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Indian mallow
Indian mallow
Indian mallow
Indian mallow
Indian mallow
Indian mallow
Indian mallow
Abutilon indicum
Also known as : Monkey bush, Twelve-o'clock flower
Hardiness Zones
Hardiness Zones
10 to 11
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care guide

Care Guide for Indian mallow

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Soil Care
Soil Care
Slightly acidic, Slightly alkaline
Details on Soil Care Soil Care
Ideal Lighting
Ideal Lighting
Full sun, Partial sun
Details on Sunlight Requirements Ideal Lighting
Ideal Temperature
Ideal Temperature
10 to 11
Details on Temperature Ideal Temperature
Planting Time
Planting Time
Early spring
Details on Planting Time Planting Time
Harvest Time
Harvest Time
All year round
Details on Harvest Time Harvest Time
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Indian mallow
Water
Water
Every week
Hardiness Zones
Hardiness Zones
10 to 11
Planting Time
Planting Time
Early spring
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Questions About Indian mallow

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Watering Watering Watering
Pruning Pruning Pruning
Sunlight Sunlight Sunlight
Temperature Temperature Temperature
Fertilizing Fertilizing Fertilizing
What is the best way to water my Indian mallow?
Your Indian mallow will not be too picky about how you choose to water it. As such, you can use just about any common watering tool to moisten this plant’s soil. Watering cans, hoses, and even cups will work just fine when it is time to water your Indian mallow. Regardless of which watering tool you use, you should typically apply the water directly to the soil. In doing so, you should ensure that you moisten all soil areas equally to give all parts of the root system the water it needs. It can help to use filtered water, as tap water can contain particles that are harmful to plants. It is also beneficial to use water that is at or slightly above room temperature, as colder or hotter water can be somewhat shocking to the Indian mallow. However, the Indian mallow usually responds well to any kind of water you give it.
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What should I do if I water my Indian mallow too much or too little?
For outdoor plants, especially newly planted plants or plant seedlings, they can be prone to lack of watering. Remember that you need to keep watering enough for a few months when the tree is small or just planted. This is because once the roots are established, Indian mallow can rely on rain most of the time. When your Indian mallow is planted in pots, overwatering is often more likely to.When you accidentally overwater your Indian mallow, you should be prepared to remedy the situation immediately. First, you should stop watering your plant right away to minimize the effect of your overwatering. After, you should consider removing your Indian mallow from its pot to inspect its roots. If you find that none of the roots have developed root rot, it may be permissible to return your plant to its container. If you do discover signs of root rot, then you should trim away any roots that have been affected. You may also want to apply a fungicide to prevent further damage. Lastly, you should repot your Indian mallow in soil that is well-draining. In the case of an underwatered Indian mallow, simply water this plant more frequently. Underwatering is often an easy fix. If you underwater, the plant's leaves will tend to droop and dry out and fall off, and the leaves will quickly return to fullness after sufficient watering. Please correct your watering frequency as soon as underwatering occurs.
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How often should I water my Indian mallow?
Most plants that grow naturally outdoors can be allowed to grow normally with rainfall. If your area lacks rainfall, consider giving your plants adequate watering every 2 weeks during the spring and fall. More frequent watering is needed in summer. In winter, when growth becomes slower and plants need less water, water more sparingly. Throughout the winter, you may not give it additional watering at all. If your Indian mallow is young or newly planted, then you should water more frequently to help it establish, and mature and grow up to have more adaptable and drought tolerant plants. For potted plants, there are two main ways that you can determine how often to water your Indian mallow. The first way is to set a predetermined watering schedule. If you choose this route, you should plan to water this plant about once every week or once every other week. However, this approach may not always work as it does not consider the unique conditions of the growing environment for your Indian mallow . Your watering frequency can also change depending on the season. For instance, a predetermined watering schedule will likely not suffice during summer when this plant's water needs are highest. An alternative route is to set your watering frequency based on soil moisture. Typically, it is best to wait until the first two to four inches of soil, usually ⅓ to ½ depth of the pots, have dried out entirely before you give more water.
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How much water does my Indian mallow need?
When it comes time to water your Indian mallow, you may be surprised to find that this plant does not always need a high volume of water. Instead, if only a few inches of soil have dried since your last watering, you can support healthy growth in the Indian mallow by giving it about five to ten ounces of water every time you water. You can also decide your water volume based on soil moisture. As mentioned above, you should note how many inches of soil have dried out between waterings. A surefire way to make sure your Indian mallow gets the moisture it needs is to supply enough water to moisten all the soil layers that became dry since the last time you watered. If more than half of the soil has become dry, you should consider giving more water than usual. In those cases, continue adding water until you see excess water draining from your pot’s drainage holes. If your Indian mallow is planted in an area that gets plenty of rain outdoors, it may not need additional watering. When the Indian mallow is young or just getting established, make sure it gets 1-2 inches of rain per week. As it continues to grow and establish, it can survive entirely on rainwater and only when the weather is hot and there is no rainfall at all for 2-3 weeks, then consider giving your Indian mallow a full watering to prevent them from suffering stress.
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How can I tell if i'm watering my Indian mallow enough?
Overwatering is a far more common problem for the Indian mallow, and there are several signs you should look for when this occurs. Generally, an overwatered Indian mallow will have yellowing leaves and may even drop some leaves. Also, overwatering can cause the overall structure of your plant to shrivel and may also promote root rot. On the other hand, an underwatered Indian mallow will also begin to wilt. It may also display leaves that are brown or brittle to the touch. Whether you see signs of overwatering or underwatering, you should be prepared to intervene and restore the health of your Indian mallow.
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How can I water my Indian mallow at different growth stages?
When the Indian mallow is very young, such as when it is in a seedling stage, you will need to give it more water than you would if it were at a mature age. During the early stages of this plant’s life, it is important to keep the soil consistently moist to encourage root development. The same is true for any Indian mallow that you have transplanted to a new growing location. Also, the Indian mallow can develop showy flowers and fruits when you give them the correct care. If your Indian mallow is in a flowering or fruiting phase, you will likely need to give a bit more water than you usually would to support these plant structures.
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How can I water my Indian mallow through the seasons?
The seasonal changes will affect how often you water your Indian mallow. Mainly, during the hottest summer months, you will likely need to increase how much you water this plant, especially if it grows in an area that receives ample sunlight. Strong summer sunlight can cause soil to dry out much faster than usual, meaning that you’ll need to water more frequently. By contrast, your Indian mallow will need much less water during the winter, as it will not be in an active growing phase. During winter, you can get by with watering once every 2 to 3 weeks or sometimes not at all. For those growing this plant indoors, you should be somewhat wary of appliances such as air conditioners, which can cause your plant to dry out more quickly, which also calls for more frequent watering.
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What's the difference between watering my Indian mallow indoors vs outdoors?
In some cases, your Indian mallow may not need any supplemental watering when it grows outside and will survive on rainwater alone. However, if you live in an area of little to no rain, you should water this plant about every two weeks. If you belong to the group of people who live out of this plant's natural hardiness zone, you should grow it indoors. In an indoor setting, you should monitor your plant's soil as it can dry out more quickly when it is in a container or when it is exposed to HVAC units such as air conditioners. Those drying factors will lead you to water this plant a bit more often than if you grew it outdoors.
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Key Facts About Indian mallow

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Attributes of Indian mallow

Lifespan
Perennial
Plant Type
Shrub
Planting Time
Early spring
Bloom Time
Spring, Summer
Harvest Time
All year round
Plant Height
2.5 m
Spread
1.2 m to 1.8 m
Leaf Color
Green
Flower Size
2 cm to 3 cm
Flower Color
Yellow
Fruit Color
Green
Leaf type
Evergreen
Ideal Temperature
20 - 38 ℃

Scientific Classification of Indian mallow

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Common Pests & Diseases About Indian mallow

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Common issues for Indian mallow based on 10 million real cases
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Yellow edges
Yellow edges is a common disease affecting Indian mallow, characterized by chlorosis and eventual necrosis along the leaf margins, potentially reducing the plant's vigor and aesthetic value.
Leaf beetles
Leaf beetles Leaf beetles
Leaf beetles
Leaf beetles are a class of colored insects 1 to 2 cm in size. They gnaw on leaves and petals resulting in small, round holes scattered over the surface.
Solutions: For less serious cases: Remove beetles, nymphs, and eggs. Remove all life stages of the beetles and kill them by placing them in a bucket of warm, soapy water. This can be done more easily by placing the bucket under affected leaves and shaking the plant. This method is most effective in the afternoon when leaf beetles are more active. Always dispose of insects in a sealed bag or container to avoid escape and spread. To treat more serious infestations: Apply organic insecticides. Use naturally-derived insecticides before moving on to synthetic insecticides. Neem oil and pyrethrum are naturally-derived insecticides that should be applied following label instructions. Apply synthetic insecticides. Examples of insecticides effective for leaf beetles include carbaryl, permethrin, and bifenthrin. Apply insecticides according to label instructions.
Leaf rot
Leaf rot Leaf rot
Leaf rot
This pathogen can cause the leaves to rot.
Solutions: Bacterial infections need to be treated quickly to prevent the spread to neighboring, healthy plants, potentially wiping out large sections of your indoor or outdoor garden. In mild cases: Use sterilized (10% bleach solution) pruning shears or scissors to remove any infected plant parts, making sure to dispose of them off site. Use a copper-based bactericide to treat the unaffected foliage, as well as the soil, and neighboring plants. Follow the manufacturer’s rate and timing directions found on the product label. In severe cases, where more than half the leaves are affected: Remove all of the infected plants from the garden, disposing of them off site. Treat the soil and neighboring plants using a copper-based bactericide. Follow the manufacturer’s rate and timing directions found on the product label.
Black spot
Black spot Black spot
Black spot
Infection by the black spot pathogen causes black spots or patches to appear on leaves.
Solutions: Some steps to take to address black spot include: Prune away any infected leaves, cleaning the pruners between plants with a 10% bleach solution so that the fungus does not spread to healthy leaves. Don't compost pruned plant parts as the spores can linger in the soil for a long period of time - instead, dispose of them in the trash. Use an approved fungicide such as Trifloxystrobin, Chlorothalonil, Maneb, or Myclobutanil. Use a spreader in the fungicide spray to ensure better coverage.
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Yellow edges
Overview
Symptom
Causes
Treatment
Prevention
Active Period
What is Yellow edges Disease on Indian mallow?
What is Yellow edges Disease on Indian mallow?
Yellow edges is a common disease affecting Indian mallow, characterized by chlorosis and eventual necrosis along the leaf margins, potentially reducing the plant's vigor and aesthetic value.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
On Indian mallow, the disease initially appears as light yellowing at the leaf edges, which gradually becomes more pronounced. Over time, the affected areas may turn brown and brittle, leading to leaf drop.
What Causes Yellow edges Disease on Indian mallow?
What Causes Yellow edges Disease on Indian mallow?
1
Nutrient deficiencies
Lack of essential nutrients, particularly iron and magnesium, can cause yellowing of leaf edges.
2
Water stress
Inconsistent watering practices, either over or under-watering, lead to stress that manifests as yellowing at the leaf margins.
How to Treat Yellow edges Disease on Indian mallow?
How to Treat Yellow edges Disease on Indian mallow?
1
Non pesticide
Soil testing: Perform soil testing to determine nutrient deficiencies and amend soil accordingly.

Proper watering: Ensure consistent watering based on the specific moisture requirements of Indian mallow.
2
Pesticide
Foliar sprays: Apply foliar sprays containing chelated iron or magnesium to address deficiencies more directly.
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Leaf beetles
plant poor
Leaf beetles
Leaf beetles are a class of colored insects 1 to 2 cm in size. They gnaw on leaves and petals resulting in small, round holes scattered over the surface.
Overview
Overview
Leaf beetles range in size from 1.5 mm to 2 cm. Both adult beetles and their larvae eat the leaves of many different types of plants. There are over 35,000 different species of leaf beetles, in a variety of colors including gold, green, yellow-striped, and red striped. Some of these have been mistaken for ladybirds because of their shape and coloring. They can be oval, round, or elongated in shape. These insect pests are most active in spring and summer.
If not controlled, leaf beetles can do a lot of damage to vegetable crops and ornamental plants. They feed on the leaves, flowers, stems, roots, and fruits of different plants. They can fly, which means it's easy for them to move from one plant to another. Some species of leaf beetles only target one specific crop, while others will target many different types of plants. Although a lot of the damage that they cause is cosmetic, an infestation can weaken a plant and leave it prone to other more problematic diseases.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
The first signs of a leaf beetles infestation are small visible holes in leaves. Leaves then become discolored and dark beetle droppings can be seen. As the leaves turn yellow and brown, they will drop off the plant onto the ground. Some leaves will appear skeletonized with only the veins still remaining.
Infestation begins in spring, when the adult beetles emerge from the soil and lay their eggs on the leaves of plants. When these eggs hatch, the young nymphs start munching on the leaves as they grow up. Once leaf beetles are large and mature, they'll fall to the ground and pupate in the soil over winter before starting the cycle all over again.
Leaf beetles also eat holes in fruits and vegetables. These can be seen as small round holes that sometimes have a larger brown area surrounding them.
Solutions
Solutions
For less serious cases:
  1. Remove beetles, nymphs, and eggs. Remove all life stages of the beetles and kill them by placing them in a bucket of warm, soapy water. This can be done more easily by placing the bucket under affected leaves and shaking the plant. This method is most effective in the afternoon when leaf beetles are more active. Always dispose of insects in a sealed bag or container to avoid escape and spread.
To treat more serious infestations:
  1. Apply organic insecticides. Use naturally-derived insecticides before moving on to synthetic insecticides. Neem oil and pyrethrum are naturally-derived insecticides that should be applied following label instructions.
  2. Apply synthetic insecticides. Examples of insecticides effective for leaf beetles include carbaryl, permethrin, and bifenthrin. Apply insecticides according to label instructions.
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Leaf rot
plant poor
Leaf rot
This pathogen can cause the leaves to rot.
Overview
Overview
Leaf rot is very common among both house plants and garden plants. It affects foliage and occurs mainly when the leaves become wet due to rain or misting by the gardener. The cause is fungal disease and this is facilitated by the fungal spores adhering to wet leaves then penetrating the leaf and expanding rapidly. Damp conditions and poor air circulation will increase chances of infection taking place. Another factor are leaves that are damaged or have been penetrated by sap sucking insects that facilitate plant penetration.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
  1. Spores are able to cling to a damp leaf and penetrate, often through an existing wound.
  2. A small dark brown mark appears which expands rapidly as sporulation starts to take place.
  3. Quite quickly these bull's eye like circles can link together and the whole leaf turns dark and loses texture.
  4. Leaf drop occurs.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
These symptoms are caused by a bacterial infection invading the plant. Bacteria from many sources in the environment (air, water, soil, diseased plants) enter a plant through wounds, or in some cases the stomata when they are open. Once inside the leaf tissue, the bacteria feed and reproduce quickly, breaking down healthy leaves.
Bacterial infections threaten most plant species, and are more prominent in wet weather that more easily transfers the bacteria from plant to plant, or from soil to plant.
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Black spot
plant poor
Black spot
Infection by the black spot pathogen causes black spots or patches to appear on leaves.
Overview
Overview
Black spot is a fungus that largely attacks leaves on a variety of ornamental plants, leaving them covered in dark spots ringed with yellow, and eventually killing them. The fungus is often simply unsightly, but if it infects the whole plant it can interfere with photosynthesis by killing too many leaves. Because of this, it is important to be aware of the best methods for preventing and treating this diseases should it occur in the garden.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Here are a few of the most common symptoms of black spot:
  • The plant has developed small black spots along the leaves.
  • These spots be small, circular, and clustered together, or they may have a splotchy appearance and take up large portions of the leaves.
  • The fungus may also affect plant canes, where lesions start purple and then turn black.
  • The plant may suffer premature leaf drop.
Though most forms of black spot fungus pose little risk to a plant's overall health, many gardeners find them unsightly. Severe cases can also weaken a plant, so it becomes more susceptible to other pathogens and diseases.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
Black spot is spread by various types of fungi, which differ slightly depending on whether they are in their sexual or asexual stages.
The fungal spores linger over the winter in fallen leaves and lesions on canes. In the spring, the spores are splashed up onto the leaves, causing infection within seven hours of moisture and when temperatures range between 24 to 29 ℃ with a high relative humidity.
In just two weeks, thousands of additional spores are produced, making it easy for the disease to infect nearby healthy plants as well.
There are several factors that could make a plant more likely to suffer a black spot infection. Here are some of the most common:
  • Exposure to infected plants or mulch (the fungus overwinters on dead leaves)
  • Weakening from physical damage, pest infestation or other infections.
  • Increased periods of wet, humid, warm weather – or exposure to overhead watering
  • Plants growing too close together
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distribution

Distribution of Indian mallow

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Habitat of Indian mallow

Open areas and uncultivated land, disturbed sites
Northern Hemisphere
South Hemisphere

Distribution Map of Indian mallow

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Native
Cultivated
Invasive
Potentially invasive
Exotic
No species reported
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More Info on Indian Mallow Growth and Care

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Basic Care Guide
Common Pests & Diseases
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Lighting
Full sun
Apt to flourish in abundant exposure to the sun's rays, the indian mallow thrives in areas with copious sunlight ensuring vigorous growth and optimal health. Its origin habitat mimics such conditions, contributing to this preference. Excessive light doesn't pose a substantial threat, however, scarcity could compromise its robustness.
Best Sunlight Practices
Transplant
24-36 inches
For indian mallow, relocating during the gentle warmth of mid to late spring is optimal, ensuring its hearty growth. Select a sun-kissed spot with well-draining soil, and provide ample space for its mature spread to foster a thriving new beginning.
Transplant Techniques
Temperature
5 - 43 ℃
Indian mallow is native to regions with temperatures ranging from 68 to 100 °F (20 to 38 ℃). It has a preference for warmer climates and should be grown in environments that mimic such conditions. In cooler months, ensure proper temperature regulation to maintain optimal growth.
Temp for Healthy Growth
Pruning
Late spring, Early summer
This shrubby perennial, recognized for its heart-shaped leaves and bright yellow flowers, thrives with regular pruning. For indian mallow, cut back after the blooming season in late spring or early summer to encourage bushiness and manage size. Remove dead or weak stems to promote air circulation and healthy growth. Prune selectively, focusing on maintaining an attractive shape and preventing legginess. Keeping the center open ensures ample light penetration, enhancing flowering and reducing disease risk.
Pruning techniques
Propagation
Spring,Summer
Indian mallow thrives when propagated through stem cuttings, a practical and efficient method. Start by selecting healthy, non-flowering stems to increase the likelihood of successful root development. Cuttings should be about 4-6 inches in length, ideally with several leaf nodes, as roots tend to form at these sites. It is beneficial to dip the cut end in rooting hormone to stimulate growth and then plant in a well-draining potting mix. Ensure that the soil remains lightly moist and provide indirect light to support optimal rooting.
Propagation Techniques
Yellow edges
Yellow edges is a common disease affecting Indian mallow, characterized by chlorosis and eventual necrosis along the leaf margins, potentially reducing the plant's vigor and aesthetic value.
Read More
Leaf tip withering
Leaf tip withering in Indian mallow primarily causes premature leaf drop, reduced photosynthesis, and compromised plant growth. This disease can significantly affect the aesthetic and health value of the plant.
Read More
Leaf yellowing
Leaf yellowing is a common disease affecting Indian mallow, characterized by the chlorosis of leaves, leading to reduced photosynthesis and plant vigor.
Read More
Dark blotch
Dark blotch is a fungal disease affecting Indian mallow, leading to significant foliage damage and reduced plant vitality, impacting its ornamental and medicinal usefulness.
Read More
Symbolizes
Protection, comfort
Indian mallow symbolizes protection and comfort in the language of flowers.,This flower is deeply rooted in Indian culture and folklore.,Indian mallow is often chosen for its charming, delicate appearance.
Flower Meaning for Indian mallow
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Plants Related to Indian mallow

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Larkdaisy
Larkdaisy
Larkdaisy (*Centratherum punctatum*) is a perennial that blooms from mid-summer to early fall with lavender flowers. Seed heads remain after blooms fade and will self-seed if left on the plant. If more plants aren't desired, it's necessary to deadhead the plant. This plant is considered a weed in some regions.
Asian ponysfoot
Asian ponysfoot
Introduced initially as a groundcover and a grass substitute for lawns, asian ponysfoot spread uncontrollably and is now considered a weed in some countries. This trailing plant grows worldwide in tropical and cool temperate climates. When some parts of this plant are touched, they can cause skin irritation.
Swamp dewberry
Swamp dewberry
Swamp dewberry (Rubus hispidus) is a perennial woody vine with trailing stems found in woodlands meadows and fields. Swamp dewberry blooms white flowers from spring to summer and attracts bees flies and butterflies. The fruits it produces are similar to black berries but have a sour taste. Birds turtles mice and squirrels feed on the berries. It grows in full sun to partial shade.
Pussy willow
Pussy willow
Pussy willow (Salix discolor) is a deciduous shrub that will grow in full sun to partial shade in medium to wet soil. It blooms in spring with yellow greenish catkins. The blooms resemble the pads on a cat's paw which is how it gets its name. Interestingly male plants produce the more desirable silky pearl gray catkins and female plants produce smaller less attractive blooms. Due to its preference for moist soils this plant is usually found around ponds streams and lakes.
Matted Sandmat
Matted Sandmat
Matted Sandmat is an annual weed that grows flat along the ground into a matted form. It has a long tap root and hardy seeds, which make it difficult to eradicate. This plant’s sap can irritate the skin and is toxic.
Oriental bittersweet
Oriental bittersweet
Celastrus orbiculatus is a vine that grows and spreads aggressively and has been deemed an invasive species in many areas. Oriental bittersweet is an opportunistic climber and climbs any available tree or structure. The vine wraps around itself as it climbs, and has been known to completely strangle or ‘girdle’ a mature host tree.
Poison ivy
Poison ivy
In pop culture, poison ivy is a symbol of an obnoxious weed because, despite its unthreatening looks, it gives a highly unpleasant contact rash to the unfortunate person who touches it. Still, it is commonly eaten by many animals, and the seeds are a favorite with birds. The leaves turn bright red in fall. Its sister species, Western poison ivy (Toxicodendron rydbergii), is not considered to be invasive in the United States, but is noxious in Australia and New Zealand.
Pokeweed
Pokeweed
Although its berries look juicy and tempting, the fruits and the root of pokeweed are toxic and should not be eaten. Pokeweed is considered a pest species by farmers but is nevertheless often grown as an ornamental plant. Its berries can be made into pokeberry ink as well.
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Related Plants
Indian mallow
Indian mallow
Indian mallow
Indian mallow
Indian mallow
Indian mallow
Indian mallow
Abutilon indicum
Also known as: Monkey bush, Twelve-o'clock flower
Hardiness Zones
Hardiness Zones
10 to 11
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Care Guide for Indian mallow

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Questions About Indian mallow

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Watering Watering Watering
Pruning Pruning Pruning
Sunlight Sunlight Sunlight
Temperature Temperature Temperature
Fertilizing Fertilizing Fertilizing
What is the best way to water my Indian mallow?
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What should I do if I water my Indian mallow too much or too little?
more
How often should I water my Indian mallow?
more
How much water does my Indian mallow need?
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How can I tell if i'm watering my Indian mallow enough?
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How can I water my Indian mallow at different growth stages?
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How can I water my Indian mallow through the seasons?
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What's the difference between watering my Indian mallow indoors vs outdoors?
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Key Facts About Indian mallow

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Attributes of Indian mallow

Lifespan
Perennial
Plant Type
Shrub
Planting Time
Early spring
Bloom Time
Spring, Summer
Harvest Time
All year round
Plant Height
2.5 m
Spread
1.2 m to 1.8 m
Leaf Color
Green
Flower Size
2 cm to 3 cm
Flower Color
Yellow
Fruit Color
Green
Leaf type
Evergreen
Ideal Temperature
20 - 38 ℃
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Scientific Classification of Indian mallow

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Common Pests & Diseases About Indian mallow

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Common issues for Indian mallow based on 10 million real cases
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Yellow edges
Yellow edges is a common disease affecting Indian mallow, characterized by chlorosis and eventual necrosis along the leaf margins, potentially reducing the plant's vigor and aesthetic value.
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Leaf beetles
Leaf beetles Leaf beetles Leaf beetles
Leaf beetles are a class of colored insects 1 to 2 cm in size. They gnaw on leaves and petals resulting in small, round holes scattered over the surface.
Solutions: For less serious cases: Remove beetles, nymphs, and eggs. Remove all life stages of the beetles and kill them by placing them in a bucket of warm, soapy water. This can be done more easily by placing the bucket under affected leaves and shaking the plant. This method is most effective in the afternoon when leaf beetles are more active. Always dispose of insects in a sealed bag or container to avoid escape and spread. To treat more serious infestations: Apply organic insecticides. Use naturally-derived insecticides before moving on to synthetic insecticides. Neem oil and pyrethrum are naturally-derived insecticides that should be applied following label instructions. Apply synthetic insecticides. Examples of insecticides effective for leaf beetles include carbaryl, permethrin, and bifenthrin. Apply insecticides according to label instructions.
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Leaf rot
Leaf rot Leaf rot Leaf rot
This pathogen can cause the leaves to rot.
Solutions: Bacterial infections need to be treated quickly to prevent the spread to neighboring, healthy plants, potentially wiping out large sections of your indoor or outdoor garden. In mild cases: Use sterilized (10% bleach solution) pruning shears or scissors to remove any infected plant parts, making sure to dispose of them off site. Use a copper-based bactericide to treat the unaffected foliage, as well as the soil, and neighboring plants. Follow the manufacturer’s rate and timing directions found on the product label. In severe cases, where more than half the leaves are affected: Remove all of the infected plants from the garden, disposing of them off site. Treat the soil and neighboring plants using a copper-based bactericide. Follow the manufacturer’s rate and timing directions found on the product label.
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Black spot
Black spot Black spot Black spot
Infection by the black spot pathogen causes black spots or patches to appear on leaves.
Solutions: Some steps to take to address black spot include: Prune away any infected leaves, cleaning the pruners between plants with a 10% bleach solution so that the fungus does not spread to healthy leaves. Don't compost pruned plant parts as the spores can linger in the soil for a long period of time - instead, dispose of them in the trash. Use an approved fungicide such as Trifloxystrobin, Chlorothalonil, Maneb, or Myclobutanil. Use a spreader in the fungicide spray to ensure better coverage.
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Yellow edges
Overview
Symptom
Causes
Treatment
Prevention
Active Period
What is Yellow edges Disease on Indian mallow?
What is Yellow edges Disease on Indian mallow?
Yellow edges is a common disease affecting Indian mallow, characterized by chlorosis and eventual necrosis along the leaf margins, potentially reducing the plant's vigor and aesthetic value.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
On Indian mallow, the disease initially appears as light yellowing at the leaf edges, which gradually becomes more pronounced. Over time, the affected areas may turn brown and brittle, leading to leaf drop.
What Causes Yellow edges Disease on Indian mallow?
What Causes Yellow edges Disease on Indian mallow?
1
Nutrient deficiencies
Lack of essential nutrients, particularly iron and magnesium, can cause yellowing of leaf edges.
2
Water stress
Inconsistent watering practices, either over or under-watering, lead to stress that manifests as yellowing at the leaf margins.
How to Treat Yellow edges Disease on Indian mallow?
How to Treat Yellow edges Disease on Indian mallow?
1
Non pesticide
Soil testing: Perform soil testing to determine nutrient deficiencies and amend soil accordingly.

Proper watering: Ensure consistent watering based on the specific moisture requirements of Indian mallow.
2
Pesticide
Foliar sprays: Apply foliar sprays containing chelated iron or magnesium to address deficiencies more directly.
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Leaf beetles
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Leaf beetles
Leaf beetles are a class of colored insects 1 to 2 cm in size. They gnaw on leaves and petals resulting in small, round holes scattered over the surface.
Overview
Overview
Leaf beetles range in size from 1.5 mm to 2 cm. Both adult beetles and their larvae eat the leaves of many different types of plants. There are over 35,000 different species of leaf beetles, in a variety of colors including gold, green, yellow-striped, and red striped. Some of these have been mistaken for ladybirds because of their shape and coloring. They can be oval, round, or elongated in shape. These insect pests are most active in spring and summer.
If not controlled, leaf beetles can do a lot of damage to vegetable crops and ornamental plants. They feed on the leaves, flowers, stems, roots, and fruits of different plants. They can fly, which means it's easy for them to move from one plant to another. Some species of leaf beetles only target one specific crop, while others will target many different types of plants. Although a lot of the damage that they cause is cosmetic, an infestation can weaken a plant and leave it prone to other more problematic diseases.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
The first signs of a leaf beetles infestation are small visible holes in leaves. Leaves then become discolored and dark beetle droppings can be seen. As the leaves turn yellow and brown, they will drop off the plant onto the ground. Some leaves will appear skeletonized with only the veins still remaining.
Infestation begins in spring, when the adult beetles emerge from the soil and lay their eggs on the leaves of plants. When these eggs hatch, the young nymphs start munching on the leaves as they grow up. Once leaf beetles are large and mature, they'll fall to the ground and pupate in the soil over winter before starting the cycle all over again.
Leaf beetles also eat holes in fruits and vegetables. These can be seen as small round holes that sometimes have a larger brown area surrounding them.
Solutions
Solutions
For less serious cases:
  1. Remove beetles, nymphs, and eggs. Remove all life stages of the beetles and kill them by placing them in a bucket of warm, soapy water. This can be done more easily by placing the bucket under affected leaves and shaking the plant. This method is most effective in the afternoon when leaf beetles are more active. Always dispose of insects in a sealed bag or container to avoid escape and spread.
To treat more serious infestations:
  1. Apply organic insecticides. Use naturally-derived insecticides before moving on to synthetic insecticides. Neem oil and pyrethrum are naturally-derived insecticides that should be applied following label instructions.
  2. Apply synthetic insecticides. Examples of insecticides effective for leaf beetles include carbaryl, permethrin, and bifenthrin. Apply insecticides according to label instructions.
Prevention
Prevention
To prevent infestations of leaf beetles, follow these practices.
  1. Regularly check for beetles. To prevent large pest infestations, be proactive about frequently checking plants for pests and removing them quickly.
  2. Clear debris. Clear weeds and debris to remove areas where these beetles may overwinter and hide.
  3. Attract natural predators. Birds and other insects, such as wasps and ladybugs, are effective natural predators of leaf beetles. Encourage them to visit by including a diverse array of plants to provide habitat and food. Also, avoid applying broad-spectrum herbicides that can harm and kill beneficial insects.
  4. Plant aromatic herbs like mint, garlic, or rosemary, as these can repel leaf beetles.
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Leaf rot
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Leaf rot
This pathogen can cause the leaves to rot.
Overview
Overview
Leaf rot is very common among both house plants and garden plants. It affects foliage and occurs mainly when the leaves become wet due to rain or misting by the gardener. The cause is fungal disease and this is facilitated by the fungal spores adhering to wet leaves then penetrating the leaf and expanding rapidly. Damp conditions and poor air circulation will increase chances of infection taking place. Another factor are leaves that are damaged or have been penetrated by sap sucking insects that facilitate plant penetration.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
  1. Spores are able to cling to a damp leaf and penetrate, often through an existing wound.
  2. A small dark brown mark appears which expands rapidly as sporulation starts to take place.
  3. Quite quickly these bull's eye like circles can link together and the whole leaf turns dark and loses texture.
  4. Leaf drop occurs.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
These symptoms are caused by a bacterial infection invading the plant. Bacteria from many sources in the environment (air, water, soil, diseased plants) enter a plant through wounds, or in some cases the stomata when they are open. Once inside the leaf tissue, the bacteria feed and reproduce quickly, breaking down healthy leaves.
Bacterial infections threaten most plant species, and are more prominent in wet weather that more easily transfers the bacteria from plant to plant, or from soil to plant.
Solutions
Solutions
Bacterial infections need to be treated quickly to prevent the spread to neighboring, healthy plants, potentially wiping out large sections of your indoor or outdoor garden.
In mild cases: Use sterilized (10% bleach solution) pruning shears or scissors to remove any infected plant parts, making sure to dispose of them off site. Use a copper-based bactericide to treat the unaffected foliage, as well as the soil, and neighboring plants. Follow the manufacturer’s rate and timing directions found on the product label.
In severe cases, where more than half the leaves are affected: Remove all of the infected plants from the garden, disposing of them off site. Treat the soil and neighboring plants using a copper-based bactericide. Follow the manufacturer’s rate and timing directions found on the product label.
Prevention
Prevention
  1. Clean up garden debris at the end of the season, especially if it contains any diseased plant tissue. Diseases can overwinter from season to season and infect new plants.
  2. Avoid overhead watering to prevent transferring pathogens from one plant to another, and to keep foliage dry.
  3. Mulch around the base of plants to prevent soil-borne bacteria from splashing up onto uninfected plants.
  4. Sterilize cutting tools using a 10% bleach solution when gardening and moving from one plant to another.
  5. Do not work in your garden when it is wet.
  6. Rotate crops to prevent the buildup of bacteria in one site due to continuous cropping.
  7. Use a copper or streptomycin-containing bactericide in early spring to prevent infection. Read label directions carefully as they are not suitable for all plants.
  8. Ensure plants are well spaced and thin leaves on densely leaved plants so that air circulation is maximised.
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Black spot
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Black spot
Infection by the black spot pathogen causes black spots or patches to appear on leaves.
Overview
Overview
Black spot is a fungus that largely attacks leaves on a variety of ornamental plants, leaving them covered in dark spots ringed with yellow, and eventually killing them. The fungus is often simply unsightly, but if it infects the whole plant it can interfere with photosynthesis by killing too many leaves. Because of this, it is important to be aware of the best methods for preventing and treating this diseases should it occur in the garden.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Here are a few of the most common symptoms of black spot:
  • The plant has developed small black spots along the leaves.
  • These spots be small, circular, and clustered together, or they may have a splotchy appearance and take up large portions of the leaves.
  • The fungus may also affect plant canes, where lesions start purple and then turn black.
  • The plant may suffer premature leaf drop.
Though most forms of black spot fungus pose little risk to a plant's overall health, many gardeners find them unsightly. Severe cases can also weaken a plant, so it becomes more susceptible to other pathogens and diseases.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
Black spot is spread by various types of fungi, which differ slightly depending on whether they are in their sexual or asexual stages.
The fungal spores linger over the winter in fallen leaves and lesions on canes. In the spring, the spores are splashed up onto the leaves, causing infection within seven hours of moisture and when temperatures range between 24 to 29 ℃ with a high relative humidity.
In just two weeks, thousands of additional spores are produced, making it easy for the disease to infect nearby healthy plants as well.
There are several factors that could make a plant more likely to suffer a black spot infection. Here are some of the most common:
  • Exposure to infected plants or mulch (the fungus overwinters on dead leaves)
  • Weakening from physical damage, pest infestation or other infections.
  • Increased periods of wet, humid, warm weather – or exposure to overhead watering
  • Plants growing too close together
Solutions
Solutions
Some steps to take to address black spot include:
  • Prune away any infected leaves, cleaning the pruners between plants with a 10% bleach solution so that the fungus does not spread to healthy leaves.
  • Don't compost pruned plant parts as the spores can linger in the soil for a long period of time - instead, dispose of them in the trash.
  • Use an approved fungicide such as Trifloxystrobin, Chlorothalonil, Maneb, or Myclobutanil.
  • Use a spreader in the fungicide spray to ensure better coverage.
Prevention
Prevention
Here are a few tips to prevent black spot outbreaks.
  • Purchase resistant varieties: Invest in fungus-resistant plant varieties to reduce the chances for black spot diseases.
  • Remove infected plant debris: Fungi can overwinter in contaminated plant debris, so remove all fallen leaves from infected plants as soon as possible.
  • Rake and discard fallen leaves in the fall.
  • Prune regularly.
  • Water carefully: Fungal diseases spread when plants stay in moist conditions and when water droplets splash contaminated soil on plant leaves. Control these factors by only watering infected plants when the top few inches of soil are dry, and by watering at soil level to reduce splashback. Adding a layer of mulch to the soil will also reduce splashing.
  • Grow plants in an open, sunny locations so the foliage dries quickly.
  • Follow spacing guidelines when planting and avoid natural windbreaks for good air circulation.
  • Use chemical control: Regular doses of a fungicide, especially in the spring, can stop an outbreak before it begins.
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distribution

Distribution of Indian mallow

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Habitat of Indian mallow

Open areas and uncultivated land, disturbed sites
Northern Hemisphere
South Hemisphere

Distribution Map of Indian mallow

distribution map
Native
Cultivated
Invasive
Potentially invasive
Exotic
No species reported
plant_info

Plants Related to Indian mallow

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Lighting
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Outdoor
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Requirements
Full sun
Ideal
Above 6 hours sunlight
Partial sun
Tolerance
About 3-6 hours sunlight
Watch how sunlight gracefully moves through your garden, and choose spots that provide the perfect balance of light and shade for your plants, ensuring their happiness.
Essentials
Apt to flourish in abundant exposure to the sun's rays, the indian mallow thrives in areas with copious sunlight ensuring vigorous growth and optimal health. Its origin habitat mimics such conditions, contributing to this preference. Excessive light doesn't pose a substantial threat, however, scarcity could compromise its robustness.
Preferred
Tolerable
Unsuitable
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Artificial lighting
Indoor plants require adequate lighting for optimal growth. When natural sunlight is insufficient, particularly in winter or in less sunny spaces, artificial lights offer a vital solution, promoting faster, healthier growth.
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Indoor plants require adequate lighting for optimal growth. When natural sunlight is insufficient, particularly in winter or in less sunny spaces, artificial lights offer a vital solution, promoting faster, healthier growth.
1. Choose the right type of artificial light: LED lights are a popular choice for indoor plant lighting because they can be customized to provide the specific wavelengths of light that your plants need.
Full sun plants need 30-50W/sq ft of artificial light, partial sun plants need 20-30W/sq ft, and full shade plants need 10-20W/sq ft.
2. Determine the appropriate distance: Place the light source 12-36 inches above the plant to mimic natural sunlight.
3. Determine the duration: Mimic the length of natural daylight hours for your plant species. most plants need 8-12 hours of light per day.
Important Symptoms
Symptoms of Insufficient Light in %s
Indian mallow thrives in full sunlight but can tolerate partial shade. However, when cultivated indoors during winter, it's often placed in rooms with insufficient lighting, leading to easily noticeable symptoms of light deficiency.
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(Symptom details and solutions)
Small leaves
New leaves may grow smaller in size compared to the previous ones once they have matured.
Leggy or sparse growth
The spaces between leaves or stems of your Indian mallow may become longer, resulting in a thin and stretched-out appearance. This can make the plant look sparse and weak, and it may easily break or lean due to its own weight.
Faster leaf drop
When plants are exposed to low light conditions, they tend to shed older leaves early to conserve resources. Within a limited time, these resources can be utilized to grow new leaves until the plant's energy reserves are depleted.
Slower or no new growth
Indian mallow enters a survival mode when light conditions are poor, which leads to a halt in leaf production. As a result, the plant's growth becomes delayed or stops altogether.
Lighter-colored new leaves
Insufficient sunlight can cause leaves to develop irregular color patterns or appear pale. This indicates a lack of chlorophyll and essential nutrients.
Solutions
1. To ensure optimal growth, gradually move plants to a sunnier location each week, until they receive at least 6 hours of direct sunlight daily. Use a south-facing window and keep curtains open during the day for maximum sunlight exposure and nutrient accumulation.2. To provide additional light for your plant, consider using artificial light if it's large or not easily movable. Keep a desk or ceiling lamp on for at least 8 hours daily, or invest in professional plant grow lights for ample light.
Symptoms of Excessive light in %s
Indian mallow thrives in full sun exposure but can also tolerate partial shade. They have a remarkable resilience to intense sunlight, and symptoms of sunburn may not be easily visible.
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(Symptom details and solutions)
Chlorosis
Chlorosis is a condition where the plant's leaves lose their green color and turn yellow. This is due to the breakdown of chlorophyll from excessive sunlight, which negatively affects the plant's ability to photosynthesize.
Sunscald
Sunscald occurs when the plant's leaves or stems are damaged by intense sunlight exposure. It appears as pale, bleached, or necrotic areas on the plant tissue and can reduce the plant's overall health.
Leaf Curling
Leaf curling is a symptom where leaves curl or twist under extreme sunlight conditions. This is a defense mechanism used by the plant to reduce its surface area exposed to sunlight, minimizing water loss and damage.
Wilting
Wilting occurs when a plant loses turgor pressure and its leaves and stems begin to droop. Overexposure to sunlight can cause wilting by increasing the plant's water loss through transpiration, making it difficult for the plant to maintain adequate hydration.
Leaf Scorching
Leaf scorching is a symptom characterized by the appearance of brown, dry, and crispy edges or patches on leaves due to excessive sunlight. This can lead to a reduction in photosynthetic capacity and overall plant health.
Solutions
1. Move your plant to the optimal position where it can receive abundant sunlight but also have some shade. An east-facing window is an ideal choice as the morning sunlight is gentler. This way, your plant can enjoy ample sunlight while reducing the risk of sunburn.2. It is recommended to trim off any completely dehydrated or withered parts of the plant.
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Temperature
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Indoor
Outdoor
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Requirements
Ideal
Tolerable
Unsuitable
Just like people, each plant has its own preferences. Learn about your plants' temperature needs and create a comforting environment for them to flourish. As you care for your plants, your bond with them will deepen. Trust your intuition as you learn about their temperature needs, celebrating the journey you share. Lovingly monitor the temperature around your plants and adjust their environment as needed. A thermometer can be your ally in this heartfelt endeavor. Be patient and gentle with yourself as you explore your plants' temperature needs. Cherish your successes, learn from challenges, and nurture your garden with love, creating a haven that reflects the warmth of your care.
Essentials
Indian mallow is native to regions with temperatures ranging from 68 to 100 °F (20 to 38 ℃). It has a preference for warmer climates and should be grown in environments that mimic such conditions. In cooler months, ensure proper temperature regulation to maintain optimal growth.
Regional wintering strategies
Indian mallow is extremely heat-loving, and any cold temperatures can cause harm to it. In the autumn, it is recommended to bring outdoor-grown Indian mallow indoors and place it near a bright window, but it should be kept at a certain distance from heaters. Maintaining temperatures above {Suitable_growth_temperature_min} during winter is beneficial for plant growth. Any temperatures approaching {Tolerable_growing_temperature_min} are detrimental to the plant.
Important Symptoms
Symptoms of Low Temperature in Indian mallow
Indian mallow prefers warm temperatures and is not tolerant of low temperatures. It thrives best when the temperature is above {Suitable_growth_temperature_min}. During winter, it should be kept above {Tolerable_growing_temperature_min}. When the temperature falls below {Limit_growth_temperature}, the leaves may lighten in color. After frost damage, the color gradually turns brown or black, and symptoms such as wilting and drooping may occur.
Solutions
Trim off the frost-damaged parts. Immediately move indoors to a warm environment for cold protection. Choose a spot near a south-facing window to place the plant, ensuring ample sunlight. Additionally, avoid placing the plant near heaters or air conditioning vents to prevent excessive dryness in the air.
Symptoms of High Temperature in Indian mallow
During summer, Indian mallow should be kept below {Suitable_growth_temperature_max}. When the temperature exceeds {Tolerable_growing_temperature_max}, the color of the leaves becomes lighter, and the plant becomes more susceptible to sunburn.
Solutions
Trim away the sunburned and dried-up parts. Move the plant to a location that provides shade from the midday and afternoon sun. Water the plant in the morning and evening to keep the soil moist.
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