insects.
  2. Spray a chili extract. Chili seeds can be cooked in water to make a spicy spray that caterpillars don't like. Spray this mixture on the plants, but be aware it will also be spicy to humans.
  3. Introduce beneficial insects. Release beneficial insects to the garden that eat caterpillars, such as parasitic wasps.
For less severe cases:
  1. Hand pick. Using gloves, pick off caterpillars on plants and dispose of them in a bucket of soapy water.
  2. Dust plants with diatomaceous earth. This powder is harmless to humans but irritates caterpillars. Therefore, it will make it difficult for caterpillars to move and eat.
Prevention
Prevention
Prevention may require less effort than attempts to eradicate infestations that have already begun. Here are our top steps for prevention:
  1. Monitor plants. Check plants regularly for caterpillar eggs on leaves. If they do not belong to an endangered species, they should be squished.
  2. Use insect netting. Cover plants with insect netting to prevent butterflies and moths from laying eggs on plants.
  3. Apply diatomaceous earth. Apply DE to plants early in the season and reapply after rain.
  4. Encourage plant diversity. This will attract predatory insects including parasitic wasps.
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Fruit withering
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Fruit withering
Fungal infection or normal ripening can cause the fruit to dry out.
Overview
Overview
Fruit withering is common on many tree fruits, including apples, pears, peaches, cherries, and plums, as well as fruiting shrubs. It is caused by a fungal pathogen and will result in wrinkled and desiccated fruit.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Here are the most common symptoms in the order that they are likely to occur.
  1. Both leaves and blossom on the tips of branches will go brown and wither.
  2. Gray powdery patches will appear on infected leaves and flowers, and this will be most apparent after rain.
  3. Any fruit that does appear will turn wrinkled and fail to develop.
  4. Branch tips begin to die, progressing back to larger branches, causing general deterioration of the tree or plant.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
The withering is caused by one of two fungal pathogens, one called Monilina laxa and the other called M. fructigen. The spores overwinter on infected plant material and are then spread the following spring by wind, rain, or animal vectors. The problem will start to become noticeable in mid-spring, but will increase in severity as summer progresses and the fungus grows. If not addressed, the disease will intensify and spread to other plants in the vicinity.
Solutions
Solutions
There are a number of appropriate solutions to control fruit withering:
  1. Remove any fruit as soon as it shows any signs of infection. Do not compost.
  2. Use a fungicide prior to leaf bud and then as per manufacturers instructions throughout the season.
Prevention
Prevention
Preventative measures include:
  1. Ensuring adequate spacing between plants or trees.
  2. Staking plants that are prone to tumbling to prevent moisture or humidity build up.
  3. Prune correctly so that there is adequate air movement and remove any dead or diseased branches that may carry spores.
  4. Practice good plant hygiene by removing fallen material and destroying it as soon as possible.
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toxic

Toxicity

* The judgment on toxicity and danger is for reference only. We DO NOT GUARANTEE any accuracy of such judgment. Therefore, you SHALL NOT rely on such judgment. It is IMPORTANT TO SEEK PROFESSIONAL ADVICE in advance when necessary.
Slightly Toxic to Humans
Slightly Toxic to Humans
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Who Is Most at Risk of Plant Poisoning?
Your pets like cats and dogs can be poisoned by them as well!
1
Do not let your lovely pets eat any parts, nor contact with the sap of toxic or unknown plants;
2
It’s better to kill those growing around your house. Wear long-sleeved shirts, pants and gloves with sharp tools to dig it out completely;
3
Clean the tools with rubbing alcohol or soap and water but do not do that with bare hands;
4
Clean your hands and skin once exposed to plants with soap and water;
5
Consider using barrier creams that contain bentoquatam to prevent poison oak, ivy and sumac rashes;
6
Dump it in special trash cans in sealed garbage packages, and do not let your pets reach it;Do not let your lovely pets eat any parts, nor contact with the sap of toxic or unknown plants;
7
If you take your pets to hike with you in the wild, please don’t let them eat any plants that you don’t know;
8
Once your pets eat, touch or inhale anything from toxic plants and act abnormally, please call the doctors for help ASAP!
pets
Pets
Some pets are less likely than children to eat and touch just about everything. This is good, as a pet owner. However, you know your pet best, and it is up to you to keep them safe. There are plenty of poisonous weeds that can grow within the confines of your lawn, which might make your dogs or cats ill or worse if they eat them. Try to have an idea of what toxic plants grow in your area and keep them under control and your pets away from them.
pets
Common Toxic Houseplants
Common Toxic Houseplants
When it comes to decorating a house, there is nothing more refreshing than adding some beautiful houseplants. Some common house plants can also be toxic.

Aloe

aloe
Aloe is famous for its sunburn-soothing properties and its gorgeous desert design. However, many people do not realize that the latex the aloe vera plant produces can be mildly toxic to pets and children.

The latex contains a chemical compound known as saponin. Which when ingested, can cause vomiting, diarrhea, and low blood sugar. This, if left unchecked, can lead to dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. The proper response is to contact poison control or a veterinarian to know what to do in your particular circumstance if either your child or pet consumes aloe.

The latex of the plant is similar to the sap of the tree. It is inside the leaf, but sticks mainly toward the edges. If aloe gel is prepared properly it should be safe for use, but be sure to apply it only topically when treating burns.

Philodendron

Philodendron
Philodendron, also known as sweetheart vine, has become a resident at many houses and even businesses. They are glossy green and the leaves elegantly split, displaying interesting designs. Behind this beauty there is a needle-like toxin called calcium oxalate crystals.

These crystals are held within the plant and only affect you, your pets, or your loved ones if the plant tissue is broken. If ingested, the crystals can cause severe swelling, difficulty breathing, stomach pain, burning and pain. If they are accidentally caught on the skin, they can cause skin irritation.

If anyone accidentally ingests philodendron and they find it difficult to breathe or their tongue starts to swell up, it is important to seek medical attention immediately to avoid suffocation. If you have very young children or pets who have a tendency to tear at plants, keep them away from any philodendrons.

Peace Lily

Peace Lily
Peace lilies produce stunningly white flowers that bring to mind peace and serenity. This is one reason they are invited into our homes and given a place to stay. However, similar to philodendrons, the peace lily contains oxalate crystals known as raphides.

The raphides, once ingested, will cause swelling and burning sensations and can also cause skin irritation. Both pets and humans can get these symptoms so it is important to keep these plants from anyone who is likely to tear or chew it. Symptoms can become dire if the raphides cause the tongue and throat to swell to a point where the person or pet is having difficulty breathing. Seek proper medical attention if this is the case.

Snake Plant

Snake Plant
The snake plant is an interesting and popular house plant. Its stark architecture and wavy coloring has made it a fan favorite. This plant too, however, is toxic when ingested or if the sap touches your skin.

Snake plant sap will cause rashes if it comes into contact with your skin. In addition, it will cause diarrhea and vomiting when ingested. Again these symptoms are very serious and would be best avoided by keeping snake plants out of reach or by choosing a different houseplant.
Common Toxic Garden Plants
Common Toxic Garden Plants

Daffodil

Daffodil
Daffodils are a strikingly colorful flower. This can sometimes bring them much attention not from just onlooking adults but children as well. Since kids are more drawn to colorful objects, they may have a higher chance of just grabbing the flower and eating it. Adults have also been known to accidentally grab daffodil bulbs instead of onions.

Why are these mistakes so dangerous? Daffodils contain lycorine, which can induce nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. It also contains oxalates which can cause swelling and pain. The symptoms can be worse in animals, because if your pets eat daffodils they may experience drowsiness, low blood pressure or even liver damage.

Make sure to call poison control when these symptoms set in. The vomiting and diarrhea have been known to go away after 3 hours, but it is better to be safe than sorry. Ingesting liquids to keep hydration up can be important. If the patient is having difficulty breathing, seek medical attention immediately.

Hydrangea

Hydrangea
Hydrangeas are unique, with their soft blue and pink flowers. They are a great addition to any garden, but should not be snacked on—not that you would want to. Hydrangeas can be especially nasty because they contain compounds known as glycosides. These will release hydrogen cyanide into the bloodstream when consumed. This will block your body’s ability to uptake oxygen to the cells in your body.

The way to combat this kind of poisoning is through getting IVs from the vet or doctor. It is important to contact your medical professional immediately since the symptoms can be fatal within minutes or hours.

Rhododendrons

Rhododendrons
Rhododendron, the state flower of Washington, is also toxic. The multitudinous, pink flowers can be quite dangerous. All parts of this plant are toxic, the leaves and seeds more so than the flowers. However, even the nectar of the flower is toxic and in the Mediterranean, where rhododendrons grow in more dense quantities, the honey from bees who gather rhododendron nectar can be poisonous.

Normally kids and pets do not eat enough to experience the full poisoning effect. However, just eating two leaves is enough to be considered dangerous. The grayanotoxin glycosides within the rhododendron can cause vomiting, diarrhea and irregular heartbeats. Things can get very serious when too much rhododendron is consumed and can lead to necessary medical intervention.

Start by calling poison control first if you suspect anyone has been munching on rhododendrons. The experts there will be able to help guide you through the necessary processes to cure your loved one.

Rhubarb

Rhubarb
Yummy rhubarb has a nasty side to it. While the stems are used in many recipes, including for rhubarb strawberry pie, the leaves are toxic. They contain oxalic acid which is known to blister the mouth, cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and kidney stones. The leaves are known to be more toxic to pets than humans, but in either case, it is important to contact poison control immediately to figure out necessary steps to cure the patient.
Common Toxic Weeds in the Yard
Common Toxic Weeds in the Yard

Bittersweet Nightshade

Bittersweet Nightshade
Nightshade is an invasive, noxious weed that is extremely poisonous. It has been found along the East and West Coast of the U.S. It makes its home in areas with disturbed soil. This could be near your garden or areas that have recently had bushes/trees put in.

These plants are dark green with purple flowers that develop into bright red berries. The whole plant is toxic and should be avoided by pets and children alike. If ingested it can cause nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. The colorful berries are especially enticing to young children. If you see any plants that look similar to tomato or pepper plants that you did not plant in your yard, it is best to just pull them immediately.

Call poison control immediately if you think someone has fallen victim to nightshade.

Buttercups

Buttercups
Buttercups are found throughout the United States, especially in wet areas. The shiny, yellow flowers will pop up in the springtime, accompanying their dandelion friends. However, unlike dandelions, buttercups are not edible.

Buttercups will release a compound called protoanemonin. This toxin is known to cause vomiting, diarrhea, bloody stool, hypersalivation, depression, blisters, and more. These symptoms will affect both humans and animals. The sap may also cause irritation when it comes into contact with skin. These yellow flowers are dangerous and children should be observed cautiously when around them.

Foxgloves

Foxgloves
Foxgloves are beautiful plants that build towers out of vivid purple bell-shaped blossoms. They are very pretty to look at, but they contain a compound known as digoxin. This chemical is used in certain medicines to help people with certain heart conditions. However, the medicine is made by specialists, whereas someone eating foxgloves will receive unregulated amounts of the chemical.

This toxin can make you vomit and lower your heartbeat. This often causes dizziness and faintness. It is extremely important to call poison control immediately to know what to do in the case of foxglove poisoning. Some people have confused the young leaves of foxglove with borage, making adult foragers at risk as well as kids and pets.
How to Tend to or Get Rid of Toxic Plants
How to Tend to or Get Rid of Toxic Plants
Now that you know where to start with toxic plant identification, let us discuss how to either tend to the poisonous plants you decide to keep or get rid of them that plague your yard.

How to Tend to Poisonous Plants

Many plants that are toxic when ingested are also skin irritants. The philodendron is a good example of this. When the sap comes into contact with skin, it can cause a rash to form. To help protect yourself when tending to toxic plants, it is important to wear some sort of gloves.
Tend
Latex gloves may be the best solution due to their disposability. Regular gloves could potentially keep the poisonous sap on their surface. If the gloves aren’t cleaned then you could accidentally touch the irritant or pass it to someone else.

In addition you will want to plan where to keep your deadly beauties. If you have a toxic indoor plant try to keep it up high or out of reach of children and pets. This will keep accidents few and far between. Another idea is keeping your plants in areas that are usually inaccessible to children or pets. Areas such as an office, study room, or guest bedroom could be good locations. If applicable, you could also set up a terrarium for your little plant baby, making it more difficult for curious hands or paws to access.
tend2
If you plan to have outdoor plants, location will be key. You will want to put plants in an area that will be inaccessible to children, pets and even wild animals. You will probably want to avoid planting the plants in the front of your house if kids walk by on a regular basis, just to be cautious. Having the plants behind a fence will be best, but use your discretion when choosing a spot.

How to Get Rid of Poisonous Plants

plants
The easiest but possibly most controversial way to get rid of poisonous plants is by using herbicides. This can be especially easy if you own a grass lawn and use an herbicide that targets broadleaf (non-grass) species. You can find many herbicides meant for yard use by simply searching the term online. Once you have purchased the herbicide you will want to make sure to follow the label posted on the container. If you follow the instructions precisely, then everything should run smoothly for you.

If you don’t plan on using herbicides, there are a few organic methods you can use to try to get rid of toxic plants. You can manually pull the plants out of the ground. This is probably one of the most difficult methods because there is no assurance that you will get the whole plant out this way.

You can also try pouring boiling hot water or spraying white vinegar on the target plants. This may take more time than using a synthetic herbicide, but you can feel a little better about using these products.

You can also try to use wood chips to cover a certain area where you do not want anything to grow. This will not stop all the weeds, but the few that make it through can be easily picked by hand.
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Who Is Most at Risk of Plant Poisoning?
Everyone should keep the following in mind to prevent being poisoned:
1
Do not eat any parts, nor contact with the sap of toxic or unknown plants;
2
If you need to kill it, wear long-sleeved shirts, pants and gloves with sharp tools to dig it out completely;
3
Clean the tools with rubbing alcohol or soap and water but do not do that with bare hands;
4
Clean your hands and skin once exposed to plants with soap and water;
5
Consider using barrier creams that contain bentoquatam to prevent poison oak, ivy and sumac rashes;
6
Dump it in special trash cans in sealed garbage packages;
7
Wear properly when you hiking or working in the wilderness. Long pants, long sleeves, gloves, hiking shoes, etc., that protect you from being hurt by any plants;
8
Once you or your family aren’t feeling well after eating, touching or inhaling anything from toxic plants, please call your doctor for help ASAP!
Outdoor Workers
Outdoor Workers and Recreationalists
Those who enjoy the outdoors either as a hobby or as part of their work will rarely see a plant and decide to munch on it (although the scenario is not unheard of). However, they do tend to deal with moving through and brushing aside plants. These people are more at risk of being poisoned by touching toxic plants than by ingesting them.
Outdoor Workers
Foragers
Foragers
Foraging for food and medicinal plants is a desirable skill among people who want to feel at one with the land. This hobby can be very useful and enjoyable, but if done wrong , it can lead to disastrous effects. People who forage are picking and grabbing plants with the full intention of using those plants, most of the time to ingest them.
Foragers
Children
Children
While outdoor workers are more likely to touch poison and foragers are more likely to ingest poison, children can easily do both. These bundles of joy just love to run around and explore the world. They enjoy touching things and occasionally shoving random stuff in their mouth; this is a terrible combination with toxic plants in the mix.
If you let your children run about, it is important to know what are the local toxic plants that they could accidentally get into. Try to educate the children and steer them away from where the toxic plants are located.
Children
Common Toxic Houseplants
Common Toxic Houseplants
When it comes to decorating a house, there is nothing more refreshing than adding some beautiful houseplants. Some common house plants can also be toxic.

Aloe

aloe
Aloe is famous for its sunburn-soothing properties and its gorgeous desert design. However, many people do not realize that the latex the aloe vera plant produces can be mildly toxic to pets and children.

The latex contains a chemical compound known as saponin. Which when ingested, can cause vomiting, diarrhea, and low blood sugar. This, if left unchecked, can lead to dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. The proper response is to contact poison control or a veterinarian to know what to do in your particular circumstance if either your child or pet consumes aloe.

The latex of the plant is similar to the sap of the tree. It is inside the leaf, but sticks mainly toward the edges. If aloe gel is prepared properly it should be safe for use, but be sure to apply it only topically when treating burns.

Philodendron

Philodendron
Philodendron, also known as sweetheart vine, has become a resident at many houses and even businesses. They are glossy green and the leaves elegantly split, displaying interesting designs. Behind this beauty there is a needle-like toxin called calcium oxalate crystals.

These crystals are held within the plant and only affect you, your pets, or your loved ones if the plant tissue is broken. If ingested, the crystals can cause severe swelling, difficulty breathing, stomach pain, burning and pain. If they are accidentally caught on the skin, they can cause skin irritation.

If anyone accidentally ingests philodendron and they find it difficult to breathe or their tongue starts to swell up, it is important to seek medical attention immediately to avoid suffocation. If you have very young children or pets who have a tendency to tear at plants, keep them away from any philodendrons.

Peace Lily

Peace Lily
Peace lilies produce stunningly white flowers that bring to mind peace and serenity. This is one reason they are invited into our homes and given a place to stay. However, similar to philodendrons, the peace lily contains oxalate crystals known as raphides.

The raphides, once ingested, will cause swelling and burning sensations and can also cause skin irritation. Both pets and humans can get these symptoms so it is important to keep these plants from anyone who is likely to tear or chew it. Symptoms can become dire if the raphides cause the tongue and throat to swell to a point where the person or pet is having difficulty breathing. Seek proper medical attention if this is the case.

Snake Plant

Snake Plant
The snake plant is an interesting and popular house plant. Its stark architecture and wavy coloring has made it a fan favorite. This plant too, however, is toxic when ingested or if the sap touches your skin.

Snake plant sap will cause rashes if it comes into contact with your skin. In addition, it will cause diarrhea and vomiting when ingested. Again these symptoms are very serious and would be best avoided by keeping snake plants out of reach or by choosing a different houseplant.
Common Toxic Garden Plants
Common Toxic Garden Plants

Daffodil

Daffodil
Daffodils are a strikingly colorful flower. This can sometimes bring them much attention not from just onlooking adults but children as well. Since kids are more drawn to colorful objects, they may have a higher chance of just grabbing the flower and eating it. Adults have also been known to accidentally grab daffodil bulbs instead of onions.

Why are these mistakes so dangerous? Daffodils contain lycorine, which can induce nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. It also contains oxalates which can cause swelling and pain. The symptoms can be worse in animals, because if your pets eat daffodils they may experience drowsiness, low blood pressure or even liver damage.

Make sure to call poison control when these symptoms set in. The vomiting and diarrhea have been known to go away after 3 hours, but it is better to be safe than sorry. Ingesting liquids to keep hydration up can be important. If the patient is having difficulty breathing, seek medical attention immediately.

Hydrangea

Hydrangea
Hydrangeas are unique, with their soft blue and pink flowers. They are a great addition to any garden, but should not be snacked on—not that you would want to. Hydrangeas can be especially nasty because they contain compounds known as glycosides. These will release hydrogen cyanide into the bloodstream when consumed. This will block your body’s ability to uptake oxygen to the cells in your body.

The way to combat this kind of poisoning is through getting IVs from the vet or doctor. It is important to contact your medical professional immediately since the symptoms can be fatal within minutes or hours.

Rhododendrons

Rhododendrons
Rhododendron, the state flower of Washington, is also toxic. The multitudinous, pink flowers can be quite dangerous. All parts of this plant are toxic, the leaves and seeds more so than the flowers. However, even the nectar of the flower is toxic and in the Mediterranean, where rhododendrons grow in more dense quantities, the honey from bees who gather rhododendron nectar can be poisonous.

Normally kids and pets do not eat enough to experience the full poisoning effect. However, just eating two leaves is enough to be considered dangerous. The grayanotoxin glycosides within the rhododendron can cause vomiting, diarrhea and irregular heartbeats. Things can get very serious when too much rhododendron is consumed and can lead to necessary medical intervention.

Start by calling poison control first if you suspect anyone has been munching on rhododendrons. The experts there will be able to help guide you through the necessary processes to cure your loved one.

Rhubarb

Rhubarb
Yummy rhubarb has a nasty side to it. While the stems are used in many recipes, including for rhubarb strawberry pie, the leaves are toxic. They contain oxalic acid which is known to blister the mouth, cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and kidney stones. The leaves are known to be more toxic to pets than humans, but in either case, it is important to contact poison control immediately to figure out necessary steps to cure the patient.
Common Toxic Weeds in the Yard
Common Toxic Weeds in the Yard

Bittersweet Nightshade

Bittersweet Nightshade
Nightshade is an invasive, noxious weed that is extremely poisonous. It has been found along the East and West Coast of the U.S. It makes its home in areas with disturbed soil. This could be near your garden or areas that have recently had bushes/trees put in.

These plants are dark green with purple flowers that develop into bright red berries. The whole plant is toxic and should be avoided by pets and children alike. If ingested it can cause nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. The colorful berries are especially enticing to young children. If you see any plants that look similar to tomato or pepper plants that you did not plant in your yard, it is best to just pull them immediately.

Call poison control immediately if you think someone has fallen victim to nightshade.

Buttercups

Buttercups
Buttercups are found throughout the United States, especially in wet areas. The shiny, yellow flowers will pop up in the springtime, accompanying their dandelion friends. However, unlike dandelions, buttercups are not edible.

Buttercups will release a compound called protoanemonin. This toxin is known to cause vomiting, diarrhea, bloody stool, hypersalivation, depression, blisters, and more. These symptoms will affect both humans and animals. The sap may also cause irritation when it comes into contact with skin. These yellow flowers are dangerous and children should be observed cautiously when around them.

Foxgloves

Foxgloves
Foxgloves are beautiful plants that build towers out of vivid purple bell-shaped blossoms. They are very pretty to look at, but they contain a compound known as digoxin. This chemical is used in certain medicines to help people with certain heart conditions. However, the medicine is made by specialists, whereas someone eating foxgloves will receive unregulated amounts of the chemical.

This toxin can make you vomit and lower your heartbeat. This often causes dizziness and faintness. It is extremely important to call poison control immediately to know what to do in the case of foxglove poisoning. Some people have confused the young leaves of foxglove with borage, making adult foragers at risk as well as kids and pets.
How to Tend to or Get Rid of Toxic Plants
How to Tend to or Get Rid of Toxic Plants
Now that you know where to start with toxic plant identification, let us discuss how to either tend to the poisonous plants you decide to keep or get rid of them that plague your yard.

How to Tend to Poisonous Plants

Many plants that are toxic when ingested are also skin irritants. The philodendron is a good example of this. When the sap comes into contact with skin, it can cause a rash to form. To help protect yourself when tending to toxic plants, it is important to wear some sort of gloves.
Tend
Latex gloves may be the best solution due to their disposability. Regular gloves could potentially keep the poisonous sap on their surface. If the gloves aren’t cleaned then you could accidentally touch the irritant or pass it to someone else.

In addition you will want to plan where to keep your deadly beauties. If you have a toxic indoor plant try to keep it up high or out of reach of children and pets. This will keep accidents few and far between. Another idea is keeping your plants in areas that are usually inaccessible to children or pets. Areas such as an office, study room, or guest bedroom could be good locations. If applicable, you could also set up a terrarium for your little plant baby, making it more difficult for curious hands or paws to access.
tend2
If you plan to have outdoor plants, location will be key. You will want to put plants in an area that will be inaccessible to children, pets and even wild animals. You will probably want to avoid planting the plants in the front of your house if kids walk by on a regular basis, just to be cautious. Having the plants behind a fence will be best, but use your discretion when choosing a spot.

How to Get Rid of Poisonous Plants

plants
The easiest but possibly most controversial way to get rid of poisonous plants is by using herbicides. This can be especially easy if you own a grass lawn and use an herbicide that targets broadleaf (non-grass) species. You can find many herbicides meant for yard use by simply searching the term online. Once you have purchased the herbicide you will want to make sure to follow the label posted on the container. If you follow the instructions precisely, then everything should run smoothly for you.

If you don’t plan on using herbicides, there are a few organic methods you can use to try to get rid of toxic plants. You can manually pull the plants out of the ground. This is probably one of the most difficult methods because there is no assurance that you will get the whole plant out this way.

You can also try pouring boiling hot water or spraying white vinegar on the target plants. This may take more time than using a synthetic herbicide, but you can feel a little better about using these products.

You can also try to use wood chips to cover a certain area where you do not want anything to grow. This will not stop all the weeds, but the few that make it through can be easily picked by hand.
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More Info

Flower Color
Flower Color
Red
Orange
Bloom Time
Bloom Time
Summer
Leaf Color
Leaf Color
Green
Blue
Yellow
White

Symbolism

Ornamental, tolerant, warm

Usages

Garden Use
This "Frankenstein" succulent can successfully be grown in outdoor gardens in climates with less harsh winters. In other regions, it can be grown in containers and moved indoors when the weather becomes cooler. It is an unusual and showy addition to succulent gardens, desert gardens, and rock gardens.
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Golden barrel cactus
Golden barrel cactus
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Horseshoe geranium
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Common foxglove
Common foxglove
Common foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) is a herbaceous flowering plant naturally found in forests, heaths, and mountain grasslands. Common foxglove produces clusters of purple to white tubular flowers, with numerous dark spots on the inner surface. They are very attractive and commonly cultivated for ornamental purposes.
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Euphorbia
Euphorbia
Add to My Garden
Euphorbia
Euphorbia neriifolia var. cristata
Also known as: Hedge Euphorbia
Euphorbia (Euphorbia neriifolia var. cristata) is a fast-growing succulent native to India, Sri Lanka, and Myanmar. Euphorbia is valued for its crested nature and ability to grow into unique sculptural shapes. This species is considered easy to grow when cultivated as a houseplant. It should be grown in well-drained soil in plentiful sunlight.
Planting Time
Planting Time
Late spring, Summer
Toxic to Humans
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Questions About Euphorbia

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Common Pests & Diseases

Common issues for Euphorbia based on 10 million real cases
Scars
Scars  Scars  Scars
Any light-colored markings that appear on stems but which do not enlarge or multiply are simply scars that have healed.
Solutions: Each source of scarring requires a different approach to help your plant recover. Protect the trunk and leaves from physical damage like scrapes. If pests or disease are the cause of scarring, isolate the plant from others to avoid further spread. Some pests can be removed with organic remedies such as a soft cloth and soapy water solution or diluted isopropyl alcohol spray. Stop sunburn by moving your plant away from direct sunlight and making sure it has the water it needs. Frequent leaf or bud loss may be due to insufficient light or nutrients.
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Brown spot
Brown spot  Brown spot  Brown spot
This infection can cause brown spots or patches to appear on the plant.
Solutions: In minor cases of brown spot, there isn’t any need to treat the disease. However, if much of the foliage is affected and defoliation occurs, the plant will benefit from getting rid of the infection. It is recommended to start by applying organic treatment options, working up to the more potent synthetic, chemical fungicides if necessary. Organic options won’t kill the fungus, but will prevent it from spreading. Dissolve ½ teaspoon of baking soda and one teaspoon of liquid soap in a gallon of water. Using a spray bottle, spray on tops and bottoms of leaves until the mixture drips off. Repeat every two weeks until existing spots stop enlarging and new spots no longer appear. Spray a copper-based fungicidal soap on the leaves, coating the top and bottom leaf surfaces. Reapply as directed on the product label. Copper penetrates the leaf surface and prevents germination of spores so the fungus cannot spread. Apply an all-purpose fungicide to the entire plant, following the label instructions carefully.
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Caterpillars
Caterpillars  Caterpillars  Caterpillars
Caterpillars are fleshy moth or butterfly larvae that come in an array of colors, patterns, and even hairstyles. They chew on leaves and flower petals, creating large, irregular holes.
Solutions: Even though caterpillars are diverse, they all chew on plant parts and can cause significant damage if present in large numbers. For severe cases: Apply insecticide. For an organic solution, spray plants with a Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), which specifically affects the larval stage of moths and butterflies. Be sure to coat plants, since caterpillars need to ingest Bt for it to be effective. This will not harm other insects. Spray a chili extract. Chili seeds can be cooked in water to make a spicy spray that caterpillars don't like. Spray this mixture on the plants, but be aware it will also be spicy to humans. Introduce beneficial insects. Release beneficial insects to the garden that eat caterpillars, such as parasitic wasps. For less severe cases: Hand pick. Using gloves, pick off caterpillars on plants and dispose of them in a bucket of soapy water. Dust plants with diatomaceous earth. This powder is harmless to humans but irritates caterpillars. Therefore, it will make it difficult for caterpillars to move and eat.
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Fruit withering
Fruit withering  Fruit withering  Fruit withering
Fungal infection or normal ripening can cause the fruit to dry out.
Solutions: There are a number of appropriate solutions to control fruit withering: Remove any fruit as soon as it shows any signs of infection. Do not compost. Use a fungicide prior to leaf bud and then as per manufacturers instructions throughout the season.
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Scars
plant poor
Scars
Any light-colored markings that appear on stems but which do not enlarge or multiply are simply scars that have healed.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Scars form when the plant repairs wounds. They can be the result of people or pets passing by and scraping the plant. Once the underlying issue is resolved, the plant will heal but a scar may remain.
Pests and pathogens can also cause scarring. Insects may attack the plant for a meal, resulting in extensive scarring when a few invaders turn into an infestation. Diseases such as fungus and bacteria can weaken the plant, causing brown spots, mushy areas, or blisters that lead to scars.
Scars occur on stems when a leaf or bud has been lost and the plant has healed. The harder tissue is like a scab that protects a wound.
On other occasions, scars can signal problems from environmental conditions, such as overexposure to sunlight or heat. It might surprise you to know that plants can suffer from sunburn, even desert dwellers like cactus!
Solutions
Solutions
Each source of scarring requires a different approach to help your plant recover.
  1. Protect the trunk and leaves from physical damage like scrapes.
  2. If pests or disease are the cause of scarring, isolate the plant from others to avoid further spread. Some pests can be removed with organic remedies such as a soft cloth and soapy water solution or diluted isopropyl alcohol spray.
  3. Stop sunburn by moving your plant away from direct sunlight and making sure it has the water it needs.
  4. Frequent leaf or bud loss may be due to insufficient light or nutrients.
Prevention
Prevention
Preventing some sources of scarring is easier than others, but all start with careful attention to your plants once you decide to bring them home.
  1. Review specific guidelines for your plant, including soil drainage, watering, and fertilizer requirements.
  2. Inspect plants before planting and use sterile pots and fresh potting soil or media to limit transfer of fungi or bacteria.
  3. Once established, check your plants regularly for signs of scarring or the presence of pests, as it is better to catch problems as early as possible.
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Brown spot
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Brown spot
This infection can cause brown spots or patches to appear on the plant.
Overview
Overview
Discolored spots on the foliage of plants are one of the most common disease problems people observe. These spots are caused by fungal and bacterial diseases, with most infections related to a fungal pathogen.
Brown spot can occurs on all houseplants, flowering ornamentals, vegetable plants, and leaves of trees, bushes, and shrubs. No plants are resistant to it, and the problem is worse in warm, wet environments. It can occur at any point in the life stage as long as leaves are present.
Small brownish spots appear on the foliage and enlarge as the disease progresses. In severe cases, the plant or tree is weakened when the lesions interrupt photosynthesis or cause defoliation.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
In most cases, brown spot only affects a small percentage of the whole plant, appearing on a small amount of the leaves. A small infection only puts minor stress on the plant. However, if left untreated and the disease progresses over numerous seasons, it will severely impact the health and productivity of the infected specimen.
  • Sporulation begins (reproduction of the fungal spores), and tiny spots appear on leaves.
  • Placement is often random and scattered as diseases are spread through raindrops.
  • May appear on lower leaves and the interior of the plant where humidity is higher.
  • Brown spots enlarge and grow large enough to touch neighboring spots to form a more prominent blotch.
  • Leaf margins may turn yellow.
  • Tiny black dots (fruiting bodies of the fungi) appear in the dead spots.
  • Blotches grow in size until the entire leaf is brown.
  • The leaf falls off the plant.
Severe Symptoms
  • Partial or complete premature defoliation
  • Reduced growth
  • Increased susceptibility to pests and other diseases
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
Brown spot, or leaf spot, is a common descriptive term given to several diseases affecting the leaves of plants and trees. Around 85% of diseases exhibiting leaf spots are due to fungus or fungus-like organisms. Sometimes brown spot is caused by a bacterial infection, or insect activity with similar symptoms.
When conditions are warm and the leaf surfaces are wet, fungal spores being transported by wind or rain land on the surface and cling to it. They do not rupture the cell walls but grow in the space between the plant plasma membrane and the plant cell wall. As the spores reproduce, they release toxins and enzymes that cause necrotic spots (i.e., dead tissue) on the leaves, allowing the fungi to consume the products released when the cells degrade.
Solutions
Solutions
In minor cases of brown spot, there isn’t any need to treat the disease. However, if much of the foliage is affected and defoliation occurs, the plant will benefit from getting rid of the infection. It is recommended to start by applying organic treatment options, working up to the more potent synthetic, chemical fungicides if necessary.
Organic options won’t kill the fungus, but will prevent it from spreading.
  1. Dissolve ½ teaspoon of baking soda and one teaspoon of liquid soap in a gallon of water. Using a spray bottle, spray on tops and bottoms of leaves until the mixture drips off. Repeat every two weeks until existing spots stop enlarging and new spots no longer appear.
  2. Spray a copper-based fungicidal soap on the leaves, coating the top and bottom leaf surfaces. Reapply as directed on the product label. Copper penetrates the leaf surface and prevents germination of spores so the fungus cannot spread.
  3. Apply an all-purpose fungicide to the entire plant, following the label instructions carefully.
Prevention
Prevention
Like many other diseases, it is easier to prevent brown spot than cure it, and this is done through cultural practices.
  • Clear fall leaves from the ground before winter to minimize places where fungi and bacteria can overwinter.
  • Maintain good air movement between plants through proper plant spacing.
  • Increase air circulation through the center of plants through pruning.
  • Thoroughly clean all pruning tools after working with diseased plants.
  • Never dispose of disease plant material in a compost pile.
  • Avoid overhead watering to keep moisture off of the foliage.
  • Keep plants healthy by providing adequate sunlight, water, and fertilizer.
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Caterpillars
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Caterpillars
Caterpillars are fleshy moth or butterfly larvae that come in an array of colors, patterns, and even hairstyles. They chew on leaves and flower petals, creating large, irregular holes.
Overview
Overview
Caterpillars can cause problems for home gardeners. If not managed, these insects can defoliate a plant in just a matter of days. However, home gardeners face a challenge because these caterpillars eventually turn into beautiful butterflies and moths, which are important for pollination and the general ecosystem.
There are thousands of different species of caterpillars and many will only target certain plants. If caterpillars are posing a problem, they can be removed by hand, or gardeners can use insect-proof netting to protect their valuable plants.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Caterpillars are the larvae of butterflies and moths. During the warmer months, butterflies and moths that visit gardens will lay their eggs on the underside of leaves.
When the tiny eggs hatch, the young larvae emerge and start feeding on the leaves of the plant. Depending on how many larvae have hatched, they can easily defoliate the plant in a very short period of time. Caterpillars will shed their skin as they grow, around 4 or 5 times during this feeding cycle.
Symptoms of caterpillars eating plants appear as holes in the leaves. The edges of the leaves may be eaten away as well, and flowers can be affected as well.
Some are easy to see, but others need to be searched for. This is because their bodies are often camouflaged to look like part of the plant. Gardeners need to look carefully along the stems of the plant as well as under the leaves. Also, look for tiny white, yellow, or brown eggs that can be found in groups on the underside of leaves.
Once the caterpillar is fully grown, it transforms into a pupa or chrysalis. Then, after a period of time that varies according to the species, a butterfly or moth will emerge from the pupa and the cycle begins again.
Solutions
Solutions
Even though caterpillars are diverse, they all chew on plant parts and can cause significant damage if present in large numbers.
For severe cases:
  1. Apply insecticide. For an organic solution, spray plants with a Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), which specifically affects the larval stage of moths and butterflies. Be sure to coat plants, since caterpillars need to ingest Bt for it to be effective. This will not harm other insects.
  2. Spray a chili extract. Chili seeds can be cooked in water to make a spicy spray that caterpillars don't like. Spray this mixture on the plants, but be aware it will also be spicy to humans.
  3. Introduce beneficial insects. Release beneficial insects to the garden that eat caterpillars, such as parasitic wasps.
For less severe cases:
  1. Hand pick. Using gloves, pick off caterpillars on plants and dispose of them in a bucket of soapy water.
  2. Dust plants with diatomaceous earth. This powder is harmless to humans but irritates caterpillars. Therefore, it will make it difficult for caterpillars to move and eat.
Prevention
Prevention
Prevention may require less effort than attempts to eradicate infestations that have already begun. Here are our top steps for prevention:
  1. Monitor plants. Check plants regularly for caterpillar eggs on leaves. If they do not belong to an endangered species, they should be squished.
  2. Use insect netting. Cover plants with insect netting to prevent butterflies and moths from laying eggs on plants.
  3. Apply diatomaceous earth. Apply DE to plants early in the season and reapply after rain.
  4. Encourage plant diversity. This will attract predatory insects including parasitic wasps.
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Fruit withering
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Fruit withering
Fungal infection or normal ripening can cause the fruit to dry out.
Overview
Overview
Fruit withering is common on many tree fruits, including apples, pears, peaches, cherries, and plums, as well as fruiting shrubs. It is caused by a fungal pathogen and will result in wrinkled and desiccated fruit.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Here are the most common symptoms in the order that they are likely to occur.
  1. Both leaves and blossom on the tips of branches will go brown and wither.
  2. Gray powdery patches will appear on infected leaves and flowers, and this will be most apparent after rain.
  3. Any fruit that does appear will turn wrinkled and fail to develop.
  4. Branch tips begin to die, progressing back to larger branches, causing general deterioration of the tree or plant.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
The withering is caused by one of two fungal pathogens, one called Monilina laxa and the other called M. fructigen. The spores overwinter on infected plant material and are then spread the following spring by wind, rain, or animal vectors. The problem will start to become noticeable in mid-spring, but will increase in severity as summer progresses and the fungus grows. If not addressed, the disease will intensify and spread to other plants in the vicinity.
Solutions
Solutions
There are a number of appropriate solutions to control fruit withering:
  1. Remove any fruit as soon as it shows any signs of infection. Do not compost.
  2. Use a fungicide prior to leaf bud and then as per manufacturers instructions throughout the season.
Prevention
Prevention
Preventative measures include:
  1. Ensuring adequate spacing between plants or trees.
  2. Staking plants that are prone to tumbling to prevent moisture or humidity build up.
  3. Prune correctly so that there is adequate air movement and remove any dead or diseased branches that may carry spores.
  4. Practice good plant hygiene by removing fallen material and destroying it as soon as possible.
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toxic

Toxicity

Slightly Toxic to Humans
Slightly Toxic to Humans
* The judgment on toxicity and danger is for reference only. We DO NOT GUARANTEE any accuracy of such judgment. Therefore, you SHALL NOT rely on such judgment. It is IMPORTANT TO SEEK PROFESSIONAL ADVICE in advance when necessary.
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Who Is Most at Risk of Plant Poisoning?
Your pets like cats and dogs can be poisoned by them as well!
1
Do not let your lovely pets eat any parts, nor contact with the sap of toxic or unknown plants;
2
It’s better to kill those growing around your house. Wear long-sleeved shirts, pants and gloves with sharp tools to dig it out completely;
3
Clean the tools with rubbing alcohol or soap and water but do not do that with bare hands;
4
Clean your hands and skin once exposed to plants with soap and water;
5
Consider using barrier creams that contain bentoquatam to prevent poison oak, ivy and sumac rashes;
6
Dump it in special trash cans in sealed garbage packages, and do not let your pets reach it;Do not let your lovely pets eat any parts, nor contact with the sap of toxic or unknown plants;
7
If you take your pets to hike with you in the wild, please don’t let them eat any plants that you don’t know;
8
Once your pets eat, touch or inhale anything from toxic plants and act abnormally, please call the doctors for help ASAP!
pets
Pets
Some pets are less likely than children to eat and touch just about everything. This is good, as a pet owner. However, you know your pet best, and it is up to you to keep them safe. There are plenty of poisonous weeds that can grow within the confines of your lawn, which might make your dogs or cats ill or worse if they eat them. Try to have an idea of what toxic plants grow in your area and keep them under control and your pets away from them.
pets
Common Toxic Houseplants
Common Toxic Houseplants
When it comes to decorating a house, there is nothing more refreshing than adding some beautiful houseplants. Some common house plants can also be toxic.

Aloe

aloe
Aloe is famous for its sunburn-soothing properties and its gorgeous desert design. However, many people do not realize that the latex the aloe vera plant produces can be mildly toxic to pets and children.

The latex contains a chemical compound known as saponin. Which when ingested, can cause vomiting, diarrhea, and low blood sugar. This, if left unchecked, can lead to dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. The proper response is to contact poison control or a veterinarian to know what to do in your particular circumstance if either your child or pet consumes aloe.

The latex of the plant is similar to the sap of the tree. It is inside the leaf, but sticks mainly toward the edges. If aloe gel is prepared properly it should be safe for use, but be sure to apply it only topically when treating burns.

Philodendron

Philodendron
Philodendron, also known as sweetheart vine, has become a resident at many houses and even businesses. They are glossy green and the leaves elegantly split, displaying interesting designs. Behind this beauty there is a needle-like toxin called calcium oxalate crystals.

These crystals are held within the plant and only affect you, your pets, or your loved ones if the plant tissue is broken. If ingested, the crystals can cause severe swelling, difficulty breathing, stomach pain, burning and pain. If they are accidentally caught on the skin, they can cause skin irritation.

If anyone accidentally ingests philodendron and they find it difficult to breathe or their tongue starts to swell up, it is important to seek medical attention immediately to avoid suffocation. If you have very young children or pets who have a tendency to tear at plants, keep them away from any philodendrons.

Peace Lily

Peace Lily
Peace lilies produce stunningly white flowers that bring to mind peace and serenity. This is one reason they are invited into our homes and given a place to stay. However, similar to philodendrons, the peace lily contains oxalate crystals known as raphides.

The raphides, once ingested, will cause swelling and burning sensations and can also cause skin irritation. Both pets and humans can get these symptoms so it is important to keep these plants from anyone who is likely to tear or chew it. Symptoms can become dire if the raphides cause the tongue and throat to swell to a point where the person or pet is having difficulty breathing. Seek proper medical attention if this is the case.

Snake Plant

Snake Plant
The snake plant is an interesting and popular house plant. Its stark architecture and wavy coloring has made it a fan favorite. This plant too, however, is toxic when ingested or if the sap touches your skin.

Snake plant sap will cause rashes if it comes into contact with your skin. In addition, it will cause diarrhea and vomiting when ingested. Again these symptoms are very serious and would be best avoided by keeping snake plants out of reach or by choosing a different houseplant.
Common Toxic Garden Plants
Common Toxic Garden Plants

Daffodil

Daffodil
Daffodils are a strikingly colorful flower. This can sometimes bring them much attention not from just onlooking adults but children as well. Since kids are more drawn to colorful objects, they may have a higher chance of just grabbing the flower and eating it. Adults have also been known to accidentally grab daffodil bulbs instead of onions.

Why are these mistakes so dangerous? Daffodils contain lycorine, which can induce nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. It also contains oxalates which can cause swelling and pain. The symptoms can be worse in animals, because if your pets eat daffodils they may experience drowsiness, low blood pressure or even liver damage.

Make sure to call poison control when these symptoms set in. The vomiting and diarrhea have been known to go away after 3 hours, but it is better to be safe than sorry. Ingesting liquids to keep hydration up can be important. If the patient is having difficulty breathing, seek medical attention immediately.

Hydrangea

Hydrangea
Hydrangeas are unique, with their soft blue and pink flowers. They are a great addition to any garden, but should not be snacked on—not that you would want to. Hydrangeas can be especially nasty because they contain compounds known as glycosides. These will release hydrogen cyanide into the bloodstream when consumed. This will block your body’s ability to uptake oxygen to the cells in your body.

The way to combat this kind of poisoning is through getting IVs from the vet or doctor. It is important to contact your medical professional immediately since the symptoms can be fatal within minutes or hours.

Rhododendrons

Rhododendrons
Rhododendron, the state flower of Washington, is also toxic. The multitudinous, pink flowers can be quite dangerous. All parts of this plant are toxic, the leaves and seeds more so than the flowers. However, even the nectar of the flower is toxic and in the Mediterranean, where rhododendrons grow in more dense quantities, the honey from bees who gather rhododendron nectar can be poisonous.

Normally kids and pets do not eat enough to experience the full poisoning effect. However, just eating two leaves is enough to be considered dangerous. The grayanotoxin glycosides within the rhododendron can cause vomiting, diarrhea and irregular heartbeats. Things can get very serious when too much rhododendron is consumed and can lead to necessary medical intervention.

Start by calling poison control first if you suspect anyone has been munching on rhododendrons. The experts there will be able to help guide you through the necessary processes to cure your loved one.

Rhubarb

Rhubarb
Yummy rhubarb has a nasty side to it. While the stems are used in many recipes, including for rhubarb strawberry pie, the leaves are toxic. They contain oxalic acid which is known to blister the mouth, cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and kidney stones. The leaves are known to be more toxic to pets than humans, but in either case, it is important to contact poison control immediately to figure out necessary steps to cure the patient.
Common Toxic Weeds in the Yard
Common Toxic Weeds in the Yard

Bittersweet Nightshade

Bittersweet Nightshade
Nightshade is an invasive, noxious weed that is extremely poisonous. It has been found along the East and West Coast of the U.S. It makes its home in areas with disturbed soil. This could be near your garden or areas that have recently had bushes/trees put in.

These plants are dark green with purple flowers that develop into bright red berries. The whole plant is toxic and should be avoided by pets and children alike. If ingested it can cause nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. The colorful berries are especially enticing to young children. If you see any plants that look similar to tomato or pepper plants that you did not plant in your yard, it is best to just pull them immediately.

Call poison control immediately if you think someone has fallen victim to nightshade.

Buttercups

Buttercups
Buttercups are found throughout the United States, especially in wet areas. The shiny, yellow flowers will pop up in the springtime, accompanying their dandelion friends. However, unlike dandelions, buttercups are not edible.

Buttercups will release a compound called protoanemonin. This toxin is known to cause vomiting, diarrhea, bloody stool, hypersalivation, depression, blisters, and more. These symptoms will affect both humans and animals. The sap may also cause irritation when it comes into contact with skin. These yellow flowers are dangerous and children should be observed cautiously when around them.

Foxgloves

Foxgloves
Foxgloves are beautiful plants that build towers out of vivid purple bell-shaped blossoms. They are very pretty to look at, but they contain a compound known as digoxin. This chemical is used in certain medicines to help people with certain heart conditions. However, the medicine is made by specialists, whereas someone eating foxgloves will receive unregulated amounts of the chemical.

This toxin can make you vomit and lower your heartbeat. This often causes dizziness and faintness. It is extremely important to call poison control immediately to know what to do in the case of foxglove poisoning. Some people have confused the young leaves of foxglove with borage, making adult foragers at risk as well as kids and pets.
How to Tend to or Get Rid of Toxic Plants
How to Tend to or Get Rid of Toxic Plants
Now that you know where to start with toxic plant identification, let us discuss how to either tend to the poisonous plants you decide to keep or get rid of them that plague your yard.

How to Tend to Poisonous Plants

Many plants that are toxic when ingested are also skin irritants. The philodendron is a good example of this. When the sap comes into contact with skin, it can cause a rash to form. To help protect yourself when tending to toxic plants, it is important to wear some sort of gloves.
Tend
Latex gloves may be the best solution due to their disposability. Regular gloves could potentially keep the poisonous sap on their surface. If the gloves aren’t cleaned then you could accidentally touch the irritant or pass it to someone else.

In addition you will want to plan where to keep your deadly beauties. If you have a toxic indoor plant try to keep it up high or out of reach of children and pets. This will keep accidents few and far between. Another idea is keeping your plants in areas that are usually inaccessible to children or pets. Areas such as an office, study room, or guest bedroom could be good locations. If applicable, you could also set up a terrarium for your little plant baby, making it more difficult for curious hands or paws to access.
tend2
If you plan to have outdoor plants, location will be key. You will want to put plants in an area that will be inaccessible to children, pets and even wild animals. You will probably want to avoid planting the plants in the front of your house if kids walk by on a regular basis, just to be cautious. Having the plants behind a fence will be best, but use your discretion when choosing a spot.

How to Get Rid of Poisonous Plants

plants
The easiest but possibly most controversial way to get rid of poisonous plants is by using herbicides. This can be especially easy if you own a grass lawn and use an herbicide that targets broadleaf (non-grass) species. You can find many herbicides meant for yard use by simply searching the term online. Once you have purchased the herbicide you will want to make sure to follow the label posted on the container. If you follow the instructions precisely, then everything should run smoothly for you.

If you don’t plan on using herbicides, there are a few organic methods you can use to try to get rid of toxic plants. You can manually pull the plants out of the ground. This is probably one of the most difficult methods because there is no assurance that you will get the whole plant out this way.

You can also try pouring boiling hot water or spraying white vinegar on the target plants. This may take more time than using a synthetic herbicide, but you can feel a little better about using these products.

You can also try to use wood chips to cover a certain area where you do not want anything to grow. This will not stop all the weeds, but the few that make it through can be easily picked by hand.
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Who Is Most at Risk of Plant Poisoning?
Everyone should keep the following in mind to prevent being poisoned:
1
Do not eat any parts, nor contact with the sap of toxic or unknown plants;
2
If you need to kill it, wear long-sleeved shirts, pants and gloves with sharp tools to dig it out completely;
3
Clean the tools with rubbing alcohol or soap and water but do not do that with bare hands;
4
Clean your hands and skin once exposed to plants with soap and water;
5
Consider using barrier creams that contain bentoquatam to prevent poison oak, ivy and sumac rashes;
6
Dump it in special trash cans in sealed garbage packages;
7
Wear properly when you hiking or working in the wilderness. Long pants, long sleeves, gloves, hiking shoes, etc., that protect you from being hurt by any plants;
8
Once you or your family aren’t feeling well after eating, touching or inhaling anything from toxic plants, please call your doctor for help ASAP!
Outdoor Workers
Outdoor Workers and Recreationalists
Those who enjoy the outdoors either as a hobby or as part of their work will rarely see a plant and decide to munch on it (although the scenario is not unheard of). However, they do tend to deal with moving through and brushing aside plants. These people are more at risk of being poisoned by touching toxic plants than by ingesting them.
Outdoor Workers
Foragers
Foragers
Foraging for food and medicinal plants is a desirable skill among people who want to feel at one with the land. This hobby can be very useful and enjoyable, but if done wrong , it can lead to disastrous effects. People who forage are picking and grabbing plants with the full intention of using those plants, most of the time to ingest them.
Foragers
Children
Children
While outdoor workers are more likely to touch poison and foragers are more likely to ingest poison, children can easily do both. These bundles of joy just love to run around and explore the world. They enjoy touching things and occasionally shoving random stuff in their mouth; this is a terrible combination with toxic plants in the mix.
If you let your children run about, it is important to know what are the local toxic plants that they could accidentally get into. Try to educate the children and steer them away from where the toxic plants are located.
Children
Common Toxic Houseplants
Common Toxic Houseplants
When it comes to decorating a house, there is nothing more refreshing than adding some beautiful houseplants. Some common house plants can also be toxic.

Aloe

aloe
Aloe is famous for its sunburn-soothing properties and its gorgeous desert design. However, many people do not realize that the latex the aloe vera plant produces can be mildly toxic to pets and children.

The latex contains a chemical compound known as saponin. Which when ingested, can cause vomiting, diarrhea, and low blood sugar. This, if left unchecked, can lead to dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. The proper response is to contact poison control or a veterinarian to know what to do in your particular circumstance if either your child or pet consumes aloe.

The latex of the plant is similar to the sap of the tree. It is inside the leaf, but sticks mainly toward the edges. If aloe gel is prepared properly it should be safe for use, but be sure to apply it only topically when treating burns.

Philodendron

Philodendron
Philodendron, also known as sweetheart vine, has become a resident at many houses and even businesses. They are glossy green and the leaves elegantly split, displaying interesting designs. Behind this beauty there is a needle-like toxin called calcium oxalate crystals.

These crystals are held within the plant and only affect you, your pets, or your loved ones if the plant tissue is broken. If ingested, the crystals can cause severe swelling, difficulty breathing, stomach pain, burning and pain. If they are accidentally caught on the skin, they can cause skin irritation.

If anyone accidentally ingests philodendron and they find it difficult to breathe or their tongue starts to swell up, it is important to seek medical attention immediately to avoid suffocation. If you have very young children or pets who have a tendency to tear at plants, keep them away from any philodendrons.

Peace Lily

Peace Lily
Peace lilies produce stunningly white flowers that bring to mind peace and serenity. This is one reason they are invited into our homes and given a place to stay. However, similar to philodendrons, the peace lily contains oxalate crystals known as raphides.

The raphides, once ingested, will cause swelling and burning sensations and can also cause skin irritation. Both pets and humans can get these symptoms so it is important to keep these plants from anyone who is likely to tear or chew it. Symptoms can become dire if the raphides cause the tongue and throat to swell to a point where the person or pet is having difficulty breathing. Seek proper medical attention if this is the case.

Snake Plant

Snake Plant
The snake plant is an interesting and popular house plant. Its stark architecture and wavy coloring has made it a fan favorite. This plant too, however, is toxic when ingested or if the sap touches your skin.

Snake plant sap will cause rashes if it comes into contact with your skin. In addition, it will cause diarrhea and vomiting when ingested. Again these symptoms are very serious and would be best avoided by keeping snake plants out of reach or by choosing a different houseplant.
Common Toxic Garden Plants
Common Toxic Garden Plants

Daffodil

Daffodil
Daffodils are a strikingly colorful flower. This can sometimes bring them much attention not from just onlooking adults but children as well. Since kids are more drawn to colorful objects, they may have a higher chance of just grabbing the flower and eating it. Adults have also been known to accidentally grab daffodil bulbs instead of onions.

Why are these mistakes so dangerous? Daffodils contain lycorine, which can induce nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. It also contains oxalates which can cause swelling and pain. The symptoms can be worse in animals, because if your pets eat daffodils they may experience drowsiness, low blood pressure or even liver damage.

Make sure to call poison control when these symptoms set in. The vomiting and diarrhea have been known to go away after 3 hours, but it is better to be safe than sorry. Ingesting liquids to keep hydration up can be important. If the patient is having difficulty breathing, seek medical attention immediately.

Hydrangea

Hydrangea
Hydrangeas are unique, with their soft blue and pink flowers. They are a great addition to any garden, but should not be snacked on—not that you would want to. Hydrangeas can be especially nasty because they contain compounds known as glycosides. These will release hydrogen cyanide into the bloodstream when consumed. This will block your body’s ability to uptake oxygen to the cells in your body.

The way to combat this kind of poisoning is through getting IVs from the vet or doctor. It is important to contact your medical professional immediately since the symptoms can be fatal within minutes or hours.

Rhododendrons

Rhododendrons
Rhododendron, the state flower of Washington, is also toxic. The multitudinous, pink flowers can be quite dangerous. All parts of this plant are toxic, the leaves and seeds more so than the flowers. However, even the nectar of the flower is toxic and in the Mediterranean, where rhododendrons grow in more dense quantities, the honey from bees who gather rhododendron nectar can be poisonous.

Normally kids and pets do not eat enough to experience the full poisoning effect. However, just eating two leaves is enough to be considered dangerous. The grayanotoxin glycosides within the rhododendron can cause vomiting, diarrhea and irregular heartbeats. Things can get very serious when too much rhododendron is consumed and can lead to necessary medical intervention.

Start by calling poison control first if you suspect anyone has been munching on rhododendrons. The experts there will be able to help guide you through the necessary processes to cure your loved one.

Rhubarb

Rhubarb
Yummy rhubarb has a nasty side to it. While the stems are used in many recipes, including for rhubarb strawberry pie, the leaves are toxic. They contain oxalic acid which is known to blister the mouth, cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and kidney stones. The leaves are known to be more toxic to pets than humans, but in either case, it is important to contact poison control immediately to figure out necessary steps to cure the patient.
Common Toxic Weeds in the Yard
Common Toxic Weeds in the Yard

Bittersweet Nightshade

Bittersweet Nightshade
Nightshade is an invasive, noxious weed that is extremely poisonous. It has been found along the East and West Coast of the U.S. It makes its home in areas with disturbed soil. This could be near your garden or areas that have recently had bushes/trees put in.

These plants are dark green with purple flowers that develop into bright red berries. The whole plant is toxic and should be avoided by pets and children alike. If ingested it can cause nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. The colorful berries are especially enticing to young children. If you see any plants that look similar to tomato or pepper plants that you did not plant in your yard, it is best to just pull them immediately.

Call poison control immediately if you think someone has fallen victim to nightshade.

Buttercups

Buttercups
Buttercups are found throughout the United States, especially in wet areas. The shiny, yellow flowers will pop up in the springtime, accompanying their dandelion friends. However, unlike dandelions, buttercups are not edible.

Buttercups will release a compound called protoanemonin. This toxin is known to cause vomiting, diarrhea, bloody stool, hypersalivation, depression, blisters, and more. These symptoms will affect both humans and animals. The sap may also cause irritation when it comes into contact with skin. These yellow flowers are dangerous and children should be observed cautiously when around them.

Foxgloves

Foxgloves
Foxgloves are beautiful plants that build towers out of vivid purple bell-shaped blossoms. They are very pretty to look at, but they contain a compound known as digoxin. This chemical is used in certain medicines to help people with certain heart conditions. However, the medicine is made by specialists, whereas someone eating foxgloves will receive unregulated amounts of the chemical.

This toxin can make you vomit and lower your heartbeat. This often causes dizziness and faintness. It is extremely important to call poison control immediately to know what to do in the case of foxglove poisoning. Some people have confused the young leaves of foxglove with borage, making adult foragers at risk as well as kids and pets.
How to Tend to or Get Rid of Toxic Plants
How to Tend to or Get Rid of Toxic Plants
Now that you know where to start with toxic plant identification, let us discuss how to either tend to the poisonous plants you decide to keep or get rid of them that plague your yard.

How to Tend to Poisonous Plants

Many plants that are toxic when ingested are also skin irritants. The philodendron is a good example of this. When the sap comes into contact with skin, it can cause a rash to form. To help protect yourself when tending to toxic plants, it is important to wear some sort of gloves.
Tend
Latex gloves may be the best solution due to their disposability. Regular gloves could potentially keep the poisonous sap on their surface. If the gloves aren’t cleaned then you could accidentally touch the irritant or pass it to someone else.

In addition you will want to plan where to keep your deadly beauties. If you have a toxic indoor plant try to keep it up high or out of reach of children and pets. This will keep accidents few and far between. Another idea is keeping your plants in areas that are usually inaccessible to children or pets. Areas such as an office, study room, or guest bedroom could be good locations. If applicable, you could also set up a terrarium for your little plant baby, making it more difficult for curious hands or paws to access.
tend2
If you plan to have outdoor plants, location will be key. You will want to put plants in an area that will be inaccessible to children, pets and even wild animals. You will probably want to avoid planting the plants in the front of your house if kids walk by on a regular basis, just to be cautious. Having the plants behind a fence will be best, but use your discretion when choosing a spot.

How to Get Rid of Poisonous Plants

plants
The easiest but possibly most controversial way to get rid of poisonous plants is by using herbicides. This can be especially easy if you own a grass lawn and use an herbicide that targets broadleaf (non-grass) species. You can find many herbicides meant for yard use by simply searching the term online. Once you have purchased the herbicide you will want to make sure to follow the label posted on the container. If you follow the instructions precisely, then everything should run smoothly for you.

If you don’t plan on using herbicides, there are a few organic methods you can use to try to get rid of toxic plants. You can manually pull the plants out of the ground. This is probably one of the most difficult methods because there is no assurance that you will get the whole plant out this way.

You can also try pouring boiling hot water or spraying white vinegar on the target plants. This may take more time than using a synthetic herbicide, but you can feel a little better about using these products.

You can also try to use wood chips to cover a certain area where you do not want anything to grow. This will not stop all the weeds, but the few that make it through can be easily picked by hand.
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Orange
Bloom Time
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Summer
Leaf Color
Leaf Color
Green
Blue
Yellow
White

Symbolism

Ornamental, tolerant, warm

Usages

Garden Use
This "Frankenstein" succulent can successfully be grown in outdoor gardens in climates with less harsh winters. In other regions, it can be grown in containers and moved indoors when the weather becomes cooler. It is an unusual and showy addition to succulent gardens, desert gardens, and rock gardens.
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Water
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Essentials
The euphorbia prefers a slightly dry environment and requires infrequent, deep watering. Its natural habitat consists of arid and semi-arid areas. To accommodate seasonal changes, reduce watering during colder months to prevent root rot.
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Summer
Autumn
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Morning
Noonday
Evening
Morning watering can reduce the risk of fungal growth.
Requirements
Every 3 weeks
Watering Frequency
Smart Seasonal Watering
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Just like people, each plant has its own preferences and needs. Devote time to understanding your plants so you can nurture them properly. Observe your plants attentively, learning from their growth patterns, and becoming more in tune with their needs as you grow together. Keep a watchful eye on new plants and seedlings, as they are sensitive to both overwatering and underwatering. Shower them with gentle love and attention, fostering their growth and strength. Let the rhythm of your local climate guide your watering habits, adapting your schedule to the changing weather and the needs of your plants.
Amount and Approach
Watering from the soil
1. Gradually pour water to the soil from above.
2. Stop watering your plant once water begins to flow out of the drainage holes in the pot.
3. Allow it to rest for 1 minute, then discard any water remaining in the tray, making sure your plant is not sitting in the water.
Avoid watering the leaves or flowers. Use a watering can with a long spout when watering to reduce bending and exertion, and ease your fatigue.
Watering from the bottom
1. Fill the tray with water, ensure that the soil makes contact with the water.
2. Let it rest for 10 minutes.
3. Drain excess water from the tray if the soil is uniformly damp.
4. Watering more to the tray if the soil remains dry.
5. Allow it to sit for an additional 20 minutes before draining any excess water.
Avoid watering the leaves or flowers. Use a watering can with a long spout when watering to reduce bending and exertion, and ease your fatigue.
Soaking the water
1. Select a location for soaking your plants, such as a tray or bathtub.
2. Pour a few centimeters of fresh water into the bottom of your chosen container.
3. Soaking your plant pots within the water, allowing them to absorb moisture for 1 hour.
4. Remove the plants from the water and let them dry.
Avoid watering the leaves or flowers. Use a watering can with a long spout when watering to reduce bending and exertion, and ease your fatigue.
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For Euphorbia, outdoor watering can be done using the method of sprinkling. It is a simple and direct approach. It involves pouring water onto the soil around the plant, allowing the water to naturally seep into the root zone. Typically, containers such as watering cans, buckets, or watering jugs are used for sprinkling. Depending on the size of the plant, usually, 1-2 gallons of water are required to ensure the soil around the roots is thoroughly moistened.
Important Symptoms
Overwatering
Overwatering can easily lead to disease symptoms in Euphorbia, as it has evolved mechanisms to survive drought conditions. For instance, the plant stores water in its tissues, closes its stomata, and reduces water loss. Symptoms of overwatering include yellowing leaves, brown or black spots, leaf rot...
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Brown or black spots
Excessive watering can damage the plant's root system, making it vulnerable to fungal infections. The plant may develop dark brown to black spots that spread upwards from the lower leaves which are usually the first to be affected.
Leaf rot
Overwatering can cause the leaves to become waterlogged, leading to rotting when the environment is humid.
Soft or mushy stems
Excess water can cause stems to become soft and mushy, as the cells become waterlogged and lose their structural integrity.
Root rot
Excess water in the soil can lead to the growth of harmful fungi and bacteria, causing the roots to rot and eventually kill the plant.
Increased susceptibility diseases
Overwatering plants may become more susceptible and diseases as their overall health declines, weakening their natural defenses.
Solutions
1. Adjust watering frequency based on seasons and soil dryness. Wait for soil to dry before watering.2. Increase soil aeration by loosening surface and gently stirring with a wooden stick or chopstick.3. Optimize environment with good ventilation and warmth to enhance water evaporation and prevent overwatering.
Underwatering
For Euphorbia, it is not prone to experiencing plant health issues due to lack of watering. However, it is possible to suffer from dehydration if watering is consistently forgotten for an extended period. Symptoms of dehydration include wilting, yellowing leaves, root damage...
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Wilting
Due to the dry soil and insufficient water absorption by the roots, the leaves of the plant will appear limp, droopy, and lose vitality.
Yellowing leaves
The leaves may begin to yellow or develop dry tips as a result of water stress and reduced nutrient uptake.
Root damage
Prolonged underwatering can cause root damage, making it difficult for the plant to absorb water even when it is available.
Slow growth
The plant may exhibit delayed development or slow growth due to not receiving enough water to support its growth.
Increased susceptibility to pests and diseases
Underwatered plants may become more susceptible to pests and diseases as their overall health declines, weakening their natural defenses.
Solutions
1. Thoroughly saturate soil with slow ring watering to ensure uniform and sufficient moisture for plants. 2. Increase air humidity with water trays or misting to slow leaf water evaporation. 3. Watering according to the recommended frequency.Adjust watering frequency based on seasons and soil dryness.
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Lighting
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Outdoor
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Requirements
Full sun
Ideal
Above 6 hours sunlight
Partial sun
Tolerance
About 3-6 hours sunlight
Watch how sunlight gracefully moves through your garden, and choose spots that provide the perfect balance of light and shade for your plants, ensuring their happiness.
Essentials
Euphorbia craves abundant illumination, thriving in areas where the sun is copious. It can manage under less radiant conditions as well. Its native habitat consists of areas that provide plentiful sun exposure. Both insufficient and excessive sun exposure might induce plant stress, potentially affecting its robust growth.
Preferred
Tolerable
Unsuitable
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Artificial lighting
Indoor plants require adequate lighting for optimal growth. When natural sunlight is insufficient, particularly in winter or in less sunny spaces, artificial lights offer a vital solution, promoting faster, healthier growth.
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Indoor plants require adequate lighting for optimal growth. When natural sunlight is insufficient, particularly in winter or in less sunny spaces, artificial lights offer a vital solution, promoting faster, healthier growth.
1. Choose the right type of artificial light: LED lights are a popular choice for indoor plant lighting because they can be customized to provide the specific wavelengths of light that your plants need.
Full sun plants need 30-50W/sq ft of artificial light, partial sun plants need 20-30W/sq ft, and full shade plants need 10-20W/sq ft.
2. Determine the appropriate distance: Place the light source 12-36 inches above the plant to mimic natural sunlight.
3. Determine the duration: Mimic the length of natural daylight hours for your plant species. most plants need 8-12 hours of light per day.
Important Symptoms
Insufficient light
Euphorbia is a beloved choice for indoor gardening, and they require strong light to thrive. However, when placed in rooms with suboptimal lighting, they may develop symptoms of light deficiency.
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Leggy or sparse growth
The spaces between leaves or stems of your euphorbia may become longer, resulting in a thin and stretched-out appearance. This can make the plant look sparse and weak, and it may easily break or lean due to its own weight.
Faster leaf drop
When plants are exposed to low light conditions, they tend to shed older leaves early to conserve resources. Within a limited time, these resources can be utilized to grow new leaves until the plant's energy reserves are depleted.
Solutions
1. To ensure optimal growth, gradually move plants to a sunnier location each week, until they receive at least 6 hours of direct sunlight daily. Use a south-facing window and keep curtains open during the day for maximum sunlight exposure and nutrient accumulation.2. To provide additional light for your plant, consider using artificial light if it's large or not easily movable. Keep a desk or ceiling lamp on for at least 8 hours daily, or invest in professional plant grow lights for ample light.
Excessive light
Euphorbia require strong light to thrive, and some are remarkably resilient to sun exposure, rarely suffering from sunburn.
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Chlorosis
Chlorosis is a condition where the plant's leaves lose their green color and turn yellow. This is due to the breakdown of chlorophyll from excessive sunlight, which negatively affects the plant's ability to photosynthesize.
Sunscald
Sunscald occurs when the plant's leaves or stems are damaged by intense sunlight exposure. It appears as pale, bleached, or necrotic areas on the plant tissue and can reduce the plant's overall health.
Leaf Curling
Leaf curling is a symptom where leaves curl or twist under extreme sunlight conditions. This is a defense mechanism used by the plant to reduce its surface area exposed to sunlight, minimizing water loss and damage.
Wilting
Wilting occurs when a plant loses turgor pressure and its leaves and stems begin to droop. Overexposure to sunlight can cause wilting by increasing the plant's water loss through transpiration, making it difficult for the plant to maintain adequate hydration.
Leaf Scorching
Leaf scorching is a symptom characterized by the appearance of brown, dry, and crispy edges or patches on leaves due to excessive sunlight. This can lead to a reduction in photosynthetic capacity and overall plant health.
Solutions
1. Move your plant to the optimal position where it can receive abundant sunlight but also have some shade. An east-facing window is an ideal choice as the morning sunlight is gentler. This way, your plant can enjoy ample sunlight while reducing the risk of sunburn.2. It is recommended to trim off any completely dehydrated or withered parts of the plant.
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Temperature
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Tolerable
Unsuitable
Just like people, each plant has its own preferences. Learn about your plants' temperature needs and create a comforting environment for them to flourish. As you care for your plants, your bond with them will deepen. Trust your intuition as you learn about their temperature needs, celebrating the journey you share. Lovingly monitor the temperature around your plants and adjust their environment as needed. A thermometer can be your ally in this heartfelt endeavor. Be patient and gentle with yourself as you explore your plants' temperature needs. Cherish your successes, learn from challenges, and nurture your garden with love, creating a haven that reflects the warmth of your care.
Essentials
The euphorbia plant is native to regions with a temperate to tropical climate and prefers temperatures between 68 to 100 ℉ (20 to 38 ℃). During cooler seasons, it is important to keep the temperature above 60 ℉ (15.5 ℃) to prevent damage to the plant. In hotter months, it may benefit from some shade or misting to prevent drying out.
Regional wintering strategies
Euphorbia is a heat-loving plant that gradually stops growing and enters a dormant state during the winter. When the outdoor temperature drops below {Tolerable_growing_temperature_min}, it should be moved indoors for cultivation. Choose a location near a south-facing window to provide as much sunlight as possible. If there is insufficient natural light, supplemental lighting can be used. When the temperature falls below {Suitable_growth_temperature_min}, the plant's growth slows down, and watering should be reduced or stopped to prevent root rot. For Euphorbia grown outdoors, watering should be completely halted during low temperatures. If feasible, you can set up a temporary greenhouse for insulation or use materials such as plastic film or fabric to wrap the plant during cold temperatures.
Important Symptoms
Low Temperature
Euphorbia thrives in high temperatures and is not tolerant of low temperatures. It grows best when the temperature is above {Suitable_growth_temperature_min}. During winter, it should be kept above {Tolerable_growing_temperature_min}. When the temperature falls below {Limit_growth_temperature}, the plant may become weak, wilt, and be prone to root rot. In cases of mild frost damage, there may not be any initial symptoms, but after a week, the plant will gradually wither.
Solutions
Trim off the frostbitten areas, paying attention to whether the roots have rotted. If the roots have rotted, they need to be cut off, and the plant can be propagated through cuttings. Immediately move indoors to a warm environment and place the plant near a south-facing window to ensure ample sunlight. If there is insufficient light, you can use supplemental lighting.
High Temperature
During summer, Euphorbia should be kept below {Suitable_growth_temperature_max}. When the temperature exceeds {Tolerable_growing_temperature_max}, the plant's growth will cease, it will experience water loss, wilting, and becomes more susceptible to sunburn.
Solutions
Remove the sunburned and rotten parts. Shield the plant from afternoon sunlight until it recovers and starts growing again. For plants with root rot, stop watering until new roots begin to emerge.
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Transplant spacing
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How to Successfully Transplant Euphorbia?
The perfect time for transplanting euphorbia is early spring to mid-spring or late fall to late winter, offering a mild climate for better root establishment. Ensure euphorbia is placed in well-draining soil with partial to full sun exposure. For a successful transplant, gently loosen the root ball without disturbing its structure.
What Preparations are Needed Before Transplanting Euphorbia?
What is the Ideal Time for Transplanting Euphorbia?
The prime transplanting period for euphorbia is from the twilight of winter to high mid-spring or the beginning of fall to the heart of winter. These seasons are preferable because cooler weather makes the transition smoother for euphorbia, reducing stress and aiding robust growth. Consider timing your transplant to these periods and watch as your euphorbia thrives!
How Much Space Should You Leave Between Euphorbia Plants?
When transplanting your euphorbia plant, make sure to space each one about 12 - 18 inches (30 - 45 cm) apart to give them enough room to grow and thrive.
What is the Best Soil Mix for Euphorbia Transplanting?
For the best results, plant your euphorbia in well-draining soil that is rich in organic matter. Add some compost and a balanced slow-release fertilizer to the soil mix to help nourish the plant throughout the growing season.
Where Should You Relocate Your Euphorbia?
Choose a location for your euphorbia that receives full sun to partial shade. This means it should get 6 - 8 hours of sunlight per day. Make sure the spot has good drainage to prevent any root issues.
What Equipments Should You Prepare Before Transplantation Euphorbia?
Gardening Gloves
To protect your hands while working with the soil and plant.
Shovel or Spade
To dig a hole and remove the plant from its original location.
Hand Trowel
For finer digging work when removing the plant, particularly useful for pot or seedling tray removal.
Pruners
To trim any damaged or unwanted roots.
Watering Can or Hose
To water the euphorbia plant before and after transplanting.
Tarp or Large Container
To transport the plant and its root ball to the transplant location without damaging it.
How Do You Remove Euphorbia from the Soil?
Choose a location with appropriate sunlight and space for your euphorbia plant to grow to its mature size.

Dig a hole twice as wide as and with the same depth as the root ball of the euphorbia plant.

Add some organic compost to the hole and mix it in with the existing soil to improve drainage and provide nutrients to the plant.

Gently place the euphorbia plant's root ball into the hole. Ensure the plant is positioned at the same depth as it was in its original location.

Fill the hole with the excavated soil, gently tamping it down as you go, ensuring no air pockets are left around the roots.

Slowly water the euphorbia plant, allowing the water to seep into the soil and settle the roots.
Step-by-Step Guide for Transplanting Euphorbia
Step1 Site Selection
Choose a location with appropriate sunlight and space for your euphorbia plant to grow to its mature size.
Step2 Dig a Hole
Dig a hole twice as wide as and with the same depth as the root ball of the euphorbia plant.
Step3 Prepare the Hole
Add some organic compost to the hole and mix it in with the existing soil to improve drainage and provide nutrients to the plant.
Step4 Transplant the Plant
Gently place the euphorbia plant's root ball into the hole. Ensure the plant is positioned at the same depth as it was in its original location.
Step5 Refill the Hole
Fill the hole with the excavated soil, gently tamping it down as you go, ensuring no air pockets are left around the roots.
Step6 Watering
Slowly water the euphorbia plant, allowing the water to seep into the soil and settle the roots.
How Do You Care For Euphorbia After Transplanting?
Watering
Keep the soil around the euphorbia consistently moist, but not soggy, for the first few weeks after transplanting to help establish strong roots.
Pruning
Prune any damaged or non-essential branches to promote healthy growth and shape the plant.
Pest and Disease
Regularly inspect the euphorbia plant for any pests or diseases and treat them accordingly.
Fertilizing
After 4-6 weeks, begin to feed your euphorbia with a balanced fertilizer to support its growth. Apply per the fertilizer's instructions.
Support
Provide support to the euphorbia plant if necessary, using garden stakes or other supports, to help it grow strong and straight.
Troubleshooting Common Issues with Euphorbia Transplantation.
When is the ideal time to transplant euphorbia?
The perfect time for transplanting euphorbia is between early to mid-spring or late fall to late winter. This helps ensure the plant can acclimate and grow strong roots before the growing season.
What is the suggested distance between two euphorbia plants during transplantation?
Maintain a gap of 12 - 18 inches (30 - 45 cm) between plants. This distance allows each euphorbia enough room to grow and thrive without competing for resources.
Why is my newly transplanted euphorbia wilting?
Wilting after transplant could be due to 'transplant shock'. Euphorbia needs time to adjust to a new environment. Keep it well-watered but avoid over inundation to prevent root rot.
Can I use ordinary garden soil for re-potting euphorbia?
No, avoid regular garden soil as it may retain too much water. Instead, use well-draining soil like cacti or succulent mix, which gives euphorbia the drainage it needs.
Why does my transplanted euphorbia have yellowing leaves?
Yellowing leaves could be a sign of over watering, under watering or nutrient deficiency. Confirm your watering routine and adjust before considering a nutrient boost.
What should I do if the roots of my euphorbia are overcrowded in its current pot?
When roots are overcrowded, transplant euphorbia to a larger pot. This will offer it the space necessary to grow and develop a stronger root system.
How do I handle euphorbia during transplantation to avoid injury?
Treat euphorbia carefully during transplantation. Use gloves to protect your hands and gently uproot and handle the plant to prevent any damage to its stem or root system.
What should I do if my transplanted euphorbia isn't growing?
First, ensure euphorbia is getting appropriate light, the soil isn't too moist or dry, and the temperature is suitable. Then, check if plant nutrition is adequate. Adjust as necessary.
How can I ensure successful acclimatization of euphorbia after transplantation?
Ensure euphorbia is watered appropriately without overwatering. Ensure it receives bright but indirect light and maintain a temperature around 16-21°C (60-70°F) for smooth acclimatization.
What precautions should I take while transplanting euphorbia in cold weather?
Make sure to bring euphorbia indoors or provide it with a protective cover during extremely cold weather. Always remember, it prefers temperature within 16-21°C (60-70°F).
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