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Russian olive
Russian olive
Russian olive
Russian olive
Russian olive
Russian olive
Russian olive
Elaeagnus angustifolia
Also known as : Silver berry, Oleaster
The name of russian olive (*Elaeagnus angustifolia*) came from its resemblance to an olive tree. However, it’s not even remotely related. It is indigenous to Central and Western Asia and is listed as a noxious weed in other countries, including the US, where it was initially imported as an ornamental. Russian olive produces showy, fragrant flowers and attracts birds with its berry-like fruit.
Water
Water
Every 1-2 weeks
Sunlight
Sunlight
Full sun
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care guide

Care Guide for Russian olive

Watering Care
Watering Care
Deep-water your Russian olive whenever the surface of the soil dries out, being especially careful to keep young plants from going thirsty. Do not let its roots become waterlogged due to poor drainage.
Details on Watering Care Watering Care
Fertilizing Care
Fertilizing Care
Generally, fertilize your russian olive every one to two years in early spring, using a balanced fertilizer or compost. If your plant is young, use a fertilizer that is higher in phosphorous to encourage growth. If a soil test shows that your soil lacks specific nutrients, amend your soil to fix this and water the amendments in.
Details on Fertilizing Care Fertilizing Care
Soil Care
Soil Care
Sand, Loam, Chalky, Clay, Acidic, Neutral, Alkaline
Details on Soil Care Soil Care
What Are the Lighting Requirements for Russian olive?
What Are the Lighting Requirements for Russian olive?
Full sun, Partial sun
Details on Sunlight Requirements What Are the Lighting Requirements for Russian olive?
What is the Ideal Temperature Range for Russian olive?
What is the Ideal Temperature Range for Russian olive?
4 to 10
Details on Temperature What is the Ideal Temperature Range for Russian olive?
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Russian olive
Water
Water
Every 1-2 weeks
Sunlight
Sunlight
Full sun
Hardiness Zones
Hardiness Zones
4 to 10
Planting Time
Planting Time
Winter, Late fall
question

Questions About Russian olive

Watering Watering Watering
Pruning Pruning Pruning
Sunlight Sunlight Sunlight
Temperature Temperature Temperature
Fertilizing Fertilizing Fertilizing
What's the best method to water my Russian olive?
You might want to put a garden hose at the plant base to ensure that you're promoting excellent root development. Avoid directly spraying the leaves, and know that the leaves will require more watering if they are outdoors and facing direct sunlight. You can also use bubblers that you can put on to each plant to moisten the roots. Also, use soaker hoses that can cover the entire garden or bed when adding or removing plants to push the roots deeply. Drain any excess water and wait for the soil to dry before watering. Water at ground level to prevent diseases. On a sunny day, you might want to spray the entire bush with water. Whether potted or in-ground, please remember Russian olive prefers deep watering over light sprinkling.
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What should I do if I water Russian olive too much/too little?
An overwatered Russian olive can start to have leaves that turn yellow, drop off and wilt. The plant can also look dull and unhealthy, with signs of mushy stems. When they are beginning to show these signs, it's best to adjust your schedule whenever possible.
The wilting can also be a sign of under watering as well. You might see that the leaves begin to turn crispy and dry while the overwatered ones will have soft wilted leaves. Check the soil when it is dry and watering is not enough, give it a full watering in time. Enough water will make the Russian olive recover again, but the plant will still appear dry and yellow leaves after a few days due to the damaged root system. Once it return to normal, the leave yellowing will stop .
Always check the moisture levels at the pot when you have the Russian olive indoors. Avoid overwatering indoors and see if there are signs of black spots. If these are present, let the soil dry in the pot by giving it a few days of rest from watering.
Overwatering can lead to root rot being present in your plant. If this is the case, you might want to transfer them into a different pot, especially if you see discolored and slimy roots. Always prevent root rot as much as possible, and don't let the soil become too soggy.
You should dig a little deeper when you plant your Russian olive outdoors. When you check with your fingers and notice that the soil is too dry, it could mean underwatering. Adequate watering is required to help the plant recover.
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How often should I water my Russian olive?
The Russian olive likes deep and infrequent watering. You would want to soak them in a gallon of water each time, especially when they are planted in pots. The water storage of flower pots is limited and the soil will dry out faster. Watering is required every 3 to 5 days when living in a cold region. Water it early in the morning when the soil is dry, outdoors or indoors. You can also determine if watering is needed by checking the soil inside. When the top 2-3 inches of soil is dry, it is time to give the plant a full watering. During hot days, you may need to check the moisture daily, as the heat can quickly dry out the soil in the pot.
Irrigation of the soil is also required if you have a garden. When you live in a hot climate, you might want to water once a week. Only water when you notice that about 2 to 3 inches of soil become too dry outdoors or indoors. Consider the amount of rainwater on the plant and ensure not to add to it to prevent root rot.You may not need additional watering of the plants if there is a lot of rainfall.Russian olive generally grows during spring and fall. When they are outdoors, you need to add mulch about 3 to 4 inches deep to conserve more water.
You need to water the plants more frequently in sandy soil because this type tends to drain faster. However, with the clay one, you need to water this less frequently where you could go for 2-3 days to dry the plant and not develop any root rot. You could mark the date on the calendar whenever you water and when you notice that the leaves are starting to droop. This can mean that you might be a day late.
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How much water do I need to give my Russian olive?
The Russian olive generally needs about a gallon of water each schedule,With the potted plants, you might want to water them deeply until you see that the water is dripping at the bottom of the pot. Then, wait for the soil to dry before watering them again. You can use a water calculator or a moisture meter to determine the amount you've given to your plant in a week. Provide plenty of water, especially in the flowering period, but let the moisture evaporate afterwards to prevent root rot.
If Russian olive is planted outdoor with adequate rainfall, it may not need additional watering. When Russian olive is young or newly planted, make sure it gets 1-2 inches of rain per week. As Russian olive continues to grow, it can survive entirely on rainfall. Only when the weather is too hot, or when there is no rainfall at all for 2-3 weeks, then consider giving Russian olive a full watering during the cooler moment of the day to prevent the plant from suffering from high heat damage. Additional watering will be required during persistent dry spells.
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Should I adjust the watering frequency for my Russian olive according to different seasons or climates?
The Russian olive needs outdoors come from rain, with only persistent dry weather requiring watering. Throughout the spring and fall growing seasons, the soil needs to be kept moist but not soggy, and alternating dry and moist soil conditions will allow the Russian olive to grow well. Throughout the summer, hot weather can cause water to evaporate too quickly, and if there is a lack of rainfall, you will need to water more frequently and extra to keep it moist.
Usually, the Russian olive will need less water during the winter. Since the Russian olive will drop their leaves and go dormant, you can put them into a well-draining but moisture-retentive soil mixture like the terracotta to help the water evaporate quicker. Once your Russian olive growing outdoors begins to leaf out and go dormant, you can skip watering altogether and in most cases Russian olive can rely on the fall and winter rains to survive the entire dormant period.
After the spring, you can cultivate your Russian olive and encourage it to grow and bloom when the temperature becomes warmer.This plant is not generally a fan of ponding or drought when flowering. You must ensure that the drainage is good at all times, especially during the winter.
When the plant is in a pot, the plant has limited root growth. Keep them well-watered, especially if they are planted in pots during summer. They don't like cold and wet roots, so provide adequate drainage, especially if they are still growing.
It's always best to water your Russian olive’s diligently. Get the entire root system into a deep soak at least once or twice a week, depending on the weather. It's best to avoid shallow sprinkles that reach the leaves since they generally encourage the growth of fungi and don't reach deep into the roots. Don't allow the Russian olive’s to dry out completely in the fall or winter, even if they are already dormancy.
Don't drown the plants because they generally don't like sitting in water for too long. They can die during winter if the soil does not drain well. Also, apply mulch whenever possible to reduce stress, conserve water, and encourage healthy blooms.
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What should I be careful with when I water my Russian olive in different seasons, climates, or during different growing periods?
If planting in the ground, Russian olive mostly relies on rain. However, if there is no rainfall for 2-3 weeks, you may need to give proper consideration to giving the plants a deep watering. If watering Russian olive in summer, you should try to do it in the morning. A large temperature difference between the water temperature and the root system can stress the roots. You need to avoid watering the bushes when it's too hot outside. Start mulching them during the spring when the ground is not too cold.
The age of the plants matter. Lack of water is one of the most common reasons the newly planted ones fail to grow. After they are established, you need to ease off the watering schedule.
Reduce watering them during the fall and winter, especially if they have a water-retaining material in the soil. The dry winds in winter can dry them out, and the newly planted ones can be at risk of drought during windy winter, summer, and fall. Windy seasons mean that there's more watering required. The ones planted in the pot tend to dry out faster, so they need more watering. Once you see that they bloom less, the leaves begin to dry up.
Potted plants are relatively complex to water and fluctuate in frequency. Always be careful that the pot-planted plant don't sit in the water. Avoid putting them in containers with saucers, bowls, and trays. Too much watering in the fall can make the foliage look mottled or yellowish. It's always a good idea to prevent overwatering them regardless of the current climate or season that you might have. During the months when Russian olive begins to flower, you might want to increase the watering frequency but give it a rest once they are fully grown.
Give them an adequate amount of water once every 3 to 5 days but don't give them regular schedules. Make sure the soil is dry by sticking your finger in the pot, or use a moisture meter if you're unsure if it's the right time. Too much root rot can cause them to die, so be careful not to overwater or underwater regardless of the climate or season you have in your area.
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Why is watering my Russian olive important?
Watering the Russian olive helps transport the needed nutrients from the soil to the rest of the plant. The moisture will keep this species healthy if you know how much water to give. The watering requirements will depend on the weather in your area and the plant's soil.
The Russian olive thrives on moist soil, but they can't generally tolerate waterlogging. Ensure to provide enough mulch when planted on the ground and never fall into the trap of watering too little. They enjoy a full can of watering where the water should be moist at the base when they are planted in a pot to get the best blooms.
If they are grown as foliage, you need to water them up to a depth of 10 to 20 inches so they will continue to grow. If it's raining, refrain from watering and let them get the nutrients they need from the rainwater.
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Key Facts About Russian olive

Attributes of Russian olive

Lifespan
Perennial
Plant Type
Shrub
Planting Time
Winter, Late fall
Bloom Time
Spring, Early summer
Harvest Time
Summer, Fall
Plant Height
5 m to 7 m
Spread
7 m
Leaf Color
Green
Gray
Silver
Flower Size
5 mm to 1 cm
Flower Color
Yellow
White
Green
Silver
Fruit Color
Red
Silver
Stem Color
Green
Gray
Silver
Red
Yellow
Dormancy
Winter dormancy
Leaf type
Deciduous
Growth Season
Spring
Growth Rate
Rapid

Name story

Russian olive
The buds and leaves are covered with a silvery scale-like layer. Since it is native to Russia and its appearance is very similar to olive (Olea europaea), it is called Russian olive.

Symbolism

Healing, Peace, Fertility

Usages

Garden Use
Russian olive is often planted as an individual accent tree. Its most useful features are its silver-gray foliage and dense branches. It is therefore used as a background plant in different areas of the garden: hedges, screens, and borders. Fuchsias and holly osmanthus compliment the russian olive in the creation of a pollinator garden.

Scientific Classification of Russian olive

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pests

Common Pests & Diseases About Russian olive

Common issues for Russian olive based on 10 million real cases
Plant dried up
Plant dried up Plant dried up
Plant dried up
The entire plant may dry out due to dieback or normal seasonal dormancy.
Solutions: The solution for a dried out plant depends on the cause, so determine the cause before selecting a treatment method. Adjust your watering: Stick your finger in the soil near the roots. If it feels bone dry or overly saturated, you need to adjust your watering frequency accordingly. Prune back dead foliage: Snip off any brown stems and leaves on the plant to make space for new growth. This encourages the roots to send up fresh stems. Move to a proper environment. This may involve decreasing or increasing sun exposure, depending on the species. Decrease fertilizer applications. If you have applied too much fertilizer, you can repot plants with fresh potting soil. Wait. If your plant has dried out as daylight is decreasing, it is entering dormancy. Decrease watering and wait until the plant resumes growth.
Aged yellow and dry
Aged yellow and dry Aged yellow and dry
Aged yellow and dry
Natural aging can cause leaves to turn yellow and dry out.
Solutions: If the yellowing and drying of leaves and flowers is a natural progression due to age, nothing can be done to slow or stop the process. Once hormones within the plant begin the process of senescence, it’s irreversible.
Leaf beetles
Leaf beetles Leaf beetles
Leaf beetles
Leaf beetles are a class of colored insects 1 to 2 cm in size. They gnaw on leaves and petals resulting in small, round holes scattered over the surface.
Solutions: For less serious cases: Remove beetles, nymphs, and eggs. Remove all life stages of the beetles and kill them by placing them in a bucket of warm, soapy water. This can be done more easily by placing the bucket under affected leaves and shaking the plant. This method is most effective in the afternoon when leaf beetles are more active. Always dispose of insects in a sealed bag or container to avoid escape and spread. To treat more serious infestations: Apply organic insecticides. Use naturally-derived insecticides before moving on to synthetic insecticides. Neem oil and pyrethrum are naturally-derived insecticides that should be applied following label instructions. Apply synthetic insecticides. Examples of insecticides effective for leaf beetles include carbaryl, permethrin, and bifenthrin. Apply insecticides according to label instructions.
Leaf mites
Leaf mites Leaf mites
Leaf mites
Leaf mites are very small - rarely larger than 4 mm - and are hard to spot. They are usually yellow or red and feed on the plant's sap.
Solutions: Steps to take to remove leaf mites from plants: Physically remove mites from plants Rinse the leaves of houseplants - spray with a hose or wipe with a moist, soapy cloth Apply neem oil or horticultural oil spray - both of these are easy to use and work quickly on mites indoors and in the garden Use a miticide - a broad spray of miticide can eliminate large populations of leaf mites in the garden (however, this risks also risk killing beneficial mites that eat harmful pests) Use natural enemies like lady beetles and predatory mites to control populations Long-lasting pesticides like permethrin and bifenthrin work, but can deter beneficial insects from visiting
Brown spot
Brown spot Brown spot
Brown spot
This infection can cause brown spots or patches to appear on the plant.
Solutions: In minor cases of brown spot, there isn’t any need to treat the disease. However, if much of the foliage is affected and defoliation occurs, the plant will benefit from getting rid of the infection. It is recommended to start by applying organic treatment options, working up to the more potent synthetic, chemical fungicides if necessary. Organic options won’t kill the fungus, but will prevent it from spreading. Dissolve ½ teaspoon of baking soda and one teaspoon of liquid soap in a gallon of water. Using a spray bottle, spray on tops and bottoms of leaves until the mixture drips off. Repeat every two weeks until existing spots stop enlarging and new spots no longer appear. Spray a copper-based fungicidal soap on the leaves, coating the top and bottom leaf surfaces. Reapply as directed on the product label. Copper penetrates the leaf surface and prevents germination of spores so the fungus cannot spread. Apply an all-purpose fungicide to the entire plant, following the label instructions carefully.
Sap-sucking insects
Sap-sucking insects Sap-sucking insects
Sap-sucking insects
Sap-sucking insects can create dense clusters of small yellow or white spots on the leaves.
Solutions: Sap-sucking insects can be hard to spot, as they are often small and attach to the undersides of plant leaves. If you see signs of an infestation, follow these steps to eradicate it. Hand-pick bugs and remove eggs: Inspect your plants for insects and drop any you find in a container of soapy water. Look carefully at the undersides of plant leaves and squish any egg clusters you find. Use Insecticide: Targeted spraying can take out sap-sucking insects. Small infestations can be controlled with insecticidal soap, though larger outbreaks might require a stronger spray. Introduce natural predators: Many insects, including ladybugs and praying mantises, love to feast on sap-suckers. You can purchase them at garden stores and release them near infected plants, or encourage wild ones by creating habitat space.
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Plant dried up
plant poor
Plant dried up
The entire plant may dry out due to dieback or normal seasonal dormancy.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Your plant has dried out and turned brown. It might be starting to wilt, with no noticeable green around the stems and leaves. Touch the leaves, and they may crinkle under your fingers.
Possible causes of a dried out plant include:
  1. Not enough water. A lack of water will lead to dry plant tissue.
  2. Too much water. Watering too much can lead to root rot which makes the plant struggle to take up water. Rotted, mushy roots are a sign of overeating.
  3. Entering dormancy. As perennial plants enter their resting period known as dormancy, their leaves dry out and may fall off. This happens during decreasing day length.
  4. Exposure to herbicides and other toxic substances. If a plant is hit with a large dose herbicide or other toxic chemical, the plant will turn brown.
  5. Too much fertility. An excess of fertilizer can prevent plants from taking up water, leading to drying.
  6. Improper sun exposure. Just like humans, plants can get sunburn by intense, direct light. Plants can also dry out if they don’t receive enough light.
To determine whether the plant is still alive and can be saved, you can:
  1. Bend a stem. If the stem is pliable, the plant is still alive. If the stem breaks, the plant is dead.
  2. Gently scratch the stem with your fingernail for signs of green inside. If your plant is dead, the stem will be brittle and brown throughout.
  3. Cut the stems back a little bit a time for visible green growth. If none of the stems have visible green growth, the plant is dead.
Solutions
Solutions
The solution for a dried out plant depends on the cause, so determine the cause before selecting a treatment method.
  1. Adjust your watering: Stick your finger in the soil near the roots. If it feels bone dry or overly saturated, you need to adjust your watering frequency accordingly.
  2. Prune back dead foliage: Snip off any brown stems and leaves on the plant to make space for new growth. This encourages the roots to send up fresh stems.
  3. Move to a proper environment. This may involve decreasing or increasing sun exposure, depending on the species.
  4. Decrease fertilizer applications. If you have applied too much fertilizer, you can repot plants with fresh potting soil.
  5. Wait. If your plant has dried out as daylight is decreasing, it is entering dormancy. Decrease watering and wait until the plant resumes growth.
Prevention
Prevention
Prevention involves providing your plant with the proper environment.
  1. Provide the proper amount of water. The amount of water depends on a plant’s size, species, and environment. A general rule is to allow soil to dry out between waterings.
  2. Place plants in the proper environment. Provide the proper hours of sun and temperature for your individual plant.
  3. Provide proper fertility. Most plants only need to be fertilized once or twice a year; don’t overapply.
  4. Keep plants free from toxic substances. Keep herbicides and toxic household chemicals away from your plants.
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Aged yellow and dry
plant poor
Aged yellow and dry
Natural aging can cause leaves to turn yellow and dry out.
Overview
Overview
Regardless of the type of plant or where it is grown, at some point, it will begin to aged yellow and dry. This is a natural, unavoidable process that happens when the plant has completed all of the steps in its life.
Annual plants go through this process at the end of a single growing season. Perennial plants live for multiple years, if not tens or hundreds of years, but will still ultimately exhibit these symptoms.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
When plants have progressed through their natural developmental stages and are nearing the end of their lifecycle, they begin showing signs of decline. Leaves will start to yellow and droop, and over time they turn papery brown and dry.
Once completely dry, the leaves begin to fall from the plant until the entire plant has dried out.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
At the end of its life, genetic coding within the plant increases the production of ethylene, a phytohormone that controls senescence or natural aging and death. Cell division stops, and the plant begins catabolizing resources to use in other parts of the plant.
As this happens, the tissues begin yellow and drying until the entire plant is desiccated and perishes.
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Leaf beetles
plant poor
Leaf beetles
Leaf beetles are a class of colored insects 1 to 2 cm in size. They gnaw on leaves and petals resulting in small, round holes scattered over the surface.
Overview
Overview
Leaf beetles range in size from 1.5 mm to 2 cm. Both adult beetles and their larvae eat the leaves of many different types of plants. There are over 35,000 different species of leaf beetles, in a variety of colors including gold, green, yellow-striped, and red striped. Some of these have been mistaken for ladybirds because of their shape and coloring. They can be oval, round, or elongated in shape. These insect pests are most active in spring and summer.
If not controlled, leaf beetles can do a lot of damage to vegetable crops and ornamental plants. They feed on the leaves, flowers, stems, roots, and fruits of different plants. They can fly, which means it's easy for them to move from one plant to another. Some species of leaf beetles only target one specific crop, while others will target many different types of plants. Although a lot of the damage that they cause is cosmetic, an infestation can weaken a plant and leave it prone to other more problematic diseases.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
The first signs of a leaf beetles infestation are small visible holes in leaves. Leaves then become discolored and dark beetle droppings can be seen. As the leaves turn yellow and brown, they will drop off the plant onto the ground. Some leaves will appear skeletonized with only the veins still remaining.
Infestation begins in spring, when the adult beetles emerge from the soil and lay their eggs on the leaves of plants. When these eggs hatch, the young nymphs start munching on the leaves as they grow up. Once leaf beetles are large and mature, they'll fall to the ground and pupate in the soil over winter before starting the cycle all over again.
Leaf beetles also eat holes in fruits and vegetables. These can be seen as small round holes that sometimes have a larger brown area surrounding them.
Solutions
Solutions
For less serious cases:
  1. Remove beetles, nymphs, and eggs. Remove all life stages of the beetles and kill them by placing them in a bucket of warm, soapy water. This can be done more easily by placing the bucket under affected leaves and shaking the plant. This method is most effective in the afternoon when leaf beetles are more active. Always dispose of insects in a sealed bag or container to avoid escape and spread.
To treat more serious infestations:
  1. Apply organic insecticides. Use naturally-derived insecticides before moving on to synthetic insecticides. Neem oil and pyrethrum are naturally-derived insecticides that should be applied following label instructions.
  2. Apply synthetic insecticides. Examples of insecticides effective for leaf beetles include carbaryl, permethrin, and bifenthrin. Apply insecticides according to label instructions.
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Leaf mites
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Leaf mites
Leaf mites are very small - rarely larger than 4 mm - and are hard to spot. They are usually yellow or red and feed on the plant's sap.
Overview
Overview
Leaf mites are frustrating pests that can be found on both indoor- and outdoor-grown plants. They affect all kinds of plants, from shrubs to vegetable crops and everything in between. These tiny pests feed on sap through leaves or needles, causing symptoms that are easy to confuse with drought stress. Severely infested plants can die.
These pests are closely related to spiders but don’t offer all the pest-controlling benefits of their close arachnid cousins. They are extremely small, generally about 0.5 mm in length and yellow to orange in color. When infestations are left unchecked, they can severely stunt the growth of plants or even kill them completely.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Leaf mites use piercing and sucking mouthparts to feed on the sap that is present on the underside of needles and leaves. This can cause small white or yellow spots to develop on the plant tissue, until the entire leaf starts to appear bleached or bronzed. This feeding activity can lead new flowers and leaves to develop in stunted or distorted shapes.
While individual mites may be too small to notice easily, they create a webbing that may be the most apparent and characteristic sign of infestation with leaf mites. This webbing affixes the eggs of the next generation to the leaf.
Eggs can survive through winter conditions, although they do not hatch until the weather is hot and dry. Warmer temperatures increase their rate of development, and in summer weather or warm indoor temperatures colonies of leaf mites can reproduce every 1 to 2 weeks.
Leaves may fall from severely infested plants, and without treatment they can become stunted or even die.
Solutions
Solutions
Steps to take to remove leaf mites from plants:
  • Physically remove mites from plants
  • Rinse the leaves of houseplants - spray with a hose or wipe with a moist, soapy cloth
  • Apply neem oil or horticultural oil spray - both of these are easy to use and work quickly on mites indoors and in the garden
  • Use a miticide - a broad spray of miticide can eliminate large populations of leaf mites in the garden (however, this risks also risk killing beneficial mites that eat harmful pests)
  • Use natural enemies like lady beetles and predatory mites to control populations
  • Long-lasting pesticides like permethrin and bifenthrin work, but can deter beneficial insects from visiting
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Brown spot
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Brown spot
This infection can cause brown spots or patches to appear on the plant.
Overview
Overview
Discolored spots on the foliage of plants are one of the most common disease problems people observe. These spots are caused by fungal and bacterial diseases, with most infections related to a fungal pathogen.
Brown spot can occurs on all houseplants, flowering ornamentals, vegetable plants, and leaves of trees, bushes, and shrubs. No plants are resistant to it, and the problem is worse in warm, wet environments. It can occur at any point in the life stage as long as leaves are present.
Small brownish spots appear on the foliage and enlarge as the disease progresses. In severe cases, the plant or tree is weakened when the lesions interrupt photosynthesis or cause defoliation.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
In most cases, brown spot only affects a small percentage of the whole plant, appearing on a small amount of the leaves. A small infection only puts minor stress on the plant. However, if left untreated and the disease progresses over numerous seasons, it will severely impact the health and productivity of the infected specimen.
  • Sporulation begins (reproduction of the fungal spores), and tiny spots appear on leaves.
  • Placement is often random and scattered as diseases are spread through raindrops.
  • May appear on lower leaves and the interior of the plant where humidity is higher.
  • Brown spots enlarge and grow large enough to touch neighboring spots to form a more prominent blotch.
  • Leaf margins may turn yellow.
  • Tiny black dots (fruiting bodies of the fungi) appear in the dead spots.
  • Blotches grow in size until the entire leaf is brown.
  • The leaf falls off the plant.
Severe Symptoms
  • Partial or complete premature defoliation
  • Reduced growth
  • Increased susceptibility to pests and other diseases
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
Brown spot, or leaf spot, is a common descriptive term given to several diseases affecting the leaves of plants and trees. Around 85% of diseases exhibiting leaf spots are due to fungus or fungus-like organisms. Sometimes brown spot is caused by a bacterial infection, or insect activity with similar symptoms.
When conditions are warm and the leaf surfaces are wet, fungal spores being transported by wind or rain land on the surface and cling to it. They do not rupture the cell walls but grow in the space between the plant plasma membrane and the plant cell wall. As the spores reproduce, they release toxins and enzymes that cause necrotic spots (i.e., dead tissue) on the leaves, allowing the fungi to consume the products released when the cells degrade.
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Sap-sucking insects
plant poor
Sap-sucking insects
Sap-sucking insects can create dense clusters of small yellow or white spots on the leaves.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Your plant has developed tiny yellowish spots scattered across the leaves that look like mold or mildew. If these marks won't wipe off, they are likely caused by sap-sucking insects like aphids, squash bugs, scale bugs, leafhoppers, whiteflies, mites, mealybugs, and more.
Each of these pests uses mouthparts to pierce leaf tissues and suck the sap. uses mouthparts to pierce leaf tissues and suck the sap. Signs of damage are difficult to spot at first, but a large infestation can quickly compromise the whole plant. You're most likely to see sap-sucking insects during the hottest months because plants make easier targets when already weakened from heat or drought.
Though sap-sucking insects are unlikely to kill your plant on their own, they can severely weaken it and make it more susceptible to disease. They may also spread viruses from one plant to another as they feed.
Solutions
Solutions
Sap-sucking insects can be hard to spot, as they are often small and attach to the undersides of plant leaves. If you see signs of an infestation, follow these steps to eradicate it.
  1. Hand-pick bugs and remove eggs: Inspect your plants for insects and drop any you find in a container of soapy water. Look carefully at the undersides of plant leaves and squish any egg clusters you find.
  2. Use Insecticide: Targeted spraying can take out sap-sucking insects. Small infestations can be controlled with insecticidal soap, though larger outbreaks might require a stronger spray.
  3. Introduce natural predators: Many insects, including ladybugs and praying mantises, love to feast on sap-suckers. You can purchase them at garden stores and release them near infected plants, or encourage wild ones by creating habitat space.
Prevention
Prevention
Healthy plants are less likely to suffer from sap-sucker attacks. Keep them fortified with fertilizer and the right amounts of water and sunlight. Plants that receive excess nitrogen are also more susceptible to attack, so don’t overfertilize. You should also remove weeds and tall grasses surrounding your outdoor plants so as not to create habitat space for the pests.
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distribution

Distribution of Russian olive

Habitat of Russian olive

Banks of streams and rivers
Northern Hemisphere
South Hemisphere

Distribution Map of Russian olive

distribution map
Native
Cultivated
Invasive
Potentially invasive
Exotic
No species reported
habit
care_scenes

More Info on Russian Olive Growth and Care

Basic Care Guide
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Lighting
Full sun
Russian olive enjoys a full day's worth of solar exposure, ensuring vigorous growth. Its origin environment exposed it to ample light, shaping its sunlight resilience. Though it thrives under constant solar immersion, it can withstand periods of semi-shade. Excessive shade can hinder growth while an abundance could cause scorching.
Best Sunlight Practices
Temperature
-25 41 ℃
The russian olive prefers to grow in native environments with a temperature range of 23 to 77 ℉ (-5 to 25 ℃). Its temperature preferences range from 41 to 95 ℉ (5 to 35 ℃). During the summer months, it is suggested to provide extra water when temperatures rise above 90 ℉ (32 ℃). In the winter, it can withstand temperatures as low as 5 ℉ (-15 ℃) as long as it is well-drained.
Temp for Healthy Growth
Transplant
6-10 feet
The optimal time to transplant russian olive is during early to mid-summer, a period when the plant establishes itself easily. Ensure a sunny location with well-draining soil for successful transplanting. Remember, a gentle touch while handling roots can improve the process.
Transplant Techniques
Pruning
Spring
Native to Eurasia, russian olive is known for its silvery foliage and tolerance to drought. Pruning should focus on removing dead or diseased wood, shaping for aesthetic appeal or to control size, and encouraging airflow. The optimal time for pruning is early spring, before new growth begins. Due to its vigorous nature, russian olive responds well to pruning, which also helps manage its invasiveness in non-native areas. Prune thoughtfully to maintain the plant’s natural form and ensure its health.
Pruning techniques
Feng shui direction
East
The russian olive aligns agreeably with the principles of Feng Shui. It has the propensity to invite tranquility into one's surroundings. Regarding the East facing direction, this plant cultivates positive energy particularly when positioned here. This is credited to its innate capability of symbolizing growth and rebirth in Feng Shui, attributes associated with the East. However, individual perceptions may vary.
Fengshui Details
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Related Plants
Russian olive
Russian olive
Russian olive
Russian olive
Russian olive
Russian olive
Russian olive
Elaeagnus angustifolia
Also known as: Silver berry, Oleaster
The name of russian olive (*Elaeagnus angustifolia*) came from its resemblance to an olive tree. However, it’s not even remotely related. It is indigenous to Central and Western Asia and is listed as a noxious weed in other countries, including the US, where it was initially imported as an ornamental. Russian olive produces showy, fragrant flowers and attracts birds with its berry-like fruit.
Water
Water
Every 1-2 weeks
Sunlight
Sunlight
Full sun
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Questions About Russian olive

Watering Watering Watering
Pruning Pruning Pruning
Sunlight Sunlight Sunlight
Temperature Temperature Temperature
Fertilizing Fertilizing Fertilizing
What's the best method to water my Russian olive?
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plant_info

Key Facts About Russian olive

Attributes of Russian olive

Lifespan
Perennial
Plant Type
Shrub
Planting Time
Winter, Late fall
Bloom Time
Spring, Early summer
Harvest Time
Summer, Fall
Plant Height
5 m to 7 m
Spread
7 m
Leaf Color
Green
Gray
Silver
Flower Size
5 mm to 1 cm
Flower Color
Yellow
White
Green
Silver
Fruit Color
Red
Silver
Stem Color
Green
Gray
Silver
Red
Yellow
Dormancy
Winter dormancy
Leaf type
Deciduous
Growth Season
Spring
Growth Rate
Rapid
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Name story

Russian olive
The buds and leaves are covered with a silvery scale-like layer. Since it is native to Russia and its appearance is very similar to olive (Olea europaea), it is called Russian olive.

Symbolism

Healing, Peace, Fertility

Usages

Garden Use
Russian olive is often planted as an individual accent tree. Its most useful features are its silver-gray foliage and dense branches. It is therefore used as a background plant in different areas of the garden: hedges, screens, and borders. Fuchsias and holly osmanthus compliment the russian olive in the creation of a pollinator garden.

Scientific Classification of Russian olive

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pests

Common Pests & Diseases About Russian olive

Common issues for Russian olive based on 10 million real cases
Plant dried up
Plant dried up Plant dried up Plant dried up
The entire plant may dry out due to dieback or normal seasonal dormancy.
Solutions: The solution for a dried out plant depends on the cause, so determine the cause before selecting a treatment method. Adjust your watering: Stick your finger in the soil near the roots. If it feels bone dry or overly saturated, you need to adjust your watering frequency accordingly. Prune back dead foliage: Snip off any brown stems and leaves on the plant to make space for new growth. This encourages the roots to send up fresh stems. Move to a proper environment. This may involve decreasing or increasing sun exposure, depending on the species. Decrease fertilizer applications. If you have applied too much fertilizer, you can repot plants with fresh potting soil. Wait. If your plant has dried out as daylight is decreasing, it is entering dormancy. Decrease watering and wait until the plant resumes growth.
Learn More About the Plant dried up more
Aged yellow and dry
Aged yellow and dry Aged yellow and dry Aged yellow and dry
Natural aging can cause leaves to turn yellow and dry out.
Solutions: If the yellowing and drying of leaves and flowers is a natural progression due to age, nothing can be done to slow or stop the process. Once hormones within the plant begin the process of senescence, it’s irreversible.
Learn More About the Aged yellow and dry more
Leaf beetles
Leaf beetles Leaf beetles Leaf beetles
Leaf beetles are a class of colored insects 1 to 2 cm in size. They gnaw on leaves and petals resulting in small, round holes scattered over the surface.
Solutions: For less serious cases: Remove beetles, nymphs, and eggs. Remove all life stages of the beetles and kill them by placing them in a bucket of warm, soapy water. This can be done more easily by placing the bucket under affected leaves and shaking the plant. This method is most effective in the afternoon when leaf beetles are more active. Always dispose of insects in a sealed bag or container to avoid escape and spread. To treat more serious infestations: Apply organic insecticides. Use naturally-derived insecticides before moving on to synthetic insecticides. Neem oil and pyrethrum are naturally-derived insecticides that should be applied following label instructions. Apply synthetic insecticides. Examples of insecticides effective for leaf beetles include carbaryl, permethrin, and bifenthrin. Apply insecticides according to label instructions.
Learn More About the Leaf beetles more
Leaf mites
Leaf mites Leaf mites Leaf mites
Leaf mites are very small - rarely larger than 4 mm - and are hard to spot. They are usually yellow or red and feed on the plant's sap.
Solutions: Steps to take to remove leaf mites from plants: Physically remove mites from plants Rinse the leaves of houseplants - spray with a hose or wipe with a moist, soapy cloth Apply neem oil or horticultural oil spray - both of these are easy to use and work quickly on mites indoors and in the garden Use a miticide - a broad spray of miticide can eliminate large populations of leaf mites in the garden (however, this risks also risk killing beneficial mites that eat harmful pests) Use natural enemies like lady beetles and predatory mites to control populations Long-lasting pesticides like permethrin and bifenthrin work, but can deter beneficial insects from visiting
Learn More About the Leaf mites more
Brown spot
Brown spot Brown spot Brown spot
This infection can cause brown spots or patches to appear on the plant.
Solutions: In minor cases of brown spot, there isn’t any need to treat the disease. However, if much of the foliage is affected and defoliation occurs, the plant will benefit from getting rid of the infection. It is recommended to start by applying organic treatment options, working up to the more potent synthetic, chemical fungicides if necessary. Organic options won’t kill the fungus, but will prevent it from spreading. Dissolve ½ teaspoon of baking soda and one teaspoon of liquid soap in a gallon of water. Using a spray bottle, spray on tops and bottoms of leaves until the mixture drips off. Repeat every two weeks until existing spots stop enlarging and new spots no longer appear. Spray a copper-based fungicidal soap on the leaves, coating the top and bottom leaf surfaces. Reapply as directed on the product label. Copper penetrates the leaf surface and prevents germination of spores so the fungus cannot spread. Apply an all-purpose fungicide to the entire plant, following the label instructions carefully.
Learn More About the Brown spot more
Sap-sucking insects
Sap-sucking insects Sap-sucking insects Sap-sucking insects
Sap-sucking insects can create dense clusters of small yellow or white spots on the leaves.
Solutions: Sap-sucking insects can be hard to spot, as they are often small and attach to the undersides of plant leaves. If you see signs of an infestation, follow these steps to eradicate it. Hand-pick bugs and remove eggs: Inspect your plants for insects and drop any you find in a container of soapy water. Look carefully at the undersides of plant leaves and squish any egg clusters you find. Use Insecticide: Targeted spraying can take out sap-sucking insects. Small infestations can be controlled with insecticidal soap, though larger outbreaks might require a stronger spray. Introduce natural predators: Many insects, including ladybugs and praying mantises, love to feast on sap-suckers. You can purchase them at garden stores and release them near infected plants, or encourage wild ones by creating habitat space.
Learn More About the Sap-sucking insects more
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Plant dried up
plant poor
Plant dried up
The entire plant may dry out due to dieback or normal seasonal dormancy.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Your plant has dried out and turned brown. It might be starting to wilt, with no noticeable green around the stems and leaves. Touch the leaves, and they may crinkle under your fingers.
Possible causes of a dried out plant include:
  1. Not enough water. A lack of water will lead to dry plant tissue.
  2. Too much water. Watering too much can lead to root rot which makes the plant struggle to take up water. Rotted, mushy roots are a sign of overeating.
  3. Entering dormancy. As perennial plants enter their resting period known as dormancy, their leaves dry out and may fall off. This happens during decreasing day length.
  4. Exposure to herbicides and other toxic substances. If a plant is hit with a large dose herbicide or other toxic chemical, the plant will turn brown.
  5. Too much fertility. An excess of fertilizer can prevent plants from taking up water, leading to drying.
  6. Improper sun exposure. Just like humans, plants can get sunburn by intense, direct light. Plants can also dry out if they don’t receive enough light.
To determine whether the plant is still alive and can be saved, you can:
  1. Bend a stem. If the stem is pliable, the plant is still alive. If the stem breaks, the plant is dead.
  2. Gently scratch the stem with your fingernail for signs of green inside. If your plant is dead, the stem will be brittle and brown throughout.
  3. Cut the stems back a little bit a time for visible green growth. If none of the stems have visible green growth, the plant is dead.
Solutions
Solutions
The solution for a dried out plant depends on the cause, so determine the cause before selecting a treatment method.
  1. Adjust your watering: Stick your finger in the soil near the roots. If it feels bone dry or overly saturated, you need to adjust your watering frequency accordingly.
  2. Prune back dead foliage: Snip off any brown stems and leaves on the plant to make space for new growth. This encourages the roots to send up fresh stems.
  3. Move to a proper environment. This may involve decreasing or increasing sun exposure, depending on the species.
  4. Decrease fertilizer applications. If you have applied too much fertilizer, you can repot plants with fresh potting soil.
  5. Wait. If your plant has dried out as daylight is decreasing, it is entering dormancy. Decrease watering and wait until the plant resumes growth.
Prevention
Prevention
Prevention involves providing your plant with the proper environment.
  1. Provide the proper amount of water. The amount of water depends on a plant’s size, species, and environment. A general rule is to allow soil to dry out between waterings.
  2. Place plants in the proper environment. Provide the proper hours of sun and temperature for your individual plant.
  3. Provide proper fertility. Most plants only need to be fertilized once or twice a year; don’t overapply.
  4. Keep plants free from toxic substances. Keep herbicides and toxic household chemicals away from your plants.
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Aged yellow and dry
plant poor
Aged yellow and dry
Natural aging can cause leaves to turn yellow and dry out.
Overview
Overview
Regardless of the type of plant or where it is grown, at some point, it will begin to aged yellow and dry. This is a natural, unavoidable process that happens when the plant has completed all of the steps in its life.
Annual plants go through this process at the end of a single growing season. Perennial plants live for multiple years, if not tens or hundreds of years, but will still ultimately exhibit these symptoms.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
When plants have progressed through their natural developmental stages and are nearing the end of their lifecycle, they begin showing signs of decline. Leaves will start to yellow and droop, and over time they turn papery brown and dry.
Once completely dry, the leaves begin to fall from the plant until the entire plant has dried out.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
At the end of its life, genetic coding within the plant increases the production of ethylene, a phytohormone that controls senescence or natural aging and death. Cell division stops, and the plant begins catabolizing resources to use in other parts of the plant.
As this happens, the tissues begin yellow and drying until the entire plant is desiccated and perishes.
Solutions
Solutions
If the yellowing and drying of leaves and flowers is a natural progression due to age, nothing can be done to slow or stop the process. Once hormones within the plant begin the process of senescence, it’s irreversible.
Prevention
Prevention
Unfortunately, there is no way to prevent plants from dying of “old age.” To help prolong their life, and put off symptoms of aged yellow and dry for as long as possible, take care of them by giving them enough water, fertilizing them appropriately, and making sure they get enough sunlight.
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Leaf beetles
plant poor
Leaf beetles
Leaf beetles are a class of colored insects 1 to 2 cm in size. They gnaw on leaves and petals resulting in small, round holes scattered over the surface.
Overview
Overview
Leaf beetles range in size from 1.5 mm to 2 cm. Both adult beetles and their larvae eat the leaves of many different types of plants. There are over 35,000 different species of leaf beetles, in a variety of colors including gold, green, yellow-striped, and red striped. Some of these have been mistaken for ladybirds because of their shape and coloring. They can be oval, round, or elongated in shape. These insect pests are most active in spring and summer.
If not controlled, leaf beetles can do a lot of damage to vegetable crops and ornamental plants. They feed on the leaves, flowers, stems, roots, and fruits of different plants. They can fly, which means it's easy for them to move from one plant to another. Some species of leaf beetles only target one specific crop, while others will target many different types of plants. Although a lot of the damage that they cause is cosmetic, an infestation can weaken a plant and leave it prone to other more problematic diseases.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
The first signs of a leaf beetles infestation are small visible holes in leaves. Leaves then become discolored and dark beetle droppings can be seen. As the leaves turn yellow and brown, they will drop off the plant onto the ground. Some leaves will appear skeletonized with only the veins still remaining.
Infestation begins in spring, when the adult beetles emerge from the soil and lay their eggs on the leaves of plants. When these eggs hatch, the young nymphs start munching on the leaves as they grow up. Once leaf beetles are large and mature, they'll fall to the ground and pupate in the soil over winter before starting the cycle all over again.
Leaf beetles also eat holes in fruits and vegetables. These can be seen as small round holes that sometimes have a larger brown area surrounding them.
Solutions
Solutions
For less serious cases:
  1. Remove beetles, nymphs, and eggs. Remove all life stages of the beetles and kill them by placing them in a bucket of warm, soapy water. This can be done more easily by placing the bucket under affected leaves and shaking the plant. This method is most effective in the afternoon when leaf beetles are more active. Always dispose of insects in a sealed bag or container to avoid escape and spread.
To treat more serious infestations:
  1. Apply organic insecticides. Use naturally-derived insecticides before moving on to synthetic insecticides. Neem oil and pyrethrum are naturally-derived insecticides that should be applied following label instructions.
  2. Apply synthetic insecticides. Examples of insecticides effective for leaf beetles include carbaryl, permethrin, and bifenthrin. Apply insecticides according to label instructions.
Prevention
Prevention
To prevent infestations of leaf beetles, follow these practices.
  1. Regularly check for beetles. To prevent large pest infestations, be proactive about frequently checking plants for pests and removing them quickly.
  2. Clear debris. Clear weeds and debris to remove areas where these beetles may overwinter and hide.
  3. Attract natural predators. Birds and other insects, such as wasps and ladybugs, are effective natural predators of leaf beetles. Encourage them to visit by including a diverse array of plants to provide habitat and food. Also, avoid applying broad-spectrum herbicides that can harm and kill beneficial insects.
  4. Plant aromatic herbs like mint, garlic, or rosemary, as these can repel leaf beetles.
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Leaf mites
plant poor
Leaf mites
Leaf mites are very small - rarely larger than 4 mm - and are hard to spot. They are usually yellow or red and feed on the plant's sap.
Overview
Overview
Leaf mites are frustrating pests that can be found on both indoor- and outdoor-grown plants. They affect all kinds of plants, from shrubs to vegetable crops and everything in between. These tiny pests feed on sap through leaves or needles, causing symptoms that are easy to confuse with drought stress. Severely infested plants can die.
These pests are closely related to spiders but don’t offer all the pest-controlling benefits of their close arachnid cousins. They are extremely small, generally about 0.5 mm in length and yellow to orange in color. When infestations are left unchecked, they can severely stunt the growth of plants or even kill them completely.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Leaf mites use piercing and sucking mouthparts to feed on the sap that is present on the underside of needles and leaves. This can cause small white or yellow spots to develop on the plant tissue, until the entire leaf starts to appear bleached or bronzed. This feeding activity can lead new flowers and leaves to develop in stunted or distorted shapes.
While individual mites may be too small to notice easily, they create a webbing that may be the most apparent and characteristic sign of infestation with leaf mites. This webbing affixes the eggs of the next generation to the leaf.
Eggs can survive through winter conditions, although they do not hatch until the weather is hot and dry. Warmer temperatures increase their rate of development, and in summer weather or warm indoor temperatures colonies of leaf mites can reproduce every 1 to 2 weeks.
Leaves may fall from severely infested plants, and without treatment they can become stunted or even die.
Solutions
Solutions
Steps to take to remove leaf mites from plants:
  • Physically remove mites from plants
  • Rinse the leaves of houseplants - spray with a hose or wipe with a moist, soapy cloth
  • Apply neem oil or horticultural oil spray - both of these are easy to use and work quickly on mites indoors and in the garden
  • Use a miticide - a broad spray of miticide can eliminate large populations of leaf mites in the garden (however, this risks also risk killing beneficial mites that eat harmful pests)
  • Use natural enemies like lady beetles and predatory mites to control populations
  • Long-lasting pesticides like permethrin and bifenthrin work, but can deter beneficial insects from visiting
Prevention
Prevention
The best way to prevent leaf mites from infesting plants is to keep them as healthy as possible. Provide them with appropriate amounts of water, sunlight, and fertilizer, depending on their unique needs. Also, do the following:
  • Inspect plants regularly for leaf mites - do this every three days when conditions are hot and dry
  • Dust or rinse the leaves of houseplants on a regular basis
  • Provide at least one inch of water per week to plants
  • Avoid fertilizing during a drought
  • Select plants that are able to handle drought conditions with ease
  • Clean garden or growing area after every single crop cycle
  • Remove all weeds, as they may be host plants for leaf mites.
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Brown spot
plant poor
Brown spot
This infection can cause brown spots or patches to appear on the plant.
Overview
Overview
Discolored spots on the foliage of plants are one of the most common disease problems people observe. These spots are caused by fungal and bacterial diseases, with most infections related to a fungal pathogen.
Brown spot can occurs on all houseplants, flowering ornamentals, vegetable plants, and leaves of trees, bushes, and shrubs. No plants are resistant to it, and the problem is worse in warm, wet environments. It can occur at any point in the life stage as long as leaves are present.
Small brownish spots appear on the foliage and enlarge as the disease progresses. In severe cases, the plant or tree is weakened when the lesions interrupt photosynthesis or cause defoliation.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
In most cases, brown spot only affects a small percentage of the whole plant, appearing on a small amount of the leaves. A small infection only puts minor stress on the plant. However, if left untreated and the disease progresses over numerous seasons, it will severely impact the health and productivity of the infected specimen.
  • Sporulation begins (reproduction of the fungal spores), and tiny spots appear on leaves.
  • Placement is often random and scattered as diseases are spread through raindrops.
  • May appear on lower leaves and the interior of the plant where humidity is higher.
  • Brown spots enlarge and grow large enough to touch neighboring spots to form a more prominent blotch.
  • Leaf margins may turn yellow.
  • Tiny black dots (fruiting bodies of the fungi) appear in the dead spots.
  • Blotches grow in size until the entire leaf is brown.
  • The leaf falls off the plant.
Severe Symptoms
  • Partial or complete premature defoliation
  • Reduced growth
  • Increased susceptibility to pests and other diseases
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
Brown spot, or leaf spot, is a common descriptive term given to several diseases affecting the leaves of plants and trees. Around 85% of diseases exhibiting leaf spots are due to fungus or fungus-like organisms. Sometimes brown spot is caused by a bacterial infection, or insect activity with similar symptoms.
When conditions are warm and the leaf surfaces are wet, fungal spores being transported by wind or rain land on the surface and cling to it. They do not rupture the cell walls but grow in the space between the plant plasma membrane and the plant cell wall. As the spores reproduce, they release toxins and enzymes that cause necrotic spots (i.e., dead tissue) on the leaves, allowing the fungi to consume the products released when the cells degrade.
Solutions
Solutions
In minor cases of brown spot, there isn’t any need to treat the disease. However, if much of the foliage is affected and defoliation occurs, the plant will benefit from getting rid of the infection. It is recommended to start by applying organic treatment options, working up to the more potent synthetic, chemical fungicides if necessary.
Organic options won’t kill the fungus, but will prevent it from spreading.
  1. Dissolve ½ teaspoon of baking soda and one teaspoon of liquid soap in a gallon of water. Using a spray bottle, spray on tops and bottoms of leaves until the mixture drips off. Repeat every two weeks until existing spots stop enlarging and new spots no longer appear.
  2. Spray a copper-based fungicidal soap on the leaves, coating the top and bottom leaf surfaces. Reapply as directed on the product label. Copper penetrates the leaf surface and prevents germination of spores so the fungus cannot spread.
  3. Apply an all-purpose fungicide to the entire plant, following the label instructions carefully.
Prevention
Prevention
Like many other diseases, it is easier to prevent brown spot than cure it, and this is done through cultural practices.
  • Clear fall leaves from the ground before winter to minimize places where fungi and bacteria can overwinter.
  • Maintain good air movement between plants through proper plant spacing.
  • Increase air circulation through the center of plants through pruning.
  • Thoroughly clean all pruning tools after working with diseased plants.
  • Never dispose of disease plant material in a compost pile.
  • Avoid overhead watering to keep moisture off of the foliage.
  • Keep plants healthy by providing adequate sunlight, water, and fertilizer.
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Sap-sucking insects
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Sap-sucking insects
Sap-sucking insects can create dense clusters of small yellow or white spots on the leaves.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Your plant has developed tiny yellowish spots scattered across the leaves that look like mold or mildew. If these marks won't wipe off, they are likely caused by sap-sucking insects like aphids, squash bugs, scale bugs, leafhoppers, whiteflies, mites, mealybugs, and more.
Each of these pests uses mouthparts to pierce leaf tissues and suck the sap. uses mouthparts to pierce leaf tissues and suck the sap. Signs of damage are difficult to spot at first, but a large infestation can quickly compromise the whole plant. You're most likely to see sap-sucking insects during the hottest months because plants make easier targets when already weakened from heat or drought.
Though sap-sucking insects are unlikely to kill your plant on their own, they can severely weaken it and make it more susceptible to disease. They may also spread viruses from one plant to another as they feed.
Solutions
Solutions
Sap-sucking insects can be hard to spot, as they are often small and attach to the undersides of plant leaves. If you see signs of an infestation, follow these steps to eradicate it.
  1. Hand-pick bugs and remove eggs: Inspect your plants for insects and drop any you find in a container of soapy water. Look carefully at the undersides of plant leaves and squish any egg clusters you find.
  2. Use Insecticide: Targeted spraying can take out sap-sucking insects. Small infestations can be controlled with insecticidal soap, though larger outbreaks might require a stronger spray.
  3. Introduce natural predators: Many insects, including ladybugs and praying mantises, love to feast on sap-suckers. You can purchase them at garden stores and release them near infected plants, or encourage wild ones by creating habitat space.
Prevention
Prevention
Healthy plants are less likely to suffer from sap-sucker attacks. Keep them fortified with fertilizer and the right amounts of water and sunlight. Plants that receive excess nitrogen are also more susceptible to attack, so don’t overfertilize. You should also remove weeds and tall grasses surrounding your outdoor plants so as not to create habitat space for the pests.
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distribution

Distribution of Russian olive

Habitat of Russian olive

Banks of streams and rivers
Northern Hemisphere
South Hemisphere

Distribution Map of Russian olive

distribution map
Native
Cultivated
Invasive
Potentially invasive
Exotic
No species reported
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Plants Related to Russian olive

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Lighting
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Indoor
Indoor
Outdoor
Choose a site here for personalized care tips.
Requirements
Full sun
Ideal
Above 6 hours sunlight
Partial sun
Tolerance
About 3-6 hours sunlight
Watch how sunlight gracefully moves through your garden, and choose spots that provide the perfect balance of light and shade for your plants, ensuring their happiness.
Essentials
Russian olive enjoys a full day's worth of solar exposure, ensuring vigorous growth. Its origin environment exposed it to ample light, shaping its sunlight resilience. Though it thrives under constant solar immersion, it can withstand periods of semi-shade. Excessive shade can hinder growth while an abundance could cause scorching.
Preferred
Tolerable
Unsuitable
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Artificial lighting
Indoor plants require adequate lighting for optimal growth. When natural sunlight is insufficient, particularly in winter or in less sunny spaces, artificial lights offer a vital solution, promoting faster, healthier growth.
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Indoor plants require adequate lighting for optimal growth. When natural sunlight is insufficient, particularly in winter or in less sunny spaces, artificial lights offer a vital solution, promoting faster, healthier growth.
1. Choose the right type of artificial light: LED lights are a popular choice for indoor plant lighting because they can be customized to provide the specific wavelengths of light that your plants need.
Full sun plants need 30-50W/sq ft of artificial light, partial sun plants need 20-30W/sq ft, and full shade plants need 10-20W/sq ft.
2. Determine the appropriate distance: Place the light source 12-36 inches above the plant to mimic natural sunlight.
3. Determine the duration: Mimic the length of natural daylight hours for your plant species. most plants need 8-12 hours of light per day.
Important Symptoms
Insufficient light
Russian olive thrives in full sunlight but is sensitive to heat. As a plant commonly grown outdoors with abundant sunlight, it may exhibit subtle symptoms of light deficiency when placed in rooms with suboptimal lighting.
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(Symptom details and solutions)
Small leaves
New leaves may grow smaller in size compared to the previous ones once they have matured.
Leggy or sparse growth
The spaces between leaves or stems of your russian olive may become longer, resulting in a thin and stretched-out appearance. This can make the plant look sparse and weak, and it may easily break or lean due to its own weight.
Faster leaf drop
When plants are exposed to low light conditions, they tend to shed older leaves early to conserve resources. Within a limited time, these resources can be utilized to grow new leaves until the plant's energy reserves are depleted.
Slower or no new growth
Russian olive enters a survival mode when light conditions are poor, which leads to a halt in leaf production. As a result, the plant's growth becomes delayed or stops altogether.
Lighter-colored new leaves
Insufficient sunlight can cause leaves to develop irregular color patterns or appear pale. This indicates a lack of chlorophyll and essential nutrients.
Solutions
1. To ensure optimal growth, gradually move plants to a sunnier location each week, until they receive at least 6 hours of direct sunlight daily. Use a south-facing window and keep curtains open during the day for maximum sunlight exposure and nutrient accumulation.2. To provide additional light for your plant, consider using artificial light if it's large or not easily movable. Keep a desk or ceiling lamp on for at least 8 hours daily, or invest in professional plant grow lights for ample light.
Excessive light
Russian olive thrives in full sun exposure but is sensitive to heat. Although sunburn symptoms occasionally occur, they are unable to withstand intense sunlight in high-temperature environments.
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(Symptom details and solutions)
Chlorosis
Chlorosis is a condition where the plant's leaves lose their green color and turn yellow. This is due to the breakdown of chlorophyll from excessive sunlight, which negatively affects the plant's ability to photosynthesize.
Sunscald
Sunscald occurs when the plant's leaves or stems are damaged by intense sunlight exposure. It appears as pale, bleached, or necrotic areas on the plant tissue and can reduce the plant's overall health.
Leaf Curling
Leaf curling is a symptom where leaves curl or twist under extreme sunlight conditions. This is a defense mechanism used by the plant to reduce its surface area exposed to sunlight, minimizing water loss and damage.
Wilting
Wilting occurs when a plant loses turgor pressure and its leaves and stems begin to droop. Overexposure to sunlight can cause wilting by increasing the plant's water loss through transpiration, making it difficult for the plant to maintain adequate hydration.
Leaf Scorching
Leaf scorching is a symptom characterized by the appearance of brown, dry, and crispy edges or patches on leaves due to excessive sunlight. This can lead to a reduction in photosynthetic capacity and overall plant health.
Solutions
1. Move your plant to the optimal position where it can receive abundant sunlight but also have some shade. An east-facing window is an ideal choice as the morning sunlight is gentler. This way, your plant can enjoy ample sunlight while reducing the risk of sunburn.2. It is recommended to trim off any completely dehydrated or withered parts of the plant.
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Temperature
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Indoor
Indoor
Outdoor
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Requirements
Ideal
Tolerable
Unsuitable
Just like people, each plant has its own preferences. Learn about your plants' temperature needs and create a comforting environment for them to flourish. As you care for your plants, your bond with them will deepen. Trust your intuition as you learn about their temperature needs, celebrating the journey you share. Lovingly monitor the temperature around your plants and adjust their environment as needed. A thermometer can be your ally in this heartfelt endeavor. Be patient and gentle with yourself as you explore your plants' temperature needs. Cherish your successes, learn from challenges, and nurture your garden with love, creating a haven that reflects the warmth of your care.
Essentials
The russian olive prefers to grow in native environments with a temperature range of 23 to 77 ℉ (-5 to 25 ℃). Its temperature preferences range from 41 to 95 ℉ (5 to 35 ℃). During the summer months, it is suggested to provide extra water when temperatures rise above 90 ℉ (32 ℃). In the winter, it can withstand temperatures as low as 5 ℉ (-15 ℃) as long as it is well-drained.
Regional wintering strategies
Russian olive has strong cold resistance, so special frost protection measures are usually not necessary during winter. However, if the winter temperatures are expected to drop below {Limit_growth_temperature}, it is still important to provide cold protection. This can be achieved by wrapping the trunk and branches with materials such as non-woven fabric or cloth. Before the first freeze in autumn, it is recommended to water the plant abundantly, ensuring the soil remains moist and enters a frozen state. This helps prevent drought and water scarcity for the plant during winter and early spring.
Important Symptoms
Low Temperature
Russian olive is cold-tolerant and thrives best when the temperature is above {Suitable_growth_temperature_min}. During winter, it should be kept above {Tolerable_growing_temperature_min}. When the temperature falls below {Limit_growth_temperature}, although there may not be any noticeable changes during winter, the branches may become brittle and dry during springtime, and no new shoots will emerge.
Solutions
In spring, prune away any dead branches that have failed to produce new leaves.
High Temperature
During summer, Russian olive should be kept below {Suitable_growth_temperature_max}. When the temperature exceeds {Tolerable_growing_temperature_max}, the leaves of the plant may become lighter in color, the tips may become dry and withered, and the plant becomes more susceptible to sunburn.
Solutions
Trim away the sunburned and dried-up parts. Move the plant to a location that provides shade from the midday and afternoon sun, or use a shade cloth to create shade. Water the plant in the morning and evening to keep the soil moist.
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Transplant
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How to Successfully Transplant Russian Olive?
The optimal time to transplant russian olive is during early to mid-summer, a period when the plant establishes itself easily. Ensure a sunny location with well-draining soil for successful transplanting. Remember, a gentle touch while handling roots can improve the process.
What Preparations are Needed Before Transplanting Russian Olive?
What is the Ideal Time for Transplanting Russian Olive?
For russian olive, the prime transplanting period stretches from the onset of summer to the mid-season. This time offers warmth and long daylight hours optimal for root establishment. Transplanting russian olive during this period assures accelerated growth and a higher success rate, giving your garden an early start. A friendly reminder: prep the transplanting spot beforehand!
How Much Space Should You Leave Between Russian Olive Plants?
When transplanting russian olive, be sure to provide plenty of space for these fast-growing plants. Aim for a range of 6-10 ft (1.8-3 m) between each plant. This will ensure they have ample room to grow and thrive.
What is the Best Soil Mix for Russian Olive Transplanting?
To set the stage for russian olive to bloom, prepare a well-draining soil with a light, loamy texture. For a nutritious base, mix in a slow-release, balanced fertilizer, such as 10-10-10, following the package instructions.
Where Should You Relocate Your Russian Olive?
For the best growth results, transplant your russian olive in a location with full sun to partial shade. At least 6 hours of sunlight per day will help them flourish and produce lush foliage and fragrant flowers.
What Equipments Should You Prepare Before Transplantation Russian Olive?
Gardening Gloves
These will protect your hands while you work with the plant and soil.
Spade or Shovel
You'll need this for digging the hole for the russian olive and removing its root ball from the original location.
Wheelbarrow
Useful for moving the russian olive plant from its original location to the new planting area.
Watering Can or Hose
You need it to keep the plant hydrated during transplant process.
Mulch
This is needed after transplanting to help maintain soil moisture around the plant.
How Do You Remove Russian Olive from the Soil?
From Ground: Ensure to water the russian olive plant one day before the transplanting day. This will make the soil damp and easier to work with. Using your shovel or spade, dig a wide trench around the plant. Try to get as much of the root ball as possible, without causing too much damage. Work the spade under the root ball carefully and lift the plant out.
From Pot: Start by watering the russian olive plant in the pot. Hold the base of the plant and turn the pot upside down. Tap gently to release it from the pot. Be careful to support the root ball during this process.
Seedling Tray: Water the seedling tray before starting. Push up from the bottom of the seedling cell or gently squeeze the sides to loosen the soil and plant. Always hold the russian olive plant by its root ball, not by its stem or leaves.
Step-by-Step Guide for Transplanting Russian Olive
Step1 Preparation
Soak the root ball of the russian olive in water whilst you prepare the planting area. The water will aid in minimizing transplant shock.
Step2 Dig a Hole
Use your spade or shovel to dig a hole that is two times the width of the root ball and just as deep.
Step3 Placement
Position the russian olive plant in the hole, ensuring it is standing vertically straight. The top of the root ball should be level with the soil surface.
Step4 Backfill
Fill the hole with the removed soil. Do not pack it too tight; lightly press the soil down around the base of the plant.
Step5 Water
Water the russian olive plant thoroughly after you've transplanted it. Make sure the water reaches the root zone to properly establish the plant.
Step6 Mulch
Apply a 2-3 inch layer of mulch around the russian olive to help retain soil moisture. Leave a small gap without mulch close to the stem to prevent rot.
How Do You Care For Russian Olive After Transplanting?
Check the Moisture
Keep the plant well watered, especially in the first few weeks after transplanting. However, avoid having the soil too soggy, so as not to encourage root rot.
Weeds
Remove any weeds that appear around the russian olive plant after transplanting, before they have a chance to establish. Weeds can compete with the plant for water and nutrients.
Monitor
Keep a close eye on the russian olive plant for the first few weeks. If it shows signs of wilting, ensure it's adequately watered and not suffering from disease or pest infestation.
Pruning
Any branches or leaves that experience dieback after transplanting can be pruned. This allows the plant to direct its energy towards new growth.
Troubleshooting Common Issues with Russian Olive Transplantation.
What is the best time of the year to transplant my russian olive?
Your russian olive will love it if you transplant between the earlier and middle parts of summer.
How much space is required between russian olive plants during transplantation?
Adequate space is vital! Aim for a gap of 6-10 ft (1.8-3.05m), which is ideal for russian olive.
How can I ensure the root structure of the russian olive isn't damaged during transplanting?
When transplanting, be gentle! Try to keep as much of the original soil around the root ball as possible.
What should I do if my transplanted russian olive isn't showing new growth?
Stay calm, it might be adjusting! But always make sure it's getting enough sun and water.
Should I water the russian olive immediately after transplanting it?
Absolutely! Moisture helps the roots establish. Water your russian olive thoroughly right after transplanting it.
Is it necessary to stake the russian olive after transplanting it?
If your russian olive is large or if there are strong winds in your area, staking can help it establish faster.
How can I help my transplanted russian olive adapt to its new habitat quickly?
Just like people, russian olive love care. Pay attention to its sunlight, soil and water needs. It should adapt in no time!
Do I need to condition the soil before transplanting my russian olive?
Definitely! Add a slow-release fertilizer to the planting hole to encourage your russian olive's health and growth.
Why are the leaves of my transplanted russian olive turning yellow?
Your russian olive could be waterlogged or starving for nutrients. Ensure proper drainage and consider using a nutrient-rich fertilizer.
What should the ideal depth be when transplanting my russian olive?
The hole should be just deep enough to cover the root ball completely. Typically, about 10 inches (25 cm) is sufficient.
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