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Care Guide
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Elecampane
Elecampane
Elecampane
Elecampane
Elecampane
Elecampane
Elecampane
Inula helenium
Also known as : Elecampane inula, Horse-heal, Elf wort, Enula campana, Yellow starwort
Other names for Inula helenium (*Inula helenium*) include "Horse heal" and "Wild Sunflower Scabwort." Inula helenium is native to Eurasia. Its Latin name comes from Helen of Troy. In the legends about Helen of Troy, the elecampane grew wherever her tears fell.
Planting Time
Planting Time
Spring, Fall
care guide

Care Guide for Elecampane

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Watering Care
Watering Care
Average water needs,watering when the top 3 cm of soil has dried out.
Details on Watering Care Watering Care
Fertilizing Care
Fertilizing Care
Fertilization once every half month during the growing season.
Details on Fertilizing Care Fertilizing Care
Pruning
Pruning
Trim the diseased, withered leaves once a month.
Details on Pruning Pruning
Soil Care
Soil Care
Sand, Chalky, Acidic, Neutral, Alkaline
Details on Soil Care Soil Care
Ideal Lighting
Ideal Lighting
Full sun, Partial sun
Details on Sunlight Requirements Ideal Lighting
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Elecampane
Sunlight
Sunlight
Full sun
Hardiness Zones
Hardiness Zones
5
Planting Time
Planting Time
Spring, Fall
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Questions About Elecampane

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Watering Watering Watering
Pruning Pruning Pruning
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Fertilizing Fertilizing Fertilizing
What is the best way to water my Elecampane?
When watering the Elecampane, you should aim to use filtered water that is at room temperature. Filtered water is better for this plant, as tap water can contain particles that are harmful to its health. The reason that the water should be at room temperature or slightly warmer is that the Elecampane comes from a warm environment, and cold water can be somewhat of a shock to its system. Also, you should avoid overhead watering for this plant, as it can cause foliage complications. Instead, simply apply your filtered room temperature water to the soil until the soil is entirely soaked. Soaking the soil can be very beneficial for this plant as it moistens the roots and helps them continue to spread through the soil and collect the nutrients they need.
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What should I do if I water my Elecampane too much or too little?
Both overwatering and underwatering will be detrimental to the health of your Elecampane, but overwatering is a far more common issue. When this species receives too much water, its stems and leaves may begin to wilt and turn from green to yellow. Overwatering over a prolonged period may also lead to diseases such as root rot, mold, and mildew, all of which can kill your plant. Underwatering is far less common for the Elecampane, as this plant has decent drought tolerance. However, underwatering remains a possibility, and when it occurs, you can expect to find that the leaves of your Elecampane have become brittle and brown.
It is crucial that you notice the signs of overwatering as soon as possible when caring for your Elecampane. Some of the diseases that arise from overwatering, such as root rot, may not be correctable if you wait too long. If you see early signs of overwatering, you should reduce your watering schedule immediately. You may also want to assess the quality of soil in which your Elecampane grows. If you find that the soil drains very poorly, you should replace it immediately with a loose, well-draining potting mix. On the other hand, if you find signs that your Elecampane is receiving too little water, all you need to do is water more regularly until those signs have subsided.
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How often should I water my Elecampane?
If your plant is in a pot. The most precise way to decide whether your Elecampane needs water is to plunge your finger into the soil. If you notice that the first two to three inches of soil have become dry, it is time to add some water.
If you grow your Elecampane outdoors in the ground, you can use a similar method to test the soil. Again, when you find that the first few inches of soil have dried out, it is time to add water. During the spring and early fall, this method will often lead you to water this plant about once every week. When extremely hot weather arrives, you may need to increase your watering frequency to about twice or more per week. With that said, mature, well-established the Elecampane can show an admirable ability to withstand drought.
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How much water does my Elecampane need?
When it comes time to water your Elecampane, you should not be shy about how much water you give. With the first two to three inches of soil dry, this plant will appreciate a long and thorough watering. Supply enough water to soak the soil entirely. The amount of water you add should be enough to cause excess water to flow through the drainage holes at the bottom of your pot. If you don’t see excess water draining from the pot, you have likely underwatered your plant. But do not let the water accumulate inside the soil, which will be very dangerous to the plant as well. Alternatively, a lack of water draining through the pot could indicate poorly draining soils, which is detrimental to the health of this plant and should be avoided. If the plant is outside, 1 inch of rain per week will be sufficient.
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How should I water my Elecampane at different growth stages?
The water needs of the Elecampane can change depending on growth stages as well. For example, when your Elecampane is in the first few years of its life, or if you have just transplanted it to a new growing location, you will need to give more water than usual. During both of those stages, your Elecampane will put a lot of energy towards sprouting new roots that will then support future growth. For those roots to perform their best, they need a bit more moisture than they would at a more mature phase. After a few seasons, your Elecampane will need much less water. Another growth stage in which this plant may need more water is during the bloom period. Flower development can make use of a significant amount of moisture, which is why you might need to give your Elecampane more water at this time.
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How should I water my Elecampane through the seasons?
The Elecampane will have its highest water needs during the hottest months of the year. During the height of summer, you may need to give this plant water more than once per week, depending on how fast the soil dries out. The opposite is true during the winter. In winter, your plant will enter a dormant phase, in which it will need far less water than usual. In fact, you may not need to water this plant at all during the winter months. However, if you do water during winter, you should not do so more than about once per month. Watering too much at this time will make it more likely that your Elecampane will contract a disease.
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What's the difference between watering my Elecampane indoors and outdoors?
It is most common to grow the Elecampane indoors for any gardener that does not live in temperate and tropical regions. Those gardeners should consider the fact that soil in a container can dry out a bit faster than ground soil. Also, the presence of drying elements such as air conditioning units can cause your Elecampane to need water on a more frequent basis as well. if you planted it outside. When that is the case, it’s likely you won’t need to water your Elecampane very much at all. If you receive rainfall on a regular basis, that may be enough to keep your plant alive. Alternatively, those who grow this plant inside will need to water it more often, as allowing rainwater to soak the soil will not be an option.
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Key Facts About Elecampane

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Attributes of Elecampane

Lifespan
Perennial, Annual, Biennial
Plant Type
Herb
Planting Time
Spring, Fall
Bloom Time
Summer, Fall
Harvest Time
Fall
Plant Height
90 cm to 1.5 m
Spread
60 cm to 90 cm
Leaf Color
Green
Flower Size
5 cm
Flower Color
Yellow
Fruit Color
Brown
Silver
Stem Color
Green
Leaf type
Deciduous
Ideal Temperature
20 - 35 ℃
Growth Season
Summer, Fall
Growth Rate
Rapid

Symbolism

Love, Protection, Psychic powers

Usages

Garden Use
Elecampane is a versatile herbaceous perennial often planted in culinary and medicinal gardens. The tall stature and profusion of daisy-like flowers can also make a visual impact when it is established in garden borders as a single plant or in a group planting. In addition, the flowers are highly attractive to bees, making this an excellent plant for pollinator-friendly gardens.

Scientific Classification of Elecampane

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pests

Common Pests & Diseases About Elecampane

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Common issues for Elecampane based on 10 million real cases
Leaf rot
Leaf rot Leaf rot
Leaf rot
This pathogen can cause the leaves to rot.
Solutions: Bacterial infections need to be treated quickly to prevent the spread to neighboring, healthy plants, potentially wiping out large sections of your indoor or outdoor garden. In mild cases: Use sterilized (10% bleach solution) pruning shears or scissors to remove any infected plant parts, making sure to dispose of them off site. Use a copper-based bactericide to treat the unaffected foliage, as well as the soil, and neighboring plants. Follow the manufacturer’s rate and timing directions found on the product label. In severe cases, where more than half the leaves are affected: Remove all of the infected plants from the garden, disposing of them off site. Treat the soil and neighboring plants using a copper-based bactericide. Follow the manufacturer’s rate and timing directions found on the product label.
Brown spot
Brown spot Brown spot
Brown spot
This infection can cause brown spots or patches to appear on the plant.
Solutions: In minor cases of brown spot, there isn’t any need to treat the disease. However, if much of the foliage is affected and defoliation occurs, the plant will benefit from getting rid of the infection. It is recommended to start by applying organic treatment options, working up to the more potent synthetic, chemical fungicides if necessary. Organic options won’t kill the fungus, but will prevent it from spreading. Dissolve ½ teaspoon of baking soda and one teaspoon of liquid soap in a gallon of water. Using a spray bottle, spray on tops and bottoms of leaves until the mixture drips off. Repeat every two weeks until existing spots stop enlarging and new spots no longer appear. Spray a copper-based fungicidal soap on the leaves, coating the top and bottom leaf surfaces. Reapply as directed on the product label. Copper penetrates the leaf surface and prevents germination of spores so the fungus cannot spread. Apply an all-purpose fungicide to the entire plant, following the label instructions carefully.
Caterpillars
Caterpillars Caterpillars
Caterpillars
Caterpillars are fleshy moth or butterfly larvae that come in an array of colors, patterns, and even hairstyles. They chew on leaves and flower petals, creating large, irregular holes.
Solutions: Even though caterpillars are diverse, they all chew on plant parts and can cause significant damage if present in large numbers. For severe cases: Apply insecticide. For an organic solution, spray plants with a Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), which specifically affects the larval stage of moths and butterflies. Be sure to coat plants, since caterpillars need to ingest Bt for it to be effective. This will not harm other insects. Spray a chili extract. Chili seeds can be cooked in water to make a spicy spray that caterpillars don't like. Spray this mixture on the plants, but be aware it will also be spicy to humans. Introduce beneficial insects. Release beneficial insects to the garden that eat caterpillars, such as parasitic wasps. For less severe cases: Hand pick. Using gloves, pick off caterpillars on plants and dispose of them in a bucket of soapy water. Dust plants with diatomaceous earth. This powder is harmless to humans but irritates caterpillars. Therefore, it will make it difficult for caterpillars to move and eat.
Wilting after blooming
Wilting after blooming Wilting after blooming
Wilting after blooming
Flowers may wither for a variety of reasons.
Solutions: Check the soil or potting medium. Coarse textures can allow water to drain too rapidly, preventing the plant from taking up enough. If the soil and roots seem very dry, add sphagnum moss or other mediums that hold water. Water according to recommendations for each plant's species. Low humidity can be corrected by misting the plant regularly or placing it near a humidifier. Keeping it near other plants helps, too. Keep the environment consistent in terms of temperature, humidity, and lighting. Keep it away from vents, heaters, and air conditioners, and avoid moving it to locations where it will experience a temperature shock. Hot, dry heat, and cold drafts are problematic for many plants. Especially if the plant is outside, it could be experiencing heat or light stress. Try moving it to a shadier location.
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Leaf rot
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Leaf rot
This pathogen can cause the leaves to rot.
Overview
Overview
Leaf rot is very common among both house plants and garden plants. It affects foliage and occurs mainly when the leaves become wet due to rain or misting by the gardener. The cause is fungal disease and this is facilitated by the fungal spores adhering to wet leaves then penetrating the leaf and expanding rapidly. Damp conditions and poor air circulation will increase chances of infection taking place. Another factor are leaves that are damaged or have been penetrated by sap sucking insects that facilitate plant penetration.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
  1. Spores are able to cling to a damp leaf and penetrate, often through an existing wound.
  2. A small dark brown mark appears which expands rapidly as sporulation starts to take place.
  3. Quite quickly these bull's eye like circles can link together and the whole leaf turns dark and loses texture.
  4. Leaf drop occurs.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
These symptoms are caused by a bacterial infection invading the plant. Bacteria from many sources in the environment (air, water, soil, diseased plants) enter a plant through wounds, or in some cases the stomata when they are open. Once inside the leaf tissue, the bacteria feed and reproduce quickly, breaking down healthy leaves.
Bacterial infections threaten most plant species, and are more prominent in wet weather that more easily transfers the bacteria from plant to plant, or from soil to plant.
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Brown spot
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Brown spot
This infection can cause brown spots or patches to appear on the plant.
Overview
Overview
Discolored spots on the foliage of plants are one of the most common disease problems people observe. These spots are caused by fungal and bacterial diseases, with most infections related to a fungal pathogen.
Brown spot can occurs on all houseplants, flowering ornamentals, vegetable plants, and leaves of trees, bushes, and shrubs. No plants are resistant to it, and the problem is worse in warm, wet environments. It can occur at any point in the life stage as long as leaves are present.
Small brownish spots appear on the foliage and enlarge as the disease progresses. In severe cases, the plant or tree is weakened when the lesions interrupt photosynthesis or cause defoliation.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
In most cases, brown spot only affects a small percentage of the whole plant, appearing on a small amount of the leaves. A small infection only puts minor stress on the plant. However, if left untreated and the disease progresses over numerous seasons, it will severely impact the health and productivity of the infected specimen.
  • Sporulation begins (reproduction of the fungal spores), and tiny spots appear on leaves.
  • Placement is often random and scattered as diseases are spread through raindrops.
  • May appear on lower leaves and the interior of the plant where humidity is higher.
  • Brown spots enlarge and grow large enough to touch neighboring spots to form a more prominent blotch.
  • Leaf margins may turn yellow.
  • Tiny black dots (fruiting bodies of the fungi) appear in the dead spots.
  • Blotches grow in size until the entire leaf is brown.
  • The leaf falls off the plant.
Severe Symptoms
  • Partial or complete premature defoliation
  • Reduced growth
  • Increased susceptibility to pests and other diseases
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
Brown spot, or leaf spot, is a common descriptive term given to several diseases affecting the leaves of plants and trees. Around 85% of diseases exhibiting leaf spots are due to fungus or fungus-like organisms. Sometimes brown spot is caused by a bacterial infection, or insect activity with similar symptoms.
When conditions are warm and the leaf surfaces are wet, fungal spores being transported by wind or rain land on the surface and cling to it. They do not rupture the cell walls but grow in the space between the plant plasma membrane and the plant cell wall. As the spores reproduce, they release toxins and enzymes that cause necrotic spots (i.e., dead tissue) on the leaves, allowing the fungi to consume the products released when the cells degrade.
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Caterpillars
plant poor
Caterpillars
Caterpillars are fleshy moth or butterfly larvae that come in an array of colors, patterns, and even hairstyles. They chew on leaves and flower petals, creating large, irregular holes.
Overview
Overview
Caterpillars can cause problems for home gardeners. If not managed, these insects can defoliate a plant in just a matter of days. However, home gardeners face a challenge because these caterpillars eventually turn into beautiful butterflies and moths, which are important for pollination and the general ecosystem.
There are thousands of different species of caterpillars and many will only target certain plants. If caterpillars are posing a problem, they can be removed by hand, or gardeners can use insect-proof netting to protect their valuable plants.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Caterpillars are the larvae of butterflies and moths. During the warmer months, butterflies and moths that visit gardens will lay their eggs on the underside of leaves.
When the tiny eggs hatch, the young larvae emerge and start feeding on the leaves of the plant. Depending on how many larvae have hatched, they can easily defoliate the plant in a very short period of time. Caterpillars will shed their skin as they grow, around 4 or 5 times during this feeding cycle.
Symptoms of caterpillars eating plants appear as holes in the leaves. The edges of the leaves may be eaten away as well, and flowers can be affected as well.
Some are easy to see, but others need to be searched for. This is because their bodies are often camouflaged to look like part of the plant. Gardeners need to look carefully along the stems of the plant as well as under the leaves. Also, look for tiny white, yellow, or brown eggs that can be found in groups on the underside of leaves.
Once the caterpillar is fully grown, it transforms into a pupa or chrysalis. Then, after a period of time that varies according to the species, a butterfly or moth will emerge from the pupa and the cycle begins again.
Solutions
Solutions
Even though caterpillars are diverse, they all chew on plant parts and can cause significant damage if present in large numbers.
For severe cases:
  1. Apply insecticide. For an organic solution, spray plants with a Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), which specifically affects the larval stage of moths and butterflies. Be sure to coat plants, since caterpillars need to ingest Bt for it to be effective. This will not harm other insects.
  2. Spray a chili extract. Chili seeds can be cooked in water to make a spicy spray that caterpillars don't like. Spray this mixture on the plants, but be aware it will also be spicy to humans.
  3. Introduce beneficial insects. Release beneficial insects to the garden that eat caterpillars, such as parasitic wasps.
For less severe cases:
  1. Hand pick. Using gloves, pick off caterpillars on plants and dispose of them in a bucket of soapy water.
  2. Dust plants with diatomaceous earth. This powder is harmless to humans but irritates caterpillars. Therefore, it will make it difficult for caterpillars to move and eat.
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Wilting after blooming
plant poor
Wilting after blooming
Flowers may wither for a variety of reasons.
Overview
Overview
Wilting after blooming is sometimes a natural aging process of the flower, while other times it may indicate a problem. Orchids, for example, can bloom for anywhere from two weeks to three months, so wilting after a few days signals a problem for most varieties. This can happen to virtually any ornamental flowering plant, but those with shallow roots and limited tolerance for drought, full sun, and low humidity are more susceptible.
This is a common problem, and often has an easy fix. Sometimes, however, it is the result of more serious causes such as pests or disease of the root system.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
  • At first, flowers may look a little limp.
  • Petals may start to appear dried out and turn brown.
  • Eventually they may drop off the plant all together.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
Wilting blooms can be a sign of an unhealthy root system. Any condition that prevents the plant from absorbing enough water and nutrition can result in wilting blooms and sometimes other symptoms. If the plant doesn’t have enough water, it cannot maintain appropriate pressure within stems, leaves, and blooms, causing them to wilt.
This can result from physical damage – for example from root breakage during re-potting or attack by insects like cutworms. If you recently re-potted your plant, physical damage to the roots is a likely cause. If you see insects, they may be eating leaves, roots, or flowers. Fungal infections can also cause root rot and damage, preventing water and nutrient uptake.
Finally, wilting blooms can result simply from age. If no other symptoms are visible, it may simply signal the natural end of the flower’s lifespan. If it seems premature, this may be caused by environmental factors: water, humidity, light, or stress. Under-watering is a common cause. Similarly, plants adapted to high humidity dry out easily when humidity is low, like during winter or in dry climates. Too much light can also stress plants that need shade, causing blooms to wilt.
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distribution

Distribution of Elecampane

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Habitat of Elecampane

Roadsides, waste places, streamsides
Northern Hemisphere
South Hemisphere

Distribution Map of Elecampane

Elecampane is indigenous to regions of Europe and Asia but has been introduced and naturalized in parts of the temperate Northern Hemisphere. It thrives in a variety of habitats and has been widely cultivated beyond its native range, adapting well to cultivation in diverse climatic conditions.
distribution map
Native
Cultivated
Invasive
Potentially invasive
Exotic
No species reported
habit
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More Info on Elecampane Growth and Care

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Basic Care Guide
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Lighting
Full sun
Elecampane thrives best under completely exposed conditions, where the sun’s intensity is greatest. It can also flourish under partially shaded conditions, with some degree of sunlight. Originally growing in open areas, it adapts well to a range of light levels. Too much shade or too much exposure may impact its vitality and flowering.
Best Sunlight Practices
Transplant
1.5-2 feet
The optimal time for transplanting elecampane is during the S1-S3 season, or late winter to early spring, as this allows the plant to establish before the growth spurt. Choose a sunny to partially shaded location with well-drained soil. Remember, slow and careful transplanting prevents shocking elecampane.
Transplant Techniques
Feng shui direction
South
Elecampane aligns harmoniously with the energetic flow of the South - a direction linked to fame and recognition in traditional Feng Shui. Its bright yellow flowers and sturdy demeanor kindle the vibrant, fiery energies of this direction subtly attributing to its compatibility. However, perceptions can vary based on individual interpretation of Feng Shui principles.
Fengshui Details
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Plants Related to Elecampane

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European crab apple
European crab apple
European crab apple (Malus sylvestris) is a plant species that can live to be one hundred years old. European crab apple is native to Europe and its latin name Malus sylvestris means forest apple. Caterpillars of the twin-spotted sphinx feed on the leaves of european crab apple. This species has been considered an important ancestor of the domestic apple.
Rescuegrass
Rescuegrass
Rescuegrass (Bromus catharticus) is a short-lived grass species that is often considered a weed. The name rescuegrass comes the reputation of this species to save animals from food shortages. This plant is indigenous to South America. It was originally imported to North America for feeding livestock. It’s also known as “Schrader’s Bromegrass.”
Philippine ground orchid
Philippine ground orchid
Philippine ground orchid (Spathoglottis plicata) is a tropical plant that has naturalized in Florida Hawaii and throughout the Caribbean. It blooms from spring through summer with 8 to 27 flowers per plant. Blossoms are rich magenta with bright yellow and pink markings. It is self-pollinating and produces seed pods along with blossoms. Has been considered invasive in Hawaii especially in fragile habitats.
Chinese Crab Apple
Chinese Crab Apple
Chinese Crab Apple (Malus hupehensis) is a deciduous tree that produces bright red, cherry-sized crab-apples. Chinese Crab Apple is native to China, and is also commonly referred to as the Hupeh crab or the tea crabapple.
Canterbury bells
Canterbury bells
The flowers of canterbury bells (*Campanula medium*) are bell-shaped; hence, the name. It is a native Southern European plant. In floriography, a coded language communicated through flowers that dates back to Victorian times, it represents gratitude. It is one of the flowers Thomas Jefferson grew at Monticello, his homestead.
Johnny jump up
Johnny jump up
The johnny jump up resembles a small pansy. The flowers are edible and can be consumed in salads, drinks, or used as a garnish, though they're best eaten only in small amounts. Ancient Greek legends told that the goddess Aphrodite colored the previously white flowers purple to make her son, Eros, less attracted to them.
Poison ivy
Poison ivy
In pop culture, poison ivy is a symbol of an obnoxious weed because, despite its unthreatening looks, it gives a highly unpleasant contact rash to the unfortunate person who touches it. Still, it is commonly eaten by many animals, and the seeds are a favorite with birds. The leaves turn bright red in fall. Its sister species, Western poison ivy (Toxicodendron rydbergii), is not considered to be invasive in the United States, but is noxious in Australia and New Zealand.
Pokeweed
Pokeweed
Although its berries look juicy and tempting, the fruits and the root of pokeweed are toxic and should not be eaten. Pokeweed is considered a pest species by farmers but is nevertheless often grown as an ornamental plant. Its berries can be made into pokeberry ink as well.
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Care Guide
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More Info
Pests & Diseases
Distribution
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Related Plants
Elecampane
Elecampane
Elecampane
Elecampane
Elecampane
Elecampane
Elecampane
Inula helenium
Also known as: Elecampane inula, Horse-heal, Elf wort, Enula campana, Yellow starwort
Other names for Inula helenium (*Inula helenium*) include "Horse heal" and "Wild Sunflower Scabwort." Inula helenium is native to Eurasia. Its Latin name comes from Helen of Troy. In the legends about Helen of Troy, the elecampane grew wherever her tears fell.
Planting Time
Planting Time
Spring, Fall
question

Questions About Elecampane

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Feedback
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Watering Watering Watering
Pruning Pruning Pruning
Sunlight Sunlight Sunlight
Fertilizing Fertilizing Fertilizing
What is the best way to water my Elecampane?
more
What should I do if I water my Elecampane too much or too little?
more
How often should I water my Elecampane?
more
How much water does my Elecampane need?
more
How should I water my Elecampane at different growth stages?
more
How should I water my Elecampane through the seasons?
more
What's the difference between watering my Elecampane indoors and outdoors?
more
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Keep your plants happy and healthy with our guide to watering, lighting, feeding and more.
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plant_info

Key Facts About Elecampane

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Feedback
feedback

Attributes of Elecampane

Lifespan
Perennial, Annual, Biennial
Plant Type
Herb
Planting Time
Spring, Fall
Bloom Time
Summer, Fall
Harvest Time
Fall
Plant Height
90 cm to 1.5 m
Spread
60 cm to 90 cm
Leaf Color
Green
Flower Size
5 cm
Flower Color
Yellow
Fruit Color
Brown
Silver
Stem Color
Green
Leaf type
Deciduous
Ideal Temperature
20 - 35 ℃
Growth Season
Summer, Fall
Growth Rate
Rapid
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Symbolism

Love, Protection, Psychic powers

Usages

Garden Use
Elecampane is a versatile herbaceous perennial often planted in culinary and medicinal gardens. The tall stature and profusion of daisy-like flowers can also make a visual impact when it is established in garden borders as a single plant or in a group planting. In addition, the flowers are highly attractive to bees, making this an excellent plant for pollinator-friendly gardens.

Scientific Classification of Elecampane

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pests

Common Pests & Diseases About Elecampane

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Common issues for Elecampane based on 10 million real cases
Leaf rot
Leaf rot Leaf rot Leaf rot
This pathogen can cause the leaves to rot.
Solutions: Bacterial infections need to be treated quickly to prevent the spread to neighboring, healthy plants, potentially wiping out large sections of your indoor or outdoor garden. In mild cases: Use sterilized (10% bleach solution) pruning shears or scissors to remove any infected plant parts, making sure to dispose of them off site. Use a copper-based bactericide to treat the unaffected foliage, as well as the soil, and neighboring plants. Follow the manufacturer’s rate and timing directions found on the product label. In severe cases, where more than half the leaves are affected: Remove all of the infected plants from the garden, disposing of them off site. Treat the soil and neighboring plants using a copper-based bactericide. Follow the manufacturer’s rate and timing directions found on the product label.
Learn More About the Leaf rot more
Brown spot
Brown spot Brown spot Brown spot
This infection can cause brown spots or patches to appear on the plant.
Solutions: In minor cases of brown spot, there isn’t any need to treat the disease. However, if much of the foliage is affected and defoliation occurs, the plant will benefit from getting rid of the infection. It is recommended to start by applying organic treatment options, working up to the more potent synthetic, chemical fungicides if necessary. Organic options won’t kill the fungus, but will prevent it from spreading. Dissolve ½ teaspoon of baking soda and one teaspoon of liquid soap in a gallon of water. Using a spray bottle, spray on tops and bottoms of leaves until the mixture drips off. Repeat every two weeks until existing spots stop enlarging and new spots no longer appear. Spray a copper-based fungicidal soap on the leaves, coating the top and bottom leaf surfaces. Reapply as directed on the product label. Copper penetrates the leaf surface and prevents germination of spores so the fungus cannot spread. Apply an all-purpose fungicide to the entire plant, following the label instructions carefully.
Learn More About the Brown spot more
Caterpillars
Caterpillars Caterpillars Caterpillars
Caterpillars are fleshy moth or butterfly larvae that come in an array of colors, patterns, and even hairstyles. They chew on leaves and flower petals, creating large, irregular holes.
Solutions: Even though caterpillars are diverse, they all chew on plant parts and can cause significant damage if present in large numbers. For severe cases: Apply insecticide. For an organic solution, spray plants with a Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), which specifically affects the larval stage of moths and butterflies. Be sure to coat plants, since caterpillars need to ingest Bt for it to be effective. This will not harm other insects. Spray a chili extract. Chili seeds can be cooked in water to make a spicy spray that caterpillars don't like. Spray this mixture on the plants, but be aware it will also be spicy to humans. Introduce beneficial insects. Release beneficial insects to the garden that eat caterpillars, such as parasitic wasps. For less severe cases: Hand pick. Using gloves, pick off caterpillars on plants and dispose of them in a bucket of soapy water. Dust plants with diatomaceous earth. This powder is harmless to humans but irritates caterpillars. Therefore, it will make it difficult for caterpillars to move and eat.
Learn More About the Caterpillars more
Wilting after blooming
Wilting after blooming Wilting after blooming Wilting after blooming
Flowers may wither for a variety of reasons.
Solutions: Check the soil or potting medium. Coarse textures can allow water to drain too rapidly, preventing the plant from taking up enough. If the soil and roots seem very dry, add sphagnum moss or other mediums that hold water. Water according to recommendations for each plant's species. Low humidity can be corrected by misting the plant regularly or placing it near a humidifier. Keeping it near other plants helps, too. Keep the environment consistent in terms of temperature, humidity, and lighting. Keep it away from vents, heaters, and air conditioners, and avoid moving it to locations where it will experience a temperature shock. Hot, dry heat, and cold drafts are problematic for many plants. Especially if the plant is outside, it could be experiencing heat or light stress. Try moving it to a shadier location.
Learn More About the Wilting after blooming more
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Leaf rot
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Leaf rot
This pathogen can cause the leaves to rot.
Overview
Overview
Leaf rot is very common among both house plants and garden plants. It affects foliage and occurs mainly when the leaves become wet due to rain or misting by the gardener. The cause is fungal disease and this is facilitated by the fungal spores adhering to wet leaves then penetrating the leaf and expanding rapidly. Damp conditions and poor air circulation will increase chances of infection taking place. Another factor are leaves that are damaged or have been penetrated by sap sucking insects that facilitate plant penetration.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
  1. Spores are able to cling to a damp leaf and penetrate, often through an existing wound.
  2. A small dark brown mark appears which expands rapidly as sporulation starts to take place.
  3. Quite quickly these bull's eye like circles can link together and the whole leaf turns dark and loses texture.
  4. Leaf drop occurs.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
These symptoms are caused by a bacterial infection invading the plant. Bacteria from many sources in the environment (air, water, soil, diseased plants) enter a plant through wounds, or in some cases the stomata when they are open. Once inside the leaf tissue, the bacteria feed and reproduce quickly, breaking down healthy leaves.
Bacterial infections threaten most plant species, and are more prominent in wet weather that more easily transfers the bacteria from plant to plant, or from soil to plant.
Solutions
Solutions
Bacterial infections need to be treated quickly to prevent the spread to neighboring, healthy plants, potentially wiping out large sections of your indoor or outdoor garden.
In mild cases: Use sterilized (10% bleach solution) pruning shears or scissors to remove any infected plant parts, making sure to dispose of them off site. Use a copper-based bactericide to treat the unaffected foliage, as well as the soil, and neighboring plants. Follow the manufacturer’s rate and timing directions found on the product label.
In severe cases, where more than half the leaves are affected: Remove all of the infected plants from the garden, disposing of them off site. Treat the soil and neighboring plants using a copper-based bactericide. Follow the manufacturer’s rate and timing directions found on the product label.
Prevention
Prevention
  1. Clean up garden debris at the end of the season, especially if it contains any diseased plant tissue. Diseases can overwinter from season to season and infect new plants.
  2. Avoid overhead watering to prevent transferring pathogens from one plant to another, and to keep foliage dry.
  3. Mulch around the base of plants to prevent soil-borne bacteria from splashing up onto uninfected plants.
  4. Sterilize cutting tools using a 10% bleach solution when gardening and moving from one plant to another.
  5. Do not work in your garden when it is wet.
  6. Rotate crops to prevent the buildup of bacteria in one site due to continuous cropping.
  7. Use a copper or streptomycin-containing bactericide in early spring to prevent infection. Read label directions carefully as they are not suitable for all plants.
  8. Ensure plants are well spaced and thin leaves on densely leaved plants so that air circulation is maximised.
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Brown spot
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Brown spot
This infection can cause brown spots or patches to appear on the plant.
Overview
Overview
Discolored spots on the foliage of plants are one of the most common disease problems people observe. These spots are caused by fungal and bacterial diseases, with most infections related to a fungal pathogen.
Brown spot can occurs on all houseplants, flowering ornamentals, vegetable plants, and leaves of trees, bushes, and shrubs. No plants are resistant to it, and the problem is worse in warm, wet environments. It can occur at any point in the life stage as long as leaves are present.
Small brownish spots appear on the foliage and enlarge as the disease progresses. In severe cases, the plant or tree is weakened when the lesions interrupt photosynthesis or cause defoliation.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
In most cases, brown spot only affects a small percentage of the whole plant, appearing on a small amount of the leaves. A small infection only puts minor stress on the plant. However, if left untreated and the disease progresses over numerous seasons, it will severely impact the health and productivity of the infected specimen.
  • Sporulation begins (reproduction of the fungal spores), and tiny spots appear on leaves.
  • Placement is often random and scattered as diseases are spread through raindrops.
  • May appear on lower leaves and the interior of the plant where humidity is higher.
  • Brown spots enlarge and grow large enough to touch neighboring spots to form a more prominent blotch.
  • Leaf margins may turn yellow.
  • Tiny black dots (fruiting bodies of the fungi) appear in the dead spots.
  • Blotches grow in size until the entire leaf is brown.
  • The leaf falls off the plant.
Severe Symptoms
  • Partial or complete premature defoliation
  • Reduced growth
  • Increased susceptibility to pests and other diseases
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
Brown spot, or leaf spot, is a common descriptive term given to several diseases affecting the leaves of plants and trees. Around 85% of diseases exhibiting leaf spots are due to fungus or fungus-like organisms. Sometimes brown spot is caused by a bacterial infection, or insect activity with similar symptoms.
When conditions are warm and the leaf surfaces are wet, fungal spores being transported by wind or rain land on the surface and cling to it. They do not rupture the cell walls but grow in the space between the plant plasma membrane and the plant cell wall. As the spores reproduce, they release toxins and enzymes that cause necrotic spots (i.e., dead tissue) on the leaves, allowing the fungi to consume the products released when the cells degrade.
Solutions
Solutions
In minor cases of brown spot, there isn’t any need to treat the disease. However, if much of the foliage is affected and defoliation occurs, the plant will benefit from getting rid of the infection. It is recommended to start by applying organic treatment options, working up to the more potent synthetic, chemical fungicides if necessary.
Organic options won’t kill the fungus, but will prevent it from spreading.
  1. Dissolve ½ teaspoon of baking soda and one teaspoon of liquid soap in a gallon of water. Using a spray bottle, spray on tops and bottoms of leaves until the mixture drips off. Repeat every two weeks until existing spots stop enlarging and new spots no longer appear.
  2. Spray a copper-based fungicidal soap on the leaves, coating the top and bottom leaf surfaces. Reapply as directed on the product label. Copper penetrates the leaf surface and prevents germination of spores so the fungus cannot spread.
  3. Apply an all-purpose fungicide to the entire plant, following the label instructions carefully.
Prevention
Prevention
Like many other diseases, it is easier to prevent brown spot than cure it, and this is done through cultural practices.
  • Clear fall leaves from the ground before winter to minimize places where fungi and bacteria can overwinter.
  • Maintain good air movement between plants through proper plant spacing.
  • Increase air circulation through the center of plants through pruning.
  • Thoroughly clean all pruning tools after working with diseased plants.
  • Never dispose of disease plant material in a compost pile.
  • Avoid overhead watering to keep moisture off of the foliage.
  • Keep plants healthy by providing adequate sunlight, water, and fertilizer.
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Caterpillars
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Caterpillars
Caterpillars are fleshy moth or butterfly larvae that come in an array of colors, patterns, and even hairstyles. They chew on leaves and flower petals, creating large, irregular holes.
Overview
Overview
Caterpillars can cause problems for home gardeners. If not managed, these insects can defoliate a plant in just a matter of days. However, home gardeners face a challenge because these caterpillars eventually turn into beautiful butterflies and moths, which are important for pollination and the general ecosystem.
There are thousands of different species of caterpillars and many will only target certain plants. If caterpillars are posing a problem, they can be removed by hand, or gardeners can use insect-proof netting to protect their valuable plants.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Caterpillars are the larvae of butterflies and moths. During the warmer months, butterflies and moths that visit gardens will lay their eggs on the underside of leaves.
When the tiny eggs hatch, the young larvae emerge and start feeding on the leaves of the plant. Depending on how many larvae have hatched, they can easily defoliate the plant in a very short period of time. Caterpillars will shed their skin as they grow, around 4 or 5 times during this feeding cycle.
Symptoms of caterpillars eating plants appear as holes in the leaves. The edges of the leaves may be eaten away as well, and flowers can be affected as well.
Some are easy to see, but others need to be searched for. This is because their bodies are often camouflaged to look like part of the plant. Gardeners need to look carefully along the stems of the plant as well as under the leaves. Also, look for tiny white, yellow, or brown eggs that can be found in groups on the underside of leaves.
Once the caterpillar is fully grown, it transforms into a pupa or chrysalis. Then, after a period of time that varies according to the species, a butterfly or moth will emerge from the pupa and the cycle begins again.
Solutions
Solutions
Even though caterpillars are diverse, they all chew on plant parts and can cause significant damage if present in large numbers.
For severe cases:
  1. Apply insecticide. For an organic solution, spray plants with a Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), which specifically affects the larval stage of moths and butterflies. Be sure to coat plants, since caterpillars need to ingest Bt for it to be effective. This will not harm other insects.
  2. Spray a chili extract. Chili seeds can be cooked in water to make a spicy spray that caterpillars don't like. Spray this mixture on the plants, but be aware it will also be spicy to humans.
  3. Introduce beneficial insects. Release beneficial insects to the garden that eat caterpillars, such as parasitic wasps.
For less severe cases:
  1. Hand pick. Using gloves, pick off caterpillars on plants and dispose of them in a bucket of soapy water.
  2. Dust plants with diatomaceous earth. This powder is harmless to humans but irritates caterpillars. Therefore, it will make it difficult for caterpillars to move and eat.
Prevention
Prevention
Prevention may require less effort than attempts to eradicate infestations that have already begun. Here are our top steps for prevention:
  1. Monitor plants. Check plants regularly for caterpillar eggs on leaves. If they do not belong to an endangered species, they should be squished.
  2. Use insect netting. Cover plants with insect netting to prevent butterflies and moths from laying eggs on plants.
  3. Apply diatomaceous earth. Apply DE to plants early in the season and reapply after rain.
  4. Encourage plant diversity. This will attract predatory insects including parasitic wasps.
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Wilting after blooming
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Wilting after blooming
Flowers may wither for a variety of reasons.
Overview
Overview
Wilting after blooming is sometimes a natural aging process of the flower, while other times it may indicate a problem. Orchids, for example, can bloom for anywhere from two weeks to three months, so wilting after a few days signals a problem for most varieties. This can happen to virtually any ornamental flowering plant, but those with shallow roots and limited tolerance for drought, full sun, and low humidity are more susceptible.
This is a common problem, and often has an easy fix. Sometimes, however, it is the result of more serious causes such as pests or disease of the root system.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
  • At first, flowers may look a little limp.
  • Petals may start to appear dried out and turn brown.
  • Eventually they may drop off the plant all together.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
Wilting blooms can be a sign of an unhealthy root system. Any condition that prevents the plant from absorbing enough water and nutrition can result in wilting blooms and sometimes other symptoms. If the plant doesn’t have enough water, it cannot maintain appropriate pressure within stems, leaves, and blooms, causing them to wilt.
This can result from physical damage – for example from root breakage during re-potting or attack by insects like cutworms. If you recently re-potted your plant, physical damage to the roots is a likely cause. If you see insects, they may be eating leaves, roots, or flowers. Fungal infections can also cause root rot and damage, preventing water and nutrient uptake.
Finally, wilting blooms can result simply from age. If no other symptoms are visible, it may simply signal the natural end of the flower’s lifespan. If it seems premature, this may be caused by environmental factors: water, humidity, light, or stress. Under-watering is a common cause. Similarly, plants adapted to high humidity dry out easily when humidity is low, like during winter or in dry climates. Too much light can also stress plants that need shade, causing blooms to wilt.
Solutions
Solutions
  • Check the soil or potting medium. Coarse textures can allow water to drain too rapidly, preventing the plant from taking up enough. If the soil and roots seem very dry, add sphagnum moss or other mediums that hold water.
  • Water according to recommendations for each plant's species.
  • Low humidity can be corrected by misting the plant regularly or placing it near a humidifier. Keeping it near other plants helps, too.
  • Keep the environment consistent in terms of temperature, humidity, and lighting. Keep it away from vents, heaters, and air conditioners, and avoid moving it to locations where it will experience a temperature shock. Hot, dry heat, and cold drafts are problematic for many plants.
  • Especially if the plant is outside, it could be experiencing heat or light stress. Try moving it to a shadier location.
Prevention
Prevention
  • Read up on moisture, light, and soil type preferences for each plant to avoid underwatering, incorrect light levels, or other conditions that can cause wilting blooms.
  • Avoid re-potting during the flowering period. This causes additional stress on the plants because they need to repair root damage and adapt to the new micro-environment, all of which can result in wilting.
  • One other potential cause is ethylene gas, a plant hormone related to ripening. Some fruits and vegetables emit ethylene, especially bananas. Apples, grapes, melons, avocados, and potatoes can also give it off, so keep flowering plants away from fresh produce.
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distribution

Distribution of Elecampane

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Habitat of Elecampane

Roadsides, waste places, streamsides
Northern Hemisphere
South Hemisphere

Distribution Map of Elecampane

Elecampane is indigenous to regions of Europe and Asia but has been introduced and naturalized in parts of the temperate Northern Hemisphere. It thrives in a variety of habitats and has been widely cultivated beyond its native range, adapting well to cultivation in diverse climatic conditions.
distribution map
Native
Cultivated
Invasive
Potentially invasive
Exotic
No species reported
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More Info on Elecampane Growth and Care

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Basic Care Guide
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Plants Related to Elecampane

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Lighting
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Indoor
Indoor
Outdoor
Choose a site here for personalized care tips.
Requirements
Full sun
Ideal
Above 6 hours sunlight
Partial sun
Tolerance
About 3-6 hours sunlight
Watch how sunlight gracefully moves through your garden, and choose spots that provide the perfect balance of light and shade for your plants, ensuring their happiness.
Essentials
Elecampane thrives best under completely exposed conditions, where the sun’s intensity is greatest. It can also flourish under partially shaded conditions, with some degree of sunlight. Originally growing in open areas, it adapts well to a range of light levels. Too much shade or too much exposure may impact its vitality and flowering.
Preferred
Tolerable
Unsuitable
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Artificial lighting
Indoor plants require adequate lighting for optimal growth. When natural sunlight is insufficient, particularly in winter or in less sunny spaces, artificial lights offer a vital solution, promoting faster, healthier growth.
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Indoor plants require adequate lighting for optimal growth. When natural sunlight is insufficient, particularly in winter or in less sunny spaces, artificial lights offer a vital solution, promoting faster, healthier growth.
1. Choose the right type of artificial light: LED lights are a popular choice for indoor plant lighting because they can be customized to provide the specific wavelengths of light that your plants need.
Full sun plants need 30-50W/sq ft of artificial light, partial sun plants need 20-30W/sq ft, and full shade plants need 10-20W/sq ft.
2. Determine the appropriate distance: Place the light source 12-36 inches above the plant to mimic natural sunlight.
3. Determine the duration: Mimic the length of natural daylight hours for your plant species. most plants need 8-12 hours of light per day.
Important Symptoms
Symptoms of Insufficient Light in %s
Elecampane thrives in full sunlight and is commonly grown outdoors where it receives ample sunlight. When placed in rooms with inadequate lighting, symptoms of light deficiency may not be readily apparent.
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Small leaves
New leaves may grow smaller in size compared to the previous ones once they have matured.
Leggy or sparse growth
The spaces between leaves or stems of your Elecampane may become longer, resulting in a thin and stretched-out appearance. This can make the plant look sparse and weak, and it may easily break or lean due to its own weight.
Faster leaf drop
When plants are exposed to low light conditions, they tend to shed older leaves early to conserve resources. Within a limited time, these resources can be utilized to grow new leaves until the plant's energy reserves are depleted.
Slower or no new growth
Elecampane enters a survival mode when light conditions are poor, which leads to a halt in leaf production. As a result, the plant's growth becomes delayed or stops altogether.
Lighter-colored new leaves
Insufficient sunlight can cause leaves to develop irregular color patterns or appear pale. This indicates a lack of chlorophyll and essential nutrients.
Solutions
1. To ensure optimal growth, gradually move plants to a sunnier location each week, until they receive at least 6 hours of direct sunlight daily. Use a south-facing window and keep curtains open during the day for maximum sunlight exposure and nutrient accumulation.2. To provide additional light for your plant, consider using artificial light if it's large or not easily movable. Keep a desk or ceiling lamp on for at least 8 hours daily, or invest in professional plant grow lights for ample light.
Symptoms of Excessive light in %s
Elecampane thrives in full sun exposure and can tolerate intense sunlight. With their remarkable resilience, symptoms of sunburn may not be easily visible, as they rarely suffer from it.
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Chlorosis
Chlorosis is a condition where the plant's leaves lose their green color and turn yellow. This is due to the breakdown of chlorophyll from excessive sunlight, which negatively affects the plant's ability to photosynthesize.
Sunscald
Sunscald occurs when the plant's leaves or stems are damaged by intense sunlight exposure. It appears as pale, bleached, or necrotic areas on the plant tissue and can reduce the plant's overall health.
Leaf Curling
Leaf curling is a symptom where leaves curl or twist under extreme sunlight conditions. This is a defense mechanism used by the plant to reduce its surface area exposed to sunlight, minimizing water loss and damage.
Wilting
Wilting occurs when a plant loses turgor pressure and its leaves and stems begin to droop. Overexposure to sunlight can cause wilting by increasing the plant's water loss through transpiration, making it difficult for the plant to maintain adequate hydration.
Leaf Scorching
Leaf scorching is a symptom characterized by the appearance of brown, dry, and crispy edges or patches on leaves due to excessive sunlight. This can lead to a reduction in photosynthetic capacity and overall plant health.
Solutions
1. Move your plant to the optimal position where it can receive abundant sunlight but also have some shade. An east-facing window is an ideal choice as the morning sunlight is gentler. This way, your plant can enjoy ample sunlight while reducing the risk of sunburn.2. It is recommended to trim off any completely dehydrated or withered parts of the plant.
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