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Hard fescue
Hard fescue
Hard fescue
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Hard fescue
Festuca ovina
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Care Guide for Hard fescue

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Sand, Loam, Acidic, Neutral, Alkaline
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Questions About Hard fescue

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Watering Watering Watering
Pruning Pruning Pruning
Sunlight Sunlight Sunlight
Temperature Temperature Temperature
Fertilizing Fertilizing Fertilizing
What is the best way to water my Hard fescue?
In nearly all cases, people grow Hard fescue as a lawn, which means there are specific ways that you should go about watering this grass. One way to water a lawn of Hard fescue is to use a hose with a spray nozzle attachment. However, the best way to water is to set up a sprinkler system. It can be even better to set up a sprinkler system that runs on a timer, to guarantee you give your Hard fescue the right amount of water at the right time. When watering, you should use cool or room temperature water. It is also a good idea to water in the morning, as this allows the water to saturate the soil while also allowing the daily sunlight to evaporate any excess moisture.
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What should I do if I water my Hard fescue too much or too little?
If you happen to overwater your Hard fescue, there are a few steps you can take to return your lawn to full health. One of the best ways to deal with this issue is to aerate your lawn, which will repair any compacted soils that may prevent excess water from draining. In that situation, you should also consider dethatching your Hard fescue. When you underwater your Hard fescue, your remedy should be entirely different. In those cases, you should allow your lawn to grow a bit longer before mowing it. As is somewhat obvious, you should also supply your Hard fescue with a bit more water than you were previously given.
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How often should I water my Hard fescue?
The frequency with which you water your Hard fescue will depend heavily on the region in which you live, the climate conditions that are present in that region, and the specific season you are in. For example, those who grow Hard fescue in more northern regions, where the weather is somewhat cooler, should water about once every 1-2 weeks. By contrast, those at more southern latitudes will often need to water their Hard fescue a bit more often, usually about once per week. However, in both regions, when rainfall is relatively regular, you can reduce your watering schedule accordingly. Still, rainfall alone is rarely enough to keep this lawn alive. The seasonal factor may be most important as this cool season grass will typically enter a dormancy period during summer. During that period, your Hard fescue may still need water to avoid drying out, but it will not need water for the sake of producing new growth.
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How much water does my Hard fescue need?
Understanding how much you should water your Hard fescue is a quite simple endeavor. Whether you live more towards the north where the weather is cooler, or you live in the south where the weather is warmer, you should give your Hard fescue about one inch of water each time you water it. The exception to that rule occurs during the height of summer when this grass enters a short dormancy period. At that time, it is best to give your Hard fescue light but appropriate waterings to curb the harmful effects of the hot sun. Of course, the overall volume of water you supply depends on how large of an area your Hard fescue covers. For example, providing an inch of water for a large area of Hard fescue requires much more water than if you are caring for a small lawn made of Hard fescue.
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How can I tell if i'm watering my Hard fescue enough?
If you give your Hard fescue too much or too little water, there will be several visual cues that indicate that is the case. When overwatering occurs, the blades of Hard fescue that comprise your lawn may become softer than usual. Additionally, you may notice a buildup of thatch. If you underwater your lawn you can expect to find brown patches. Along with that, your Hard fescue may experience heat stress which can lead to accumulations of fungus and yellowing of the grass blades. Underwatered lawns also tend to preserve footprints longer than lawns that have received a correct amount of water.
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How can I water my Hard fescue at different growth stages?
You should change your watering schedule significantly if you are trying to establish a new lawn. New lawns, whether grown from seed or from sod, should receive water on a frequent basis. Often, it takes multiple waterings per week to ensure that the soil remains moist enough to allow the roots to take hold of the soil. After the initial phase in which your lawn is establishing itself, you should water based on this plant's natural growth cycle. During the spring and fall, Hard fescue is the most active in creating new growth and will need about an inch of water per week. During summer, your grass will become somewhat dormant, but need more frequent but light waterings. During winter, your grass should be entirely dormant and need no water at all.
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How can I water my Hard fescue through the seasons?
If you want your Hard fescue to be as healthy as can be, you should pay close attention to seasonal changes. In spring, you should follow the rule of watering this grass with about an inch of water per week. You should water your Hard fescue more frequently than usual during the summer, sometimes multiple times per week. However, your Hard fescue will enter its summer dormancy period and those waterings can be relatively light. On the other end of the spectrum, during winter, your Hard fescue will not need any water at all. During any other time of year, you should follow the typical watering frequency of about once per week depending on how hot your region is. During any part of the growing season, you should anticipate heat waves and rainfall to adjust your watering accordingly.
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Key Facts About Hard fescue

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Attributes of Hard fescue

Lifespan
Perennial
Plant Type
Grass
Bloom Time
Late spring, Summer
Plant Height
30 cm
Spread
30 cm
Leaf Color
Green
Blue
Gray
Flower Size
4 mm to 8 mm
Flower Color
Green
Yellow
Dormancy
Summer dormancy
Leaf type
Evergreen
Ideal Temperature
5 - 32 ℃

Scientific Classification of Hard fescue

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Common Pests & Diseases About Hard fescue

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Underwatering
Underwatering Underwatering
Underwatering
Leaves may wilt for a variety of reasons.
Solutions: The easiest (and most obvious) way to address underwatering is to fully hydrate the plant. However, this must be done carefully. A common mistake that many gardeners make is to douse their underwatered plants with water. This can overwhelm the roots of the plant and shock its system, something that can be even more damaging than the lack of water to begin with. Instead, water thoroughly and slowly, taking breaks to let the water slowly saturate through the soil to get to the roots. Use room temperature water, as cold water might be too much of a shock. In the future, shorten the time between waterings. A good rule of thumb is to check the soil around each plant daily. If it’s dry to at least two inches down, it’s time to water. If a container plant is repeatedly drying out very quickly, repotting into a slower-draining container might be a good idea, too.
Aged yellow and dry
Aged yellow and dry Aged yellow and dry
Aged yellow and dry
Natural aging can cause leaves to turn yellow and dry out.
Solutions: If the yellowing and drying of leaves and flowers is a natural progression due to age, nothing can be done to slow or stop the process. Once hormones within the plant begin the process of senescence, it’s irreversible.
Leaf scorch
Leaf scorch Leaf scorch
Leaf scorch
Leaf blight causes leaves to dry out and turn brown starting at their tips.
Solutions: The solution to leaf scorch will depend on the cause, however, in general all cultural care methods that improve plant health and root functionality will reduce symptoms. Mulching the root zone (preferably with wood chip mulch) helps retain moisture, reduce evaporation, and promotes a healthy, functional root environment that is critical for water movement to the leaves. Check the root collar for girdling or circling roots that strangle the trunk and limit water and nutrient movement. Protect trees from severe root damage of nearby construction and excavation. If fertilizer burn is to blame, irrigate the soil deeply to flush out excess fertilizer salts. However, keep in mind that fertilizer runoff is an environmental pollutant. Avoiding excess fertilization in the first place is the best approach. If soil testing has revealed a potassium deficiency, apply a potassium fertilizer and water well. Even if you have enough potassium in the soil, plants will not be able to take it up if the soil is consistently too dry. Severely affected twigs may be removed using a pair of sharp and sanitized pruning shears, as weakened branches are susceptible to secondary infections. If your plant has bacterial leaf scorch, there is no cure. Antibiotic injections applied by a professional can reduce symptoms for a season, however, the above cultural management methods are the best options to reduce symptoms and prolong life. An infected plant will likely die within ten years.
Lace bugs
Lace bugs Lace bugs
Lace bugs
Lace bugs are 3 to 5 mm translucent flying insects that suck sap from the plant.
Solutions: Lace bugs can be controlled in various ways. For severe cases: Introduce beneficial insects that eat lace bugs, such as parasitoid wasps, assassin bugs, and lady beetles. Avoid spraying unnecessary pesticides so as not to reduce the populations of these helpful predators. Spray plants with insecticidal soap or neem oil under all leaves of the affected and surrounding plants. Make sure the soap hits the insects. Spray in the morning, evening, or on a cloudy day to avoid damaging plant tissue. Trim and burn heavily infected plant limbs. As a last resort use an insecticide containing pyrethroids to kill the lace bugs. Remember that these products will also likely kill beneficial insects such as bees. For less severe cases: Rub off lace bugs from under the leaves using a damp cloth. Use the strong stream of a hose to spray these pests off plants. This washes the nymphs off and onto the ground where they cannot return to the leaves of the plant. Large trees generally do not need to be treated for lace bugs, since they don't damage their overall health.
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Underwatering
plant poor
Underwatering
Leaves may wilt for a variety of reasons.
Overview
Overview
Underwatering plants is one of the quickest ways to kill them. This is something that most gardeners are well aware of. Unfortunately, knowing exactly how much water a plant needs can be tricky, especially considering that underwatering and overwatering present similar symptoms in plants.
Therefore, it’s important to be vigilant and attentive to each plants’ individual needs.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
As mentioned earlier, overwatering and underwatering present similar symptoms in plants. These symptoms include poor growth, wilted leaves, defoliation, and brown leaf tips or margins. Ultimately, both underwatering and overwatering can lead to the death of a plant.
The easiest way to determine whether a plant has too much water or too little is to look at the leaves. If underwatering is the culprit, the leaves will look brown and crunchy, while if it’s overwatering, they will appear yellow or a pale green in color.
When this issue first begins, there may be no noticeable symptoms at all, particularly in hardy or drought-tolerant plants. However, they will begin to wilt once they start suffering from a lack of water. The edges of the plant’s leaves will become brown or curled. Soil pulling away from the edges of the planter is a telltale sign, or a crispy, brittle stem.
Prolonged underwatering can cause a plant’s growth to become stunted. The leaves might drop and the plant can be more susceptible to pest infestations, too.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
Underwatering is caused by, quite simply, not watering plants often or deeply enough. There is a heightened risk of underwatering if any of these situations apply:
  • Extreme heat and dry weather (when growing outdoors)
  • Grow lights or indoor lighting that is too bright or intense for the type of plant
  • Using fast-draining growing media such as sand
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Aged yellow and dry
plant poor
Aged yellow and dry
Natural aging can cause leaves to turn yellow and dry out.
Overview
Overview
Regardless of the type of plant or where it is grown, at some point, it will begin to aged yellow and dry. This is a natural, unavoidable process that happens when the plant has completed all of the steps in its life.
Annual plants go through this process at the end of a single growing season. Perennial plants live for multiple years, if not tens or hundreds of years, but will still ultimately exhibit these symptoms.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
When plants have progressed through their natural developmental stages and are nearing the end of their lifecycle, they begin showing signs of decline. Leaves will start to yellow and droop, and over time they turn papery brown and dry.
Once completely dry, the leaves begin to fall from the plant until the entire plant has dried out.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
At the end of its life, genetic coding within the plant increases the production of ethylene, a phytohormone that controls senescence or natural aging and death. Cell division stops, and the plant begins catabolizing resources to use in other parts of the plant.
As this happens, the tissues begin yellow and drying until the entire plant is desiccated and perishes.
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Leaf scorch
plant poor
Leaf scorch
Leaf blight causes leaves to dry out and turn brown starting at their tips.
Overview
Overview
Leaf scorch refers to two general conditions: physiological leaf scorch and bacterial leaf scorch. It causes leaves to discolor starting along the margins, and eventually die.
Leaf scorch development is most common in the hot, dry season, becoming most noticeable in late summer. However, it can occur at other times of the year. It most often affects young trees and shrubs, but it can also affect flowers, vegetables, and other plants.
Leaf scorch can get progressively worse over multiple seasons. If the root causes are not addressed, leaf scorch can lead to plant death.
While you cannot reverse the damage caused by physiological leaf scorch, you can prevent further damage. With proper management, plants will fully recover. However, there is no cure for bacterial leaf scorch, which is a systemic infection.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
  • Yellow, brown, or blackened leaves starting with the leaf margins
  • Dying twig tips on trees and shrubs as leaves die and fall
  • Often there is a bright yellow border line between the dead and living leaf tissue
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
There are numerous contributing causes of leaf scorch.
Bacterial leaf scorch is caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. The bacteria block the xylem vessels, preventing water movement. Symptoms may vary across species.
Physiological leaf scorch most commonly occurs when a plant cannot take up enough water. Numerous conditions can lead to this issue, particularly an unhealthy root system. Some causes of an unhealthy root system include overly-compacted soil, recent tillage, root compaction and severing due to pavement or other construction, drought, and overly-saturated soils.
Potassium deficiency can contribute to leaf scorch. Since plants need potassium to move water, they cannot properly move water when there is a lack of potassium.
Too much fertilizer can also cause leaf scorch symptoms. The accumulation of salts (including nutrient salts from fertilizers, as well as salt water) accumulate at the leaf margins and may build up to concentrations that burn the tissues.
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Lace bugs
plant poor
Lace bugs
Lace bugs are 3 to 5 mm translucent flying insects that suck sap from the plant.
Overview
Overview
Lace bugs are tiny winged insect pests that feed on the sap of the plant that they infest. There are a number of different types, which each attack certain species of plants. A severe infestation can cause leaf drop, and a reduction of fruit yield also occurs on infested fruit trees. They are most active in late summer and fall.
Lace bugs can be difficult to detect, so damage may be seen before the insect pests are detected. While adult lace bugs are brown to black with lacy wings that lay flat against their body, the nymphs are clear when they first hatch and then gradually turn black. They have small spines around their bodies. These nymphs will mature into adults within 3 or 4 weeks.
Although the damage caused by lace bugs is somewhat unsightly, it does not seriously harm the plant. The most susceptible species of plants include azaleas, rhododendrons, olive and macadamia trees, and plane trees.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
When lace bugs infest a plant's leaves, yellow spots can be seen on the upper surface. The underside of the leaves is usually fouled with black bug droppings that are tar-like.
Lace bugs spend their entire lifecycle on the leaves of the plant they have infested, from egg to adult. They are tiny sap-sucking insects that are around 3 mm long. The adults lay their eggs on the undersides of the leaves. When the eggs hatch, the nymphs start to feed on the sap of the leaves.
When an entire leaf is infested, it takes on a bronze appearance. Eventually, severely affected leaves will drop off the plant.
Some lace bugs also feed on flower buds. This causes the tips of the flowers to blacken. Eventually, the entire flower will turn black and drop off.
Solutions
Solutions
Lace bugs can be controlled in various ways.
For severe cases:
  1. Introduce beneficial insects that eat lace bugs, such as parasitoid wasps, assassin bugs, and lady beetles. Avoid spraying unnecessary pesticides so as not to reduce the populations of these helpful predators.
  2. Spray plants with insecticidal soap or neem oil under all leaves of the affected and surrounding plants. Make sure the soap hits the insects. Spray in the morning, evening, or on a cloudy day to avoid damaging plant tissue.
  3. Trim and burn heavily infected plant limbs.
  4. As a last resort use an insecticide containing pyrethroids to kill the lace bugs. Remember that these products will also likely kill beneficial insects such as bees.
For less severe cases:
  1. Rub off lace bugs from under the leaves using a damp cloth.
  2. Use the strong stream of a hose to spray these pests off plants. This washes the nymphs off and onto the ground where they cannot return to the leaves of the plant.
  3. Large trees generally do not need to be treated for lace bugs, since they don't damage their overall health.
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distribution

Distribution of Hard fescue

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Habitat of Hard fescue

Rocky, meadow, forest, disturbed areas, alpine, grassland, riparian, sand, desert
Northern Hemisphere
South Hemisphere

Distribution Map of Hard fescue

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Native
Cultivated
Invasive
Potentially invasive
Exotic
No species reported
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More Info on Hard Fescue Growth and Care

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Basic Care Guide
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Lighting
Full sun
Hard fescue flourishes optimally under a full day's sun exposure but can manage with some shaded conditions, although this may slow its growth rate. Originating in habitats with ample light, it can become weak or prone to diseases if exposed to too much shade or inadequate sunshine.
Best Sunlight Practices
Transplant
1-2 feet
Transplant hard fescue in the cool seasons of S1-S3 for best results, as less stress is caused by temperature fluctuations. It favors well-drained, sandy or loamy soils, in full sun to partial shade. When transplanting, ensure roots are well-established for optimal growth.
Transplant Techniques
Temperature
-25 - 35 ℃
Hard fescue originated in environments with a moderate temperature range of 41 to 89.6 °F (5 to 32 ℃). It prefers cooler climates and may need protection or relocation during hotter seasons.
Temp for Healthy Growth
Propagation
Spring,Autumn
Hard fescue is well-suited to propagation through division, a practical approach for gardeners. To best promote growth, divide the clumps in early spring just as the growth resumes. Ensure each section has a viable piece of root to facilitate robust development. This method not only helps to rejuvenate older plants but also to increase your stock efficiently. It's essential to replant the divisions quickly and keep them well-watered to establish them successfully.
Propagation Techniques
Feng shui direction
East
Hard fescue carries a unique energy resonating with structural solidity. In Feng Shui, it is commonly associated with characteristics of consistency and endurance, representing an anchor or a source of stability. Facing East, this plant is deemed compatible because its rigid nature corresponds with the Wood element dominating this direction, simulating the rising sun's robust health and renewal. However, remember that interpretations can be multifaceted according to individual circumstances.
Fengshui Details
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Plants Related to Hard fescue

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Shrove tuesday
Shrove tuesday
Shrove tuesday is easily recognizable by its striking red summer flowers, giving it the nickname "coral tree." It is harvested for its wood and cultivated in agroforestry to mark borders as a living fence.
Florida swamp-lily
Florida swamp-lily
Florida swamp-lily or Swamp Lily, is a white flower with delicately long purple stamens. It grows well in wet, swampy areas or in garden water features. It is easy to grow and has a sweet fragrance.
Saucer magnolia
Saucer magnolia
Saucer magnolia (*Magnolia soulangeana*) is a hybrid saucer magnolia tree native to Europe. It is mainly found in the British Isles and the United States and is known for its easy cultivation. The cultivar 'Brozzonii' has received the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.
Pineapple sage
Pineapple sage
Pineapple sage (Salvia elegans) grows in naturalized clumps at woodland peripheries, including at high elevations. Its red flowers attract butterflies and hummingbirds. The flowers of pineapple sage are edible, but appear very similar to those of Salvia coccinea, which are poisonous. It is safer to only use the flowers as potpourri rather than eating them.
Persian shield
Persian shield
Persian shield (Strobilanthes auriculata var. dyeriana) is a striking plant native to Myanmar. It functions as an evergreen anywhere that doesn't freeze in the winter. The unusual iridescent purple of the leaves and its willingness to accept partial shade make this a popular houseplant.
Pallas
Pallas
Pallas (Rhodiola quadrifida) is a flowering herbaceous species occurring naturally in mountainous regions of China, Russia, and Pakistan. The species is valued in China and has been documented for over 1,000 years. In Russia, a bouquet of pallas used to be given to newlyweds to ensure good health and prosperity. It is a relative of the sedum and jade plants.
Cape jasmine
Cape jasmine
Gardenia jasminoides is an evergreen shrub with unique, glossy evergreen leaves and stunning flowers. The sophisticated, matte white flowers are often used in bouquets. The exceptional beauty of this ornamental plant has made it a popular and highly appreciated plant amongst gardeners and horticulturalists.
Golden pothos
Golden pothos
The golden pothos (Epipremnum aureum) is a popular houseplant that is commonly seen in Australia, Asia, and the West Indies. It goes by many nicknames, including "devil's ivy", because it is so hard to kill and can even grow in low light conditions. Golden pothos has poisonous sap, so it should be kept away from pets and children.
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Care Guide for Hard fescue

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Questions About Hard fescue

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Watering Watering Watering
Pruning Pruning Pruning
Sunlight Sunlight Sunlight
Temperature Temperature Temperature
Fertilizing Fertilizing Fertilizing
What is the best way to water my Hard fescue?
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What should I do if I water my Hard fescue too much or too little?
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How often should I water my Hard fescue?
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How much water does my Hard fescue need?
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How can I tell if i'm watering my Hard fescue enough?
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How can I water my Hard fescue at different growth stages?
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How can I water my Hard fescue through the seasons?
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Key Facts About Hard fescue

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Attributes of Hard fescue

Lifespan
Perennial
Plant Type
Grass
Bloom Time
Late spring, Summer
Plant Height
30 cm
Spread
30 cm
Leaf Color
Green
Blue
Gray
Flower Size
4 mm to 8 mm
Flower Color
Green
Yellow
Dormancy
Summer dormancy
Leaf type
Evergreen
Ideal Temperature
5 - 32 ℃
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Scientific Classification of Hard fescue

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Common Pests & Diseases About Hard fescue

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Underwatering
Underwatering Underwatering Underwatering
Leaves may wilt for a variety of reasons.
Solutions: The easiest (and most obvious) way to address underwatering is to fully hydrate the plant. However, this must be done carefully. A common mistake that many gardeners make is to douse their underwatered plants with water. This can overwhelm the roots of the plant and shock its system, something that can be even more damaging than the lack of water to begin with. Instead, water thoroughly and slowly, taking breaks to let the water slowly saturate through the soil to get to the roots. Use room temperature water, as cold water might be too much of a shock. In the future, shorten the time between waterings. A good rule of thumb is to check the soil around each plant daily. If it’s dry to at least two inches down, it’s time to water. If a container plant is repeatedly drying out very quickly, repotting into a slower-draining container might be a good idea, too.
Learn More About the Underwatering more
Aged yellow and dry
Aged yellow and dry Aged yellow and dry Aged yellow and dry
Natural aging can cause leaves to turn yellow and dry out.
Solutions: If the yellowing and drying of leaves and flowers is a natural progression due to age, nothing can be done to slow or stop the process. Once hormones within the plant begin the process of senescence, it’s irreversible.
Learn More About the Aged yellow and dry more
Leaf scorch
Leaf scorch Leaf scorch Leaf scorch
Leaf blight causes leaves to dry out and turn brown starting at their tips.
Solutions: The solution to leaf scorch will depend on the cause, however, in general all cultural care methods that improve plant health and root functionality will reduce symptoms. Mulching the root zone (preferably with wood chip mulch) helps retain moisture, reduce evaporation, and promotes a healthy, functional root environment that is critical for water movement to the leaves. Check the root collar for girdling or circling roots that strangle the trunk and limit water and nutrient movement. Protect trees from severe root damage of nearby construction and excavation. If fertilizer burn is to blame, irrigate the soil deeply to flush out excess fertilizer salts. However, keep in mind that fertilizer runoff is an environmental pollutant. Avoiding excess fertilization in the first place is the best approach. If soil testing has revealed a potassium deficiency, apply a potassium fertilizer and water well. Even if you have enough potassium in the soil, plants will not be able to take it up if the soil is consistently too dry. Severely affected twigs may be removed using a pair of sharp and sanitized pruning shears, as weakened branches are susceptible to secondary infections. If your plant has bacterial leaf scorch, there is no cure. Antibiotic injections applied by a professional can reduce symptoms for a season, however, the above cultural management methods are the best options to reduce symptoms and prolong life. An infected plant will likely die within ten years.
Learn More About the Leaf scorch more
Lace bugs
Lace bugs Lace bugs Lace bugs
Lace bugs are 3 to 5 mm translucent flying insects that suck sap from the plant.
Solutions: Lace bugs can be controlled in various ways. For severe cases: Introduce beneficial insects that eat lace bugs, such as parasitoid wasps, assassin bugs, and lady beetles. Avoid spraying unnecessary pesticides so as not to reduce the populations of these helpful predators. Spray plants with insecticidal soap or neem oil under all leaves of the affected and surrounding plants. Make sure the soap hits the insects. Spray in the morning, evening, or on a cloudy day to avoid damaging plant tissue. Trim and burn heavily infected plant limbs. As a last resort use an insecticide containing pyrethroids to kill the lace bugs. Remember that these products will also likely kill beneficial insects such as bees. For less severe cases: Rub off lace bugs from under the leaves using a damp cloth. Use the strong stream of a hose to spray these pests off plants. This washes the nymphs off and onto the ground where they cannot return to the leaves of the plant. Large trees generally do not need to be treated for lace bugs, since they don't damage their overall health.
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Underwatering
plant poor
Underwatering
Leaves may wilt for a variety of reasons.
Overview
Overview
Underwatering plants is one of the quickest ways to kill them. This is something that most gardeners are well aware of. Unfortunately, knowing exactly how much water a plant needs can be tricky, especially considering that underwatering and overwatering present similar symptoms in plants.
Therefore, it’s important to be vigilant and attentive to each plants’ individual needs.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
As mentioned earlier, overwatering and underwatering present similar symptoms in plants. These symptoms include poor growth, wilted leaves, defoliation, and brown leaf tips or margins. Ultimately, both underwatering and overwatering can lead to the death of a plant.
The easiest way to determine whether a plant has too much water or too little is to look at the leaves. If underwatering is the culprit, the leaves will look brown and crunchy, while if it’s overwatering, they will appear yellow or a pale green in color.
When this issue first begins, there may be no noticeable symptoms at all, particularly in hardy or drought-tolerant plants. However, they will begin to wilt once they start suffering from a lack of water. The edges of the plant’s leaves will become brown or curled. Soil pulling away from the edges of the planter is a telltale sign, or a crispy, brittle stem.
Prolonged underwatering can cause a plant’s growth to become stunted. The leaves might drop and the plant can be more susceptible to pest infestations, too.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
Underwatering is caused by, quite simply, not watering plants often or deeply enough. There is a heightened risk of underwatering if any of these situations apply:
  • Extreme heat and dry weather (when growing outdoors)
  • Grow lights or indoor lighting that is too bright or intense for the type of plant
  • Using fast-draining growing media such as sand
Solutions
Solutions
The easiest (and most obvious) way to address underwatering is to fully hydrate the plant. However, this must be done carefully. A common mistake that many gardeners make is to douse their underwatered plants with water. This can overwhelm the roots of the plant and shock its system, something that can be even more damaging than the lack of water to begin with.
Instead, water thoroughly and slowly, taking breaks to let the water slowly saturate through the soil to get to the roots. Use room temperature water, as cold water might be too much of a shock.
In the future, shorten the time between waterings. A good rule of thumb is to check the soil around each plant daily. If it’s dry to at least two inches down, it’s time to water. If a container plant is repeatedly drying out very quickly, repotting into a slower-draining container might be a good idea, too.
Prevention
Prevention
Always check the soil before watering. If the top inch of soil feels moist, though not wet, the watering is perfect. If it’s dry, water it immediately. If it feels soggy, you avoid watering until it dries out a bit more.
Also, make sure the lighting is sufficient for the species. Plants grow faster and need more water when there is intense light or lots of heat. Being aware of these conditions and modifying them, if possible, is a good way to prevent underwatering. Many container plants are potted in soil mixtures mean to be well-draining. Adding materials that retain moisture, like compost or peat moss, can also prevent these symptoms.
Other tips to prevent underwatering include:
  • Choose pots with adequately-sized drainage holes
  • Avoid warm temperatures
  • Use large pots with additional soil (these take longer to dry out)
  • Avoid terracotta pots, which lose water quickly
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Aged yellow and dry
plant poor
Aged yellow and dry
Natural aging can cause leaves to turn yellow and dry out.
Overview
Overview
Regardless of the type of plant or where it is grown, at some point, it will begin to aged yellow and dry. This is a natural, unavoidable process that happens when the plant has completed all of the steps in its life.
Annual plants go through this process at the end of a single growing season. Perennial plants live for multiple years, if not tens or hundreds of years, but will still ultimately exhibit these symptoms.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
When plants have progressed through their natural developmental stages and are nearing the end of their lifecycle, they begin showing signs of decline. Leaves will start to yellow and droop, and over time they turn papery brown and dry.
Once completely dry, the leaves begin to fall from the plant until the entire plant has dried out.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
At the end of its life, genetic coding within the plant increases the production of ethylene, a phytohormone that controls senescence or natural aging and death. Cell division stops, and the plant begins catabolizing resources to use in other parts of the plant.
As this happens, the tissues begin yellow and drying until the entire plant is desiccated and perishes.
Solutions
Solutions
If the yellowing and drying of leaves and flowers is a natural progression due to age, nothing can be done to slow or stop the process. Once hormones within the plant begin the process of senescence, it’s irreversible.
Prevention
Prevention
Unfortunately, there is no way to prevent plants from dying of “old age.” To help prolong their life, and put off symptoms of aged yellow and dry for as long as possible, take care of them by giving them enough water, fertilizing them appropriately, and making sure they get enough sunlight.
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Leaf scorch
plant poor
Leaf scorch
Leaf blight causes leaves to dry out and turn brown starting at their tips.
Overview
Overview
Leaf scorch refers to two general conditions: physiological leaf scorch and bacterial leaf scorch. It causes leaves to discolor starting along the margins, and eventually die.
Leaf scorch development is most common in the hot, dry season, becoming most noticeable in late summer. However, it can occur at other times of the year. It most often affects young trees and shrubs, but it can also affect flowers, vegetables, and other plants.
Leaf scorch can get progressively worse over multiple seasons. If the root causes are not addressed, leaf scorch can lead to plant death.
While you cannot reverse the damage caused by physiological leaf scorch, you can prevent further damage. With proper management, plants will fully recover. However, there is no cure for bacterial leaf scorch, which is a systemic infection.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
  • Yellow, brown, or blackened leaves starting with the leaf margins
  • Dying twig tips on trees and shrubs as leaves die and fall
  • Often there is a bright yellow border line between the dead and living leaf tissue
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
There are numerous contributing causes of leaf scorch.
Bacterial leaf scorch is caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. The bacteria block the xylem vessels, preventing water movement. Symptoms may vary across species.
Physiological leaf scorch most commonly occurs when a plant cannot take up enough water. Numerous conditions can lead to this issue, particularly an unhealthy root system. Some causes of an unhealthy root system include overly-compacted soil, recent tillage, root compaction and severing due to pavement or other construction, drought, and overly-saturated soils.
Potassium deficiency can contribute to leaf scorch. Since plants need potassium to move water, they cannot properly move water when there is a lack of potassium.
Too much fertilizer can also cause leaf scorch symptoms. The accumulation of salts (including nutrient salts from fertilizers, as well as salt water) accumulate at the leaf margins and may build up to concentrations that burn the tissues.
Solutions
Solutions
The solution to leaf scorch will depend on the cause, however, in general all cultural care methods that improve plant health and root functionality will reduce symptoms.
  • Mulching the root zone (preferably with wood chip mulch) helps retain moisture, reduce evaporation, and promotes a healthy, functional root environment that is critical for water movement to the leaves.
  • Check the root collar for girdling or circling roots that strangle the trunk and limit water and nutrient movement.
  • Protect trees from severe root damage of nearby construction and excavation.
  • If fertilizer burn is to blame, irrigate the soil deeply to flush out excess fertilizer salts. However, keep in mind that fertilizer runoff is an environmental pollutant. Avoiding excess fertilization in the first place is the best approach.
  • If soil testing has revealed a potassium deficiency, apply a potassium fertilizer and water well. Even if you have enough potassium in the soil, plants will not be able to take it up if the soil is consistently too dry.
  • Severely affected twigs may be removed using a pair of sharp and sanitized pruning shears, as weakened branches are susceptible to secondary infections.
  • If your plant has bacterial leaf scorch, there is no cure. Antibiotic injections applied by a professional can reduce symptoms for a season, however, the above cultural management methods are the best options to reduce symptoms and prolong life. An infected plant will likely die within ten years.
Prevention
Prevention
  • Physiological leaf scorch is best avoided by making sure your plants have a healthy, functional root system and access to enough water. Water regularly, especially on the mornings of excessively hot, sunny days. Deep, infrequent irrigation is better than shallow, frequent irrigation.
  • Have your soil tested and apply the proper nutrients. Be sure to not over-apply fertilizers.
  • Make sure your plants’ roots have room to expand. Avoid compacted soil as well and avoid paving areas above the root zone. Do not till or disturb the soil where plant roots are growing.
  • Plant new trees and shrubs in the fall, so that they have the maximum amount of time to become established before the environmental stresses of the next summer.
  • Remove any dead or dying plant tissue that may harbor secondary infections.
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Lace bugs
plant poor
Lace bugs
Lace bugs are 3 to 5 mm translucent flying insects that suck sap from the plant.
Overview
Overview
Lace bugs are tiny winged insect pests that feed on the sap of the plant that they infest. There are a number of different types, which each attack certain species of plants. A severe infestation can cause leaf drop, and a reduction of fruit yield also occurs on infested fruit trees. They are most active in late summer and fall.
Lace bugs can be difficult to detect, so damage may be seen before the insect pests are detected. While adult lace bugs are brown to black with lacy wings that lay flat against their body, the nymphs are clear when they first hatch and then gradually turn black. They have small spines around their bodies. These nymphs will mature into adults within 3 or 4 weeks.
Although the damage caused by lace bugs is somewhat unsightly, it does not seriously harm the plant. The most susceptible species of plants include azaleas, rhododendrons, olive and macadamia trees, and plane trees.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
When lace bugs infest a plant's leaves, yellow spots can be seen on the upper surface. The underside of the leaves is usually fouled with black bug droppings that are tar-like.
Lace bugs spend their entire lifecycle on the leaves of the plant they have infested, from egg to adult. They are tiny sap-sucking insects that are around 3 mm long. The adults lay their eggs on the undersides of the leaves. When the eggs hatch, the nymphs start to feed on the sap of the leaves.
When an entire leaf is infested, it takes on a bronze appearance. Eventually, severely affected leaves will drop off the plant.
Some lace bugs also feed on flower buds. This causes the tips of the flowers to blacken. Eventually, the entire flower will turn black and drop off.
Solutions
Solutions
Lace bugs can be controlled in various ways.
For severe cases:
  1. Introduce beneficial insects that eat lace bugs, such as parasitoid wasps, assassin bugs, and lady beetles. Avoid spraying unnecessary pesticides so as not to reduce the populations of these helpful predators.
  2. Spray plants with insecticidal soap or neem oil under all leaves of the affected and surrounding plants. Make sure the soap hits the insects. Spray in the morning, evening, or on a cloudy day to avoid damaging plant tissue.
  3. Trim and burn heavily infected plant limbs.
  4. As a last resort use an insecticide containing pyrethroids to kill the lace bugs. Remember that these products will also likely kill beneficial insects such as bees.
For less severe cases:
  1. Rub off lace bugs from under the leaves using a damp cloth.
  2. Use the strong stream of a hose to spray these pests off plants. This washes the nymphs off and onto the ground where they cannot return to the leaves of the plant.
  3. Large trees generally do not need to be treated for lace bugs, since they don't damage their overall health.
Prevention
Prevention
Simple steps for preventing lace bugs:
  1. Avoid buying or transplanting plants with an infestation, by examining the leaves closely.
  2. Keep plants in top health with regular watering, compost, and fertilizer applications.
  3. Move heat-stressed plants in high sun locations to partial shade.
  4. Clear debris around plants to remove overwintering insects.
  5. Check plants for lace bugs in the late spring before their population peaks in the summer. Treat before populations increase.
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distribution

Distribution of Hard fescue

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Habitat of Hard fescue

Rocky, meadow, forest, disturbed areas, alpine, grassland, riparian, sand, desert
Northern Hemisphere
South Hemisphere

Distribution Map of Hard fescue

distribution map
Native
Cultivated
Invasive
Potentially invasive
Exotic
No species reported
plant_info

Plants Related to Hard fescue

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Lighting
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Indoor
Indoor
Outdoor
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Requirements
Full sun
Ideal
Above 6 hours sunlight
Partial sun
Tolerance
About 3-6 hours sunlight
Watch how sunlight gracefully moves through your garden, and choose spots that provide the perfect balance of light and shade for your plants, ensuring their happiness.
Essentials
Hard fescue flourishes optimally under a full day's sun exposure but can manage with some shaded conditions, although this may slow its growth rate. Originating in habitats with ample light, it can become weak or prone to diseases if exposed to too much shade or inadequate sunshine.
Preferred
Tolerable
Unsuitable
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Artificial lighting
Indoor plants require adequate lighting for optimal growth. When natural sunlight is insufficient, particularly in winter or in less sunny spaces, artificial lights offer a vital solution, promoting faster, healthier growth.
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Indoor plants require adequate lighting for optimal growth. When natural sunlight is insufficient, particularly in winter or in less sunny spaces, artificial lights offer a vital solution, promoting faster, healthier growth.
1. Choose the right type of artificial light: LED lights are a popular choice for indoor plant lighting because they can be customized to provide the specific wavelengths of light that your plants need.
Full sun plants need 30-50W/sq ft of artificial light, partial sun plants need 20-30W/sq ft, and full shade plants need 10-20W/sq ft.
2. Determine the appropriate distance: Place the light source 12-36 inches above the plant to mimic natural sunlight.
3. Determine the duration: Mimic the length of natural daylight hours for your plant species. most plants need 8-12 hours of light per day.
Important Symptoms
Symptoms of Insufficient Light in %s
Hard fescue thrives in full sunlight and is commonly grown outdoors where it receives ample sunlight. When placed in rooms with inadequate lighting, symptoms of light deficiency may not be readily apparent.
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Small leaves
New leaves may grow smaller in size compared to the previous ones once they have matured.
Leggy or sparse growth
The spaces between leaves or stems of your Hard fescue may become longer, resulting in a thin and stretched-out appearance. This can make the plant look sparse and weak, and it may easily break or lean due to its own weight.
Faster leaf drop
When plants are exposed to low light conditions, they tend to shed older leaves early to conserve resources. Within a limited time, these resources can be utilized to grow new leaves until the plant's energy reserves are depleted.
Slower or no new growth
Hard fescue enters a survival mode when light conditions are poor, which leads to a halt in leaf production. As a result, the plant's growth becomes delayed or stops altogether.
Lighter-colored new leaves
Insufficient sunlight can cause leaves to develop irregular color patterns or appear pale. This indicates a lack of chlorophyll and essential nutrients.
Solutions
1. To ensure optimal growth, gradually move plants to a sunnier location each week, until they receive at least 6 hours of direct sunlight daily. Use a south-facing window and keep curtains open during the day for maximum sunlight exposure and nutrient accumulation.2. To provide additional light for your plant, consider using artificial light if it's large or not easily movable. Keep a desk or ceiling lamp on for at least 8 hours daily, or invest in professional plant grow lights for ample light.
Symptoms of Excessive light in %s
Hard fescue thrives in full sun exposure and can tolerate intense sunlight. With their remarkable resilience, symptoms of sunburn may not be easily visible, as they rarely suffer from it.
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Chlorosis
Chlorosis is a condition where the plant's leaves lose their green color and turn yellow. This is due to the breakdown of chlorophyll from excessive sunlight, which negatively affects the plant's ability to photosynthesize.
Sunscald
Sunscald occurs when the plant's leaves or stems are damaged by intense sunlight exposure. It appears as pale, bleached, or necrotic areas on the plant tissue and can reduce the plant's overall health.
Leaf Curling
Leaf curling is a symptom where leaves curl or twist under extreme sunlight conditions. This is a defense mechanism used by the plant to reduce its surface area exposed to sunlight, minimizing water loss and damage.
Wilting
Wilting occurs when a plant loses turgor pressure and its leaves and stems begin to droop. Overexposure to sunlight can cause wilting by increasing the plant's water loss through transpiration, making it difficult for the plant to maintain adequate hydration.
Leaf Scorching
Leaf scorching is a symptom characterized by the appearance of brown, dry, and crispy edges or patches on leaves due to excessive sunlight. This can lead to a reduction in photosynthetic capacity and overall plant health.
Solutions
1. Move your plant to the optimal position where it can receive abundant sunlight but also have some shade. An east-facing window is an ideal choice as the morning sunlight is gentler. This way, your plant can enjoy ample sunlight while reducing the risk of sunburn.2. It is recommended to trim off any completely dehydrated or withered parts of the plant.
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Temperature
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Indoor
Indoor
Outdoor
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Requirements
Ideal
Tolerable
Unsuitable
Just like people, each plant has its own preferences. Learn about your plants' temperature needs and create a comforting environment for them to flourish. As you care for your plants, your bond with them will deepen. Trust your intuition as you learn about their temperature needs, celebrating the journey you share. Lovingly monitor the temperature around your plants and adjust their environment as needed. A thermometer can be your ally in this heartfelt endeavor. Be patient and gentle with yourself as you explore your plants' temperature needs. Cherish your successes, learn from challenges, and nurture your garden with love, creating a haven that reflects the warmth of your care.
Essentials
Hard fescue originated in environments with a moderate temperature range of 41 to 89.6 °F (5 to 32 ℃). It prefers cooler climates and may need protection or relocation during hotter seasons.
Regional wintering strategies
Hard fescue has strong cold resistance, so special frost protection measures are usually not necessary during winter. However, if the winter temperatures are expected to drop below {Limit_growth_temperature}, it is still important to provide cold protection. This can be achieved by covering the plant with materials such as soil or straw. Before the first freeze in autumn, it is recommended to water the plant abundantly, ensuring the soil remains moist and enters a frozen state. This helps prevent drought and water scarcity for the plant during winter and early spring.
Important Symptoms
Symptoms of Low Temperature in Hard fescue
Hard fescue is cold-tolerant and thrives best when the temperature is above {Suitable_growth_temperature_min}. During winter, it should be kept above {Tolerable_growing_temperature_min}. When the temperature falls below {Limit_growth_temperature}, although there may not be any noticeable changes during winter, there may be a decrease in sprouting or even no sprouting during springtime.
Solutions
In spring, remove any parts that have failed to sprout.
Symptoms of High Temperature in Hard fescue
During summer, Hard fescue should be kept below {Suitable_growth_temperature_max}. When the temperature exceeds {Tolerable_growing_temperature_max}, the leaves of the plant may become lighter in color, prone to curling, susceptible to sunburn, and in severe cases, the entire plant may wilt and become dry.
Solutions
Trim away the sunburned and dried-up parts. Move the plant to a location that provides shade from the midday and afternoon sun, or use a shade cloth to create shade. Water the plant in the morning and evening to keep the soil moist.
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