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Black-eyed susan play
Black-eyed susan
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Black-eyed susan
Black-eyed susan
Black-eyed susan
Black-eyed susan
Black-eyed susan
Rudbeckia hirta
Also known as : English bull's eye, Gloriosa daisy
The black-eyed susan is a flowering black and yellow plant with curving leaves. It is culturally important in the Southern U.S., and is often used to attract butterflies to gardens. It long ago spread throughout North America and much of the world. Black-eyed susan is the state flower of Maryland and was important in the history of the University of Southern Mississippi.
Water
Water
Twice per week
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Sunlight
Sunlight
Full sun
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care guide

Care Guide for Black-eyed susan

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Watering Care
Watering Care
Black-eyed susan is adapted to grow in drought conditions, but to ensure that your plant grows well you should water it during dry periods. Be sure to only water the plant when the surrounding soil is dry since overwatering will cause it to rot. Also, water the plant only at the base, since it is prone to damp-related diseases.
Details on Watering Care Watering Care
Fertilizing Care
Fertilizing Care
Black-eyed susan gets all the nutrients that it needs from the soil and water, so it doesn't require the addition of any artificial fertilizers to thrive. However, using mulch on the surrounding soil is a great way to retain moisture and introduce nutrients naturally.
Details on Fertilizing Care Fertilizing Care
Pruning
Pruning
Deadhead (or remove) withered flowers after flowering.
Details on Pruning Pruning
Soil Care
Soil Care
Clay, Sand, Loam, Chalky, Acidic, Neutral, Alkaline
Details on Soil Care Soil Care
Repotting
Repotting
Needs excellent drainage in pots.
Details on Repotting Repotting
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Black-eyed susan
Water
Water
Twice per week
Sunlight
Sunlight
Full sun
Hardiness Zones
Hardiness Zones
4 to 10
Planting Time
Planting Time
Spring, Early summer, Fall, Early winter
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Questions About Black-eyed susan

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Watering Watering Watering
Pruning Pruning Pruning
Sunlight Sunlight Sunlight
Temperature Temperature Temperature
Fertilizing Fertilizing Fertilizing
What is the best way to water my Black-eyed susan?
When watering the Black-eyed susan, you should aim to use filtered water that is at room temperature. Filtered water is better for this plant, as tap water can contain particles that are harmful to its health. The reason that the water should be at room temperature or slightly warmer is that the Black-eyed susan comes from a warm environment, and cold water can be somewhat of a shock to its system. Also, you should avoid overhead watering for this plant, as it can cause foliage complications. Instead, simply apply your filtered room temperature water to the soil until the soil is entirely soaked. Soaking the soil can be very beneficial for this plant as it moistens the roots and helps them continue to spread through the soil and collect the nutrients they need.
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What should I do if I water my Black-eyed susan too much or too little?
Both overwatering and underwatering will be detrimental to the health of your Black-eyed susan, but overwatering is a far more common issue. When this species receives too much water, its stems and leaves may begin to wilt and turn from green to yellow. Overwatering over a prolonged period may also lead to diseases such as root rot, mold, and mildew, all of which can kill your plant. Underwatering is far less common for the Black-eyed susan, as this plant has decent drought tolerance. However, underwatering remains a possibility, and when it occurs, you can expect to find that the leaves of your Black-eyed susan have become brittle and brown.
It is crucial that you notice the signs of overwatering as soon as possible when caring for your Black-eyed susan. Some of the diseases that arise from overwatering, such as root rot, may not be correctable if you wait too long. If you see early signs of overwatering, you should reduce your watering schedule immediately. You may also want to assess the quality of soil in which your Black-eyed susan grows. If you find that the soil drains very poorly, you should replace it immediately with a loose, well-draining potting mix. On the other hand, if you find signs that your Black-eyed susan is receiving too little water, all you need to do is water more regularly until those signs have subsided.
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How often should I water my Black-eyed susan?
If your plant is in a pot. The most precise way to decide whether your Black-eyed susan needs water is to plunge your finger into the soil. If you notice that the first two to three inches of soil have become dry, it is time to add some water.
If you grow your Black-eyed susan outdoors in the ground, you can use a similar method to test the soil. Again, when you find that the first few inches of soil have dried out, it is time to add water. During the spring and early fall, this method will often lead you to water this plant about once every week. When extremely hot weather arrives, you may need to increase your watering frequency to about twice or more per week. With that said, mature, well-established the Black-eyed susan can show an admirable ability to withstand drought.
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How much water does my Black-eyed susan need?
When it comes time to water your Black-eyed susan, you should not be shy about how much water you give. With the first two to three inches of soil dry, this plant will appreciate a long and thorough watering. Supply enough water to soak the soil entirely. The amount of water you add should be enough to cause excess water to flow through the drainage holes at the bottom of your pot. If you don’t see excess water draining from the pot, you have likely underwatered your plant. But do not let the water accumulate inside the soil, which will be very dangerous to the plant as well. Alternatively, a lack of water draining through the pot could indicate poorly draining soils, which is detrimental to the health of this plant and should be avoided. If the plant is outside, 1 inch of rain per week will be sufficient.
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How should I water my Black-eyed susan at different growth stages?
The water needs of the Black-eyed susan can change depending on growth stages as well. For example, when your Black-eyed susan is in the first few years of its life, or if you have just transplanted it to a new growing location, you will need to give more water than usual. During both of those stages, your Black-eyed susan will put a lot of energy towards sprouting new roots that will then support future growth. For those roots to perform their best, they need a bit more moisture than they would at a more mature phase. After a few seasons, your Black-eyed susan will need much less water. Another growth stage in which this plant may need more water is during the bloom period. Flower development can make use of a significant amount of moisture, which is why you might need to give your Black-eyed susan more water at this time.
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How should I water my Black-eyed susan through the seasons?
The Black-eyed susan will have its highest water needs during the hottest months of the year. During the height of summer, you may need to give this plant water more than once per week, depending on how fast the soil dries out. The opposite is true during the winter. In winter, your plant will enter a dormant phase, in which it will need far less water than usual. In fact, you may not need to water this plant at all during the winter months. However, if you do water during winter, you should not do so more than about once per month. Watering too much at this time will make it more likely that your Black-eyed susan will contract a disease.
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What's the difference between watering my Black-eyed susan indoors and outdoors?
It is most common to grow the Black-eyed susan indoors for any gardener that does not live in temperate and tropical regions. Those gardeners should consider the fact that soil in a container can dry out a bit faster than ground soil. Also, the presence of drying elements such as air conditioning units can cause your Black-eyed susan to need water on a more frequent basis as well. if you planted it outside. When that is the case, it’s likely you won’t need to water your Black-eyed susan very much at all. If you receive rainfall on a regular basis, that may be enough to keep your plant alive. Alternatively, those who grow this plant inside will need to water it more often, as allowing rainwater to soak the soil will not be an option.
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Key Facts About Black-eyed susan

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Attributes of Black-eyed susan

Lifespan
Perennial, Annual
Plant Type
Herb
Planting Time
Spring, Early summer, Fall, Early winter
Bloom Time
Late spring, Summer, Fall
Harvest Time
Late summer, Early fall, Mid fall
Plant Height
30 cm to 1 m
Spread
30 cm to 45 cm
Leaf Color
Green
Flower Size
5 cm to 10 cm
Flower Color
Yellow
Orange
Red
Gold
Fruit Color
Brown
Copper
Stem Color
Green
Dormancy
Winter dormancy
Leaf type
Deciduous
Ideal Temperature
20 - 35 ℃
Pollinators
Beetles, Wasps, Flies, Moths, Butterflies
Benefits to Pollinating Insects
Adult food, Larval food
Growth Rate:Rapid
With a rapid growth rate, black-eyed susan vigorously extends height and broadens leaf width during fall, winter, and spring seasons; a visible explosive development is observable. This quickened maturation optimizes the plant's entire life cycle within a reduced timeframe, explaining its resilience in ecological niches facing harsh winters.

Name story

Black-eyed susan
The name comes from a poem by John Gay, who portrayed black-eyed Susan (Rudbeckia hirta) and sweet William (Dianthus barbatus) as humans to tell a love story, and the name Black-eyed Susan is still in use today. Although its stamen is not really black, it is actually brown colored.

Symbolism

Justice, Impartiality, Strength, encouragement, breaking bad habits

Usages

Garden Use
The widespread wildflower, black-eyed susan, is a welcome addition to courtyard gardens. They are prized for their bright, cheerful beauty, adding a golden glow to gardens. They are also often seen in prairie and cottage gardens, where they attract a wide variety of pollinators. The beauty of this plant pairs very well with other prairie flowers such as the butterfly weed and the purple coneflower.

Trivia and Interesting Facts

One of the favorite wildflowers in the United States, black-eyed susan is a symbol of encouragement and motivation. Rudbeckia hirta was declared a state flower of Maryland in 1918.

Scientific Classification of Black-eyed susan

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pests

Common Pests & Diseases About Black-eyed susan

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Common issues for Black-eyed susan based on 10 million real cases
Leaf beetles
Leaf beetles Leaf beetles
Leaf beetles
Leaf beetles are a class of colored insects 1 to 2 cm in size. They gnaw on leaves and petals resulting in small, round holes scattered over the surface.
Solutions: For less serious cases: Remove beetles, nymphs, and eggs. Remove all life stages of the beetles and kill them by placing them in a bucket of warm, soapy water. This can be done more easily by placing the bucket under affected leaves and shaking the plant. This method is most effective in the afternoon when leaf beetles are more active. Always dispose of insects in a sealed bag or container to avoid escape and spread. To treat more serious infestations: Apply organic insecticides. Use naturally-derived insecticides before moving on to synthetic insecticides. Neem oil and pyrethrum are naturally-derived insecticides that should be applied following label instructions. Apply synthetic insecticides. Examples of insecticides effective for leaf beetles include carbaryl, permethrin, and bifenthrin. Apply insecticides according to label instructions.
Caterpillars
Caterpillars Caterpillars
Caterpillars
Caterpillars are fleshy moth or butterfly larvae that come in an array of colors, patterns, and even hairstyles. They chew on leaves and flower petals, creating large, irregular holes.
Solutions: Even though caterpillars are diverse, they all chew on plant parts and can cause significant damage if present in large numbers. For severe cases: Apply insecticide. For an organic solution, spray plants with a Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), which specifically affects the larval stage of moths and butterflies. Be sure to coat plants, since caterpillars need to ingest Bt for it to be effective. This will not harm other insects. Spray a chili extract. Chili seeds can be cooked in water to make a spicy spray that caterpillars don't like. Spray this mixture on the plants, but be aware it will also be spicy to humans. Introduce beneficial insects. Release beneficial insects to the garden that eat caterpillars, such as parasitic wasps. For less severe cases: Hand pick. Using gloves, pick off caterpillars on plants and dispose of them in a bucket of soapy water. Dust plants with diatomaceous earth. This powder is harmless to humans but irritates caterpillars. Therefore, it will make it difficult for caterpillars to move and eat.
Flower withering
Flower withering Flower withering
Flower withering
Flowers may dry out due to a sudden change in environment or because the plant has completed its normal flowering period.
Solutions: If flower withering is a natural progression due to age, there is nothing that can be done to slow or stop the process. Once hormones within the plant begin the process of senescence, it’s irreversible. For lack of water, immediately water the plant using room temperature rainwater, bottled spring water, or filtered tap water. Water container plants until excess water drains out the bottom; water in-ground plants until the soil is soaked but there isn’t standing water on the surface. In the event of nutritional deficiencies, the best solution is to use a granular or water-soluble liquid fertilizer, and apply it to the soil at about half the recommended dosage. Keep it off the leaves and make sure granular products are watered into the soil well. If the plant is infected with a bacterial or fungal pathogen, there is no course of treatment that cures the diseased plants. The best solution is to remove the infected plants and dispose of the plant material off-site. Do not put in a compost pile.
Wilting after blooming
Wilting after blooming Wilting after blooming
Wilting after blooming
Flowers may wither for a variety of reasons.
Solutions: Check the soil or potting medium. Coarse textures can allow water to drain too rapidly, preventing the plant from taking up enough. If the soil and roots seem very dry, add sphagnum moss or other mediums that hold water. Water according to recommendations for each plant's species. Low humidity can be corrected by misting the plant regularly or placing it near a humidifier. Keeping it near other plants helps, too. Keep the environment consistent in terms of temperature, humidity, and lighting. Keep it away from vents, heaters, and air conditioners, and avoid moving it to locations where it will experience a temperature shock. Hot, dry heat, and cold drafts are problematic for many plants. Especially if the plant is outside, it could be experiencing heat or light stress. Try moving it to a shadier location.
Brown spot
Brown spot Brown spot
Brown spot
This infection can cause brown spots or patches to appear on the plant.
Solutions: In minor cases of brown spot, there isn’t any need to treat the disease. However, if much of the foliage is affected and defoliation occurs, the plant will benefit from getting rid of the infection. It is recommended to start by applying organic treatment options, working up to the more potent synthetic, chemical fungicides if necessary. Organic options won’t kill the fungus, but will prevent it from spreading. Dissolve ½ teaspoon of baking soda and one teaspoon of liquid soap in a gallon of water. Using a spray bottle, spray on tops and bottoms of leaves until the mixture drips off. Repeat every two weeks until existing spots stop enlarging and new spots no longer appear. Spray a copper-based fungicidal soap on the leaves, coating the top and bottom leaf surfaces. Reapply as directed on the product label. Copper penetrates the leaf surface and prevents germination of spores so the fungus cannot spread. Apply an all-purpose fungicide to the entire plant, following the label instructions carefully.
Aged yellow and dry
Aged yellow and dry Aged yellow and dry
Aged yellow and dry
Natural aging can cause leaves to turn yellow and dry out.
Solutions: If the yellowing and drying of leaves and flowers is a natural progression due to age, nothing can be done to slow or stop the process. Once hormones within the plant begin the process of senescence, it’s irreversible.
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Leaf beetles
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Leaf beetles
Leaf beetles are a class of colored insects 1 to 2 cm in size. They gnaw on leaves and petals resulting in small, round holes scattered over the surface.
Overview
Overview
Leaf beetles range in size from 1.5 mm to 2 cm. Both adult beetles and their larvae eat the leaves of many different types of plants. There are over 35,000 different species of leaf beetles, in a variety of colors including gold, green, yellow-striped, and red striped. Some of these have been mistaken for ladybirds because of their shape and coloring. They can be oval, round, or elongated in shape. These insect pests are most active in spring and summer.
If not controlled, leaf beetles can do a lot of damage to vegetable crops and ornamental plants. They feed on the leaves, flowers, stems, roots, and fruits of different plants. They can fly, which means it's easy for them to move from one plant to another. Some species of leaf beetles only target one specific crop, while others will target many different types of plants. Although a lot of the damage that they cause is cosmetic, an infestation can weaken a plant and leave it prone to other more problematic diseases.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
The first signs of a leaf beetles infestation are small visible holes in leaves. Leaves then become discolored and dark beetle droppings can be seen. As the leaves turn yellow and brown, they will drop off the plant onto the ground. Some leaves will appear skeletonized with only the veins still remaining.
Infestation begins in spring, when the adult beetles emerge from the soil and lay their eggs on the leaves of plants. When these eggs hatch, the young nymphs start munching on the leaves as they grow up. Once leaf beetles are large and mature, they'll fall to the ground and pupate in the soil over winter before starting the cycle all over again.
Leaf beetles also eat holes in fruits and vegetables. These can be seen as small round holes that sometimes have a larger brown area surrounding them.
Solutions
Solutions
For less serious cases:
  1. Remove beetles, nymphs, and eggs. Remove all life stages of the beetles and kill them by placing them in a bucket of warm, soapy water. This can be done more easily by placing the bucket under affected leaves and shaking the plant. This method is most effective in the afternoon when leaf beetles are more active. Always dispose of insects in a sealed bag or container to avoid escape and spread.
To treat more serious infestations:
  1. Apply organic insecticides. Use naturally-derived insecticides before moving on to synthetic insecticides. Neem oil and pyrethrum are naturally-derived insecticides that should be applied following label instructions.
  2. Apply synthetic insecticides. Examples of insecticides effective for leaf beetles include carbaryl, permethrin, and bifenthrin. Apply insecticides according to label instructions.
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Caterpillars
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Caterpillars
Caterpillars are fleshy moth or butterfly larvae that come in an array of colors, patterns, and even hairstyles. They chew on leaves and flower petals, creating large, irregular holes.
Overview
Overview
Caterpillars can cause problems for home gardeners. If not managed, these insects can defoliate a plant in just a matter of days. However, home gardeners face a challenge because these caterpillars eventually turn into beautiful butterflies and moths, which are important for pollination and the general ecosystem.
There are thousands of different species of caterpillars and many will only target certain plants. If caterpillars are posing a problem, they can be removed by hand, or gardeners can use insect-proof netting to protect their valuable plants.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Caterpillars are the larvae of butterflies and moths. During the warmer months, butterflies and moths that visit gardens will lay their eggs on the underside of leaves.
When the tiny eggs hatch, the young larvae emerge and start feeding on the leaves of the plant. Depending on how many larvae have hatched, they can easily defoliate the plant in a very short period of time. Caterpillars will shed their skin as they grow, around 4 or 5 times during this feeding cycle.
Symptoms of caterpillars eating plants appear as holes in the leaves. The edges of the leaves may be eaten away as well, and flowers can be affected as well.
Some are easy to see, but others need to be searched for. This is because their bodies are often camouflaged to look like part of the plant. Gardeners need to look carefully along the stems of the plant as well as under the leaves. Also, look for tiny white, yellow, or brown eggs that can be found in groups on the underside of leaves.
Once the caterpillar is fully grown, it transforms into a pupa or chrysalis. Then, after a period of time that varies according to the species, a butterfly or moth will emerge from the pupa and the cycle begins again.
Solutions
Solutions
Even though caterpillars are diverse, they all chew on plant parts and can cause significant damage if present in large numbers.
For severe cases:
  1. Apply insecticide. For an organic solution, spray plants with a Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), which specifically affects the larval stage of moths and butterflies. Be sure to coat plants, since caterpillars need to ingest Bt for it to be effective. This will not harm other insects.
  2. Spray a chili extract. Chili seeds can be cooked in water to make a spicy spray that caterpillars don't like. Spray this mixture on the plants, but be aware it will also be spicy to humans.
  3. Introduce beneficial insects. Release beneficial insects to the garden that eat caterpillars, such as parasitic wasps.
For less severe cases:
  1. Hand pick. Using gloves, pick off caterpillars on plants and dispose of them in a bucket of soapy water.
  2. Dust plants with diatomaceous earth. This powder is harmless to humans but irritates caterpillars. Therefore, it will make it difficult for caterpillars to move and eat.
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Flower withering
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Flower withering
Flowers may dry out due to a sudden change in environment or because the plant has completed its normal flowering period.
Overview
Overview
Flower withering occurs when flowers become weak, droopy, wilted, or faded until they can’t be revived. During withering, they begin to wrinkle and shrink until the flower becomes completely dry or dead.
Any flowers, regardless of the plant type or the climate they are grown in, are susceptible to withering. It is a worldwide problem across houseplants, herbs, flowering ornamentals, trees, shrubs, garden vegetables, and food crops.
Unlike wilting—which withering is often confused with—withering can be caused by different things and is often due to more than a lack of water. Withering can be fatal in severe cases.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Flower withering progresses from very mild cases to severe occurrences that kill the flower. The severity of the symptoms is related to the cause and how long the condition is allowed to progress before action is taken.
  • Wilted, droopy flowers
  • Petals and leaves begin to wrinkle
  • Brown papery streaks or spots appear on the petals and leaf tips
  • Flowerhead shrink in size
  • Petal color fades
  • Yellowing leaves
  • Complete death of the flower
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
The main causes of flower withering include natural age progress, lack of water, nutritional deficiencies, and bacterial or fungal diseases. It’s critical to determine the underlying cause when flower withering is noticed. This will guide the best course of action, if treatment is possible.
Check the soil for moisture and then closely examine the entire plant for signs of nutrient deficiencies. If neither of those appears to be the cause then cut open the stem below a flower. If a cross-section reveals brown or rust-colored stains it is safe to assume that this is a bacterial or fungal infection.
If the flower is nearing the end of its normal lifespan, genetic coding within the plant increases the production of ethylene, a phytohormone that controls senescence, or cell aging and death. Cell division stops and the plant begins breaking down resources within the flower to use in other parts of the plant.
In all other cases, flower withering happens when the plant seals off the stem as a defense mechanism, stopping transport within the vascular system. This prevents further water loss through the flowers but also stops bacteria and fungi from moving to healthy parts of the plant. Once water and nutrient transport stops, the flower begins to wither and ultimately die.
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Wilting after blooming
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Wilting after blooming
Flowers may wither for a variety of reasons.
Overview
Overview
Wilting after blooming is sometimes a natural aging process of the flower, while other times it may indicate a problem. Orchids, for example, can bloom for anywhere from two weeks to three months, so wilting after a few days signals a problem for most varieties. This can happen to virtually any ornamental flowering plant, but those with shallow roots and limited tolerance for drought, full sun, and low humidity are more susceptible.
This is a common problem, and often has an easy fix. Sometimes, however, it is the result of more serious causes such as pests or disease of the root system.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
  • At first, flowers may look a little limp.
  • Petals may start to appear dried out and turn brown.
  • Eventually they may drop off the plant all together.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
Wilting blooms can be a sign of an unhealthy root system. Any condition that prevents the plant from absorbing enough water and nutrition can result in wilting blooms and sometimes other symptoms. If the plant doesn’t have enough water, it cannot maintain appropriate pressure within stems, leaves, and blooms, causing them to wilt.
This can result from physical damage – for example from root breakage during re-potting or attack by insects like cutworms. If you recently re-potted your plant, physical damage to the roots is a likely cause. If you see insects, they may be eating leaves, roots, or flowers. Fungal infections can also cause root rot and damage, preventing water and nutrient uptake.
Finally, wilting blooms can result simply from age. If no other symptoms are visible, it may simply signal the natural end of the flower’s lifespan. If it seems premature, this may be caused by environmental factors: water, humidity, light, or stress. Under-watering is a common cause. Similarly, plants adapted to high humidity dry out easily when humidity is low, like during winter or in dry climates. Too much light can also stress plants that need shade, causing blooms to wilt.
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Brown spot
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Brown spot
This infection can cause brown spots or patches to appear on the plant.
Overview
Overview
Discolored spots on the foliage of plants are one of the most common disease problems people observe. These spots are caused by fungal and bacterial diseases, with most infections related to a fungal pathogen.
Brown spot can occurs on all houseplants, flowering ornamentals, vegetable plants, and leaves of trees, bushes, and shrubs. No plants are resistant to it, and the problem is worse in warm, wet environments. It can occur at any point in the life stage as long as leaves are present.
Small brownish spots appear on the foliage and enlarge as the disease progresses. In severe cases, the plant or tree is weakened when the lesions interrupt photosynthesis or cause defoliation.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
In most cases, brown spot only affects a small percentage of the whole plant, appearing on a small amount of the leaves. A small infection only puts minor stress on the plant. However, if left untreated and the disease progresses over numerous seasons, it will severely impact the health and productivity of the infected specimen.
  • Sporulation begins (reproduction of the fungal spores), and tiny spots appear on leaves.
  • Placement is often random and scattered as diseases are spread through raindrops.
  • May appear on lower leaves and the interior of the plant where humidity is higher.
  • Brown spots enlarge and grow large enough to touch neighboring spots to form a more prominent blotch.
  • Leaf margins may turn yellow.
  • Tiny black dots (fruiting bodies of the fungi) appear in the dead spots.
  • Blotches grow in size until the entire leaf is brown.
  • The leaf falls off the plant.
Severe Symptoms
  • Partial or complete premature defoliation
  • Reduced growth
  • Increased susceptibility to pests and other diseases
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
Brown spot, or leaf spot, is a common descriptive term given to several diseases affecting the leaves of plants and trees. Around 85% of diseases exhibiting leaf spots are due to fungus or fungus-like organisms. Sometimes brown spot is caused by a bacterial infection, or insect activity with similar symptoms.
When conditions are warm and the leaf surfaces are wet, fungal spores being transported by wind or rain land on the surface and cling to it. They do not rupture the cell walls but grow in the space between the plant plasma membrane and the plant cell wall. As the spores reproduce, they release toxins and enzymes that cause necrotic spots (i.e., dead tissue) on the leaves, allowing the fungi to consume the products released when the cells degrade.
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Aged yellow and dry
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Aged yellow and dry
Natural aging can cause leaves to turn yellow and dry out.
Overview
Overview
Regardless of the type of plant or where it is grown, at some point, it will begin to aged yellow and dry. This is a natural, unavoidable process that happens when the plant has completed all of the steps in its life.
Annual plants go through this process at the end of a single growing season. Perennial plants live for multiple years, if not tens or hundreds of years, but will still ultimately exhibit these symptoms.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
When plants have progressed through their natural developmental stages and are nearing the end of their lifecycle, they begin showing signs of decline. Leaves will start to yellow and droop, and over time they turn papery brown and dry.
Once completely dry, the leaves begin to fall from the plant until the entire plant has dried out.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
At the end of its life, genetic coding within the plant increases the production of ethylene, a phytohormone that controls senescence or natural aging and death. Cell division stops, and the plant begins catabolizing resources to use in other parts of the plant.
As this happens, the tissues begin yellow and drying until the entire plant is desiccated and perishes.
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Weed Control About Black-eyed susan

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Weeds
Black-eyed susan is native to North America. Although it is not invasive in the sense of taking over non-native habitats, black-eyed susan can still spread uncontrollably and cause issues in areas where it has been planted as a decorative plant. Black-eyed susan is troublesome as it can spread through its seeds and its rhizomatous roots, and once it gets well established, it is difficult to get rid of. It can colonize disturbed areas where there has been recent damage to the terrain, e.g., after a fire or messy mowing. The plant can survive repeated mowing or cutting to the ground, and can even produce seed in maintenance regimes with long periods between mowing, but is not able to flower or set seed in regularly mowed lawns.
How to Control it
The best time to remove weeds is before bearing fruits. Pulling out: For a kind of herb, wear gloves or use tools to dig weeds. Pruning: For an annual plant, pruning its aboveground parts can effectively control the growth. Plowing: Plow the soil before cultivation and bury the whole weed in the soil. Chemical control: If in large amounts, weeds can be removed by the herbicide.
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Distribution of Black-eyed susan

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Habitat of Black-eyed susan

Parks, gardens
Northern Hemisphere
South Hemisphere

Distribution Map of Black-eyed susan

Black-eyed susan is native to most of North America. Popularized as a garden ornamental, it can now be found widely in west and central Europe, Scandinavia, Korea, and Myanmar. Its native ecosystem is grasslands, fields and other areas with few trees to block out light.
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Native
Cultivated
Invasive
Potentially invasive
Exotic
No species reported
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More Info on Black-eyed Susan Growth and Care

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Basic Care Guide
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Water
Twice per week
Black-eyed susan hails from North-America, enjoying an environment characterized by moderate rainfall and significant sunlight. Chiefly found in dry or damp meadows and woodland edges, this plant can sustain dampness, but thrives better in conditions that aren't oversaturated. Therefore, watering should resemble this context: a generous supply, while ensuring proper drainage. Too much water can lead to root rot. Always gauge moisture levels in soil before watering.
Watering Techniques
Lighting
Full sun
The black-eyed susan flourishes best with abundant light exposure, prospering in locations where the sun shines strong and unhindered. It can also adapt to conditions where the sunshine is less abundant. In its native habitat, it thrives amidst open sunlit expanses. Lack of sufficient light could lead to unhealthy, leggy growth, whereas too much can cause leaf scorch.
Best Sunlight Practices
Temperature
0 - 41 ℃
Black-eyed susan is native to temperate environments, flourishing in temperatures from 68 to 95 °F (20 to 35 ℃). It's hearty in both spring and fall due to its broad temperature tolerance. Adjust watering in extreme summer or winter to avoid stress.
Temp for Healthy Growth
Transplant
1-2 feet
For black-eyed susan, the best time to transplant is from mid-spring to early summer when temperatures are mild, promoting successful root establishment. Ideal conditions include a sunny location with well-draining soil. Gently tease out roots when transplanting, to encourage growth and minimize plant stress.
Transplant Techniques
Pruning
Spring, Summer, Autumn
With vibrant daisy-like flowers and a dark central cone, black-eyed susan thrives in sunny landscapes. Prune spent blooms regularly to encourage reblooming and maintain appearance. Deadheading can extend the flowering period into early fall. Cutting back by one-third in early spring promotes bushier growth and more blooms. Avoid pruning late in the season to allow seeds to develop, providing winter food for birds and facilitating self-seeding. Pruning this species results in a tidier plant and prolongs its blooming showcase.
Pruning techniques
Propagation
Spring
Black-eyed susan propagation is ideally done through sowing in Spring, with a moderate difficulty level. Successful propagation typically is indicated by healthy root and shoot development. Ensure adequate spacing and consistently moist soil for optimal results.
Propagation Techniques
Feng shui direction
South
Black-eyed susan is considered a favorable addition to gardens with a South-facing orientation. This sunny direction is believed to intensify the plant's naturally vibrant energy, enhancing the space's flow of positivity. However, its effect on a specific space may ultimately depend on personal sensitivities and surrounding factors.
Fengshui Details
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Plants Related to Black-eyed susan

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Annual fleabane
Annual fleabane
While native to North America, the annual fleabane has been introduced to other places around the world, as well as in 43 states of the United States. It is a popular choice for bees, flies, wasps, and butterflies as a source of nectar, but is invasive and is threatening the native ecosystem where they grow.
Bull thistle
Bull thistle
Bull thistle (Cirsium vulgare) is a thistle plant native to Europe, Africa, and Asia. Bull thistle produces a large amount of nectar and attracts pollinators. Bull thistle is considered a noxious weed in areas of Europe and Australia.
African tulip tree
African tulip tree
African tulip tree (*Spathodea campanulata*) is an evergreen tree that grows best in full sunlight and well-drained soil. African tulip tree is shade-tolerant. It is a fast-growing tree and a prolific seed producer, dispersing seeds that can germinate without light, giving it the potential to become invasive in some areas.
Earleaf acacia
Earleaf acacia
Earleaf acacia (Acacia auriculiformis) is an evergreen tree that can grow from 20 to 27 m tall. It is a fast-growing tree with a gnarly trunk and is often multi-stemmed. It blooms in spring with yellowish-orange spiked clusters. Each tree produces about 47,000 seeds per year. It is becoming an invasive tree, displacing vegetation and native plants.
Sessile Joyweed
Sessile Joyweed
The sessile Joyweed (Alternanthera sessilis) is an aquatic plant that spreads vigorously from a prominent, very deep taproot. It is listed as a noxious weed in the United States and can devastate small ponds with its aggressive foliage growth. The sessile Joyweed is so dense, it can, in fact, block drainage canals with vegetation and clog irrigation lines!
Japanese meadowsweet
Japanese meadowsweet
Japanese meadowsweet is considered by many to be an invasive species due to its ability to spread rapidly, creating a dense thicket or hedge. The species traces its roots to Japan, Korea, and China and was introduced in other areas because of its attractive flowers. Use caution when planting to make sure that this shrub can be managed appropriately.
Poison ivy
Poison ivy
In pop culture, poison ivy is a symbol of an obnoxious weed because, despite its unthreatening looks, it gives a highly unpleasant contact rash to the unfortunate person who touches it. Still, it is commonly eaten by many animals, and the seeds are a favorite with birds. The leaves turn bright red in fall. Its sister species, Western poison ivy (Toxicodendron rydbergii), is not considered to be invasive in the United States, but is noxious in Australia and New Zealand.
Pokeweed
Pokeweed
Although its berries look juicy and tempting, the fruits and the root of pokeweed are toxic and should not be eaten. Pokeweed is considered a pest species by farmers but is nevertheless often grown as an ornamental plant. Its berries can be made into pokeberry ink as well.
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Black-eyed susan play
Black-eyed susan
Black-eyed susan
Black-eyed susan
Black-eyed susan
Black-eyed susan
Black-eyed susan
Rudbeckia hirta
Also known as: English bull's eye, Gloriosa daisy
The black-eyed susan is a flowering black and yellow plant with curving leaves. It is culturally important in the Southern U.S., and is often used to attract butterflies to gardens. It long ago spread throughout North America and much of the world. Black-eyed susan is the state flower of Maryland and was important in the history of the University of Southern Mississippi.
Water
Water
Twice per week
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Sunlight
Sunlight
Full sun
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Questions About Black-eyed susan

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Key Facts About Black-eyed susan

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Attributes of Black-eyed susan

Lifespan
Perennial, Annual
Plant Type
Herb
Planting Time
Spring, Early summer, Fall, Early winter
Bloom Time
Late spring, Summer, Fall
Harvest Time
Late summer, Early fall, Mid fall
Plant Height
30 cm to 1 m
Spread
30 cm to 45 cm
Leaf Color
Green
Flower Size
5 cm to 10 cm
Flower Color
Yellow
Orange
Red
Gold
Fruit Color
Brown
Copper
Stem Color
Green
Dormancy
Winter dormancy
Leaf type
Deciduous
Ideal Temperature
20 - 35 ℃
Pollinators
Beetles, Wasps, Flies, Moths, Butterflies
Benefits to Pollinating Insects
Adult food, Larval food
Growth Rate:Rapid
With a rapid growth rate, black-eyed susan vigorously extends height and broadens leaf width during fall, winter, and spring seasons; a visible explosive development is observable. This quickened maturation optimizes the plant's entire life cycle within a reduced timeframe, explaining its resilience in ecological niches facing harsh winters.
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Name story

Black-eyed susan
The name comes from a poem by John Gay, who portrayed black-eyed Susan (Rudbeckia hirta) and sweet William (Dianthus barbatus) as humans to tell a love story, and the name Black-eyed Susan is still in use today. Although its stamen is not really black, it is actually brown colored.

Symbolism

Justice, Impartiality, Strength, encouragement, breaking bad habits

Usages

Garden Use
The widespread wildflower, black-eyed susan, is a welcome addition to courtyard gardens. They are prized for their bright, cheerful beauty, adding a golden glow to gardens. They are also often seen in prairie and cottage gardens, where they attract a wide variety of pollinators. The beauty of this plant pairs very well with other prairie flowers such as the butterfly weed and the purple coneflower.

Trivia and Interesting Facts

One of the favorite wildflowers in the United States, black-eyed susan is a symbol of encouragement and motivation. Rudbeckia hirta was declared a state flower of Maryland in 1918.

Scientific Classification of Black-eyed susan

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Common Pests & Diseases About Black-eyed susan

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Common issues for Black-eyed susan based on 10 million real cases
Leaf beetles
Leaf beetles Leaf beetles Leaf beetles
Leaf beetles are a class of colored insects 1 to 2 cm in size. They gnaw on leaves and petals resulting in small, round holes scattered over the surface.
Solutions: For less serious cases: Remove beetles, nymphs, and eggs. Remove all life stages of the beetles and kill them by placing them in a bucket of warm, soapy water. This can be done more easily by placing the bucket under affected leaves and shaking the plant. This method is most effective in the afternoon when leaf beetles are more active. Always dispose of insects in a sealed bag or container to avoid escape and spread. To treat more serious infestations: Apply organic insecticides. Use naturally-derived insecticides before moving on to synthetic insecticides. Neem oil and pyrethrum are naturally-derived insecticides that should be applied following label instructions. Apply synthetic insecticides. Examples of insecticides effective for leaf beetles include carbaryl, permethrin, and bifenthrin. Apply insecticides according to label instructions.
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Caterpillars
Caterpillars Caterpillars Caterpillars
Caterpillars are fleshy moth or butterfly larvae that come in an array of colors, patterns, and even hairstyles. They chew on leaves and flower petals, creating large, irregular holes.
Solutions: Even though caterpillars are diverse, they all chew on plant parts and can cause significant damage if present in large numbers. For severe cases: Apply insecticide. For an organic solution, spray plants with a Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), which specifically affects the larval stage of moths and butterflies. Be sure to coat plants, since caterpillars need to ingest Bt for it to be effective. This will not harm other insects. Spray a chili extract. Chili seeds can be cooked in water to make a spicy spray that caterpillars don't like. Spray this mixture on the plants, but be aware it will also be spicy to humans. Introduce beneficial insects. Release beneficial insects to the garden that eat caterpillars, such as parasitic wasps. For less severe cases: Hand pick. Using gloves, pick off caterpillars on plants and dispose of them in a bucket of soapy water. Dust plants with diatomaceous earth. This powder is harmless to humans but irritates caterpillars. Therefore, it will make it difficult for caterpillars to move and eat.
Learn More About the Caterpillars more
Flower withering
Flower withering Flower withering Flower withering
Flowers may dry out due to a sudden change in environment or because the plant has completed its normal flowering period.
Solutions: If flower withering is a natural progression due to age, there is nothing that can be done to slow or stop the process. Once hormones within the plant begin the process of senescence, it’s irreversible. For lack of water, immediately water the plant using room temperature rainwater, bottled spring water, or filtered tap water. Water container plants until excess water drains out the bottom; water in-ground plants until the soil is soaked but there isn’t standing water on the surface. In the event of nutritional deficiencies, the best solution is to use a granular or water-soluble liquid fertilizer, and apply it to the soil at about half the recommended dosage. Keep it off the leaves and make sure granular products are watered into the soil well. If the plant is infected with a bacterial or fungal pathogen, there is no course of treatment that cures the diseased plants. The best solution is to remove the infected plants and dispose of the plant material off-site. Do not put in a compost pile.
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Wilting after blooming
Wilting after blooming Wilting after blooming Wilting after blooming
Flowers may wither for a variety of reasons.
Solutions: Check the soil or potting medium. Coarse textures can allow water to drain too rapidly, preventing the plant from taking up enough. If the soil and roots seem very dry, add sphagnum moss or other mediums that hold water. Water according to recommendations for each plant's species. Low humidity can be corrected by misting the plant regularly or placing it near a humidifier. Keeping it near other plants helps, too. Keep the environment consistent in terms of temperature, humidity, and lighting. Keep it away from vents, heaters, and air conditioners, and avoid moving it to locations where it will experience a temperature shock. Hot, dry heat, and cold drafts are problematic for many plants. Especially if the plant is outside, it could be experiencing heat or light stress. Try moving it to a shadier location.
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Brown spot
Brown spot Brown spot Brown spot
This infection can cause brown spots or patches to appear on the plant.
Solutions: In minor cases of brown spot, there isn’t any need to treat the disease. However, if much of the foliage is affected and defoliation occurs, the plant will benefit from getting rid of the infection. It is recommended to start by applying organic treatment options, working up to the more potent synthetic, chemical fungicides if necessary. Organic options won’t kill the fungus, but will prevent it from spreading. Dissolve ½ teaspoon of baking soda and one teaspoon of liquid soap in a gallon of water. Using a spray bottle, spray on tops and bottoms of leaves until the mixture drips off. Repeat every two weeks until existing spots stop enlarging and new spots no longer appear. Spray a copper-based fungicidal soap on the leaves, coating the top and bottom leaf surfaces. Reapply as directed on the product label. Copper penetrates the leaf surface and prevents germination of spores so the fungus cannot spread. Apply an all-purpose fungicide to the entire plant, following the label instructions carefully.
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Aged yellow and dry
Aged yellow and dry Aged yellow and dry Aged yellow and dry
Natural aging can cause leaves to turn yellow and dry out.
Solutions: If the yellowing and drying of leaves and flowers is a natural progression due to age, nothing can be done to slow or stop the process. Once hormones within the plant begin the process of senescence, it’s irreversible.
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Leaf beetles
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Leaf beetles
Leaf beetles are a class of colored insects 1 to 2 cm in size. They gnaw on leaves and petals resulting in small, round holes scattered over the surface.
Overview
Overview
Leaf beetles range in size from 1.5 mm to 2 cm. Both adult beetles and their larvae eat the leaves of many different types of plants. There are over 35,000 different species of leaf beetles, in a variety of colors including gold, green, yellow-striped, and red striped. Some of these have been mistaken for ladybirds because of their shape and coloring. They can be oval, round, or elongated in shape. These insect pests are most active in spring and summer.
If not controlled, leaf beetles can do a lot of damage to vegetable crops and ornamental plants. They feed on the leaves, flowers, stems, roots, and fruits of different plants. They can fly, which means it's easy for them to move from one plant to another. Some species of leaf beetles only target one specific crop, while others will target many different types of plants. Although a lot of the damage that they cause is cosmetic, an infestation can weaken a plant and leave it prone to other more problematic diseases.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
The first signs of a leaf beetles infestation are small visible holes in leaves. Leaves then become discolored and dark beetle droppings can be seen. As the leaves turn yellow and brown, they will drop off the plant onto the ground. Some leaves will appear skeletonized with only the veins still remaining.
Infestation begins in spring, when the adult beetles emerge from the soil and lay their eggs on the leaves of plants. When these eggs hatch, the young nymphs start munching on the leaves as they grow up. Once leaf beetles are large and mature, they'll fall to the ground and pupate in the soil over winter before starting the cycle all over again.
Leaf beetles also eat holes in fruits and vegetables. These can be seen as small round holes that sometimes have a larger brown area surrounding them.
Solutions
Solutions
For less serious cases:
  1. Remove beetles, nymphs, and eggs. Remove all life stages of the beetles and kill them by placing them in a bucket of warm, soapy water. This can be done more easily by placing the bucket under affected leaves and shaking the plant. This method is most effective in the afternoon when leaf beetles are more active. Always dispose of insects in a sealed bag or container to avoid escape and spread.
To treat more serious infestations:
  1. Apply organic insecticides. Use naturally-derived insecticides before moving on to synthetic insecticides. Neem oil and pyrethrum are naturally-derived insecticides that should be applied following label instructions.
  2. Apply synthetic insecticides. Examples of insecticides effective for leaf beetles include carbaryl, permethrin, and bifenthrin. Apply insecticides according to label instructions.
Prevention
Prevention
To prevent infestations of leaf beetles, follow these practices.
  1. Regularly check for beetles. To prevent large pest infestations, be proactive about frequently checking plants for pests and removing them quickly.
  2. Clear debris. Clear weeds and debris to remove areas where these beetles may overwinter and hide.
  3. Attract natural predators. Birds and other insects, such as wasps and ladybugs, are effective natural predators of leaf beetles. Encourage them to visit by including a diverse array of plants to provide habitat and food. Also, avoid applying broad-spectrum herbicides that can harm and kill beneficial insects.
  4. Plant aromatic herbs like mint, garlic, or rosemary, as these can repel leaf beetles.
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Caterpillars
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Caterpillars
Caterpillars are fleshy moth or butterfly larvae that come in an array of colors, patterns, and even hairstyles. They chew on leaves and flower petals, creating large, irregular holes.
Overview
Overview
Caterpillars can cause problems for home gardeners. If not managed, these insects can defoliate a plant in just a matter of days. However, home gardeners face a challenge because these caterpillars eventually turn into beautiful butterflies and moths, which are important for pollination and the general ecosystem.
There are thousands of different species of caterpillars and many will only target certain plants. If caterpillars are posing a problem, they can be removed by hand, or gardeners can use insect-proof netting to protect their valuable plants.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Caterpillars are the larvae of butterflies and moths. During the warmer months, butterflies and moths that visit gardens will lay their eggs on the underside of leaves.
When the tiny eggs hatch, the young larvae emerge and start feeding on the leaves of the plant. Depending on how many larvae have hatched, they can easily defoliate the plant in a very short period of time. Caterpillars will shed their skin as they grow, around 4 or 5 times during this feeding cycle.
Symptoms of caterpillars eating plants appear as holes in the leaves. The edges of the leaves may be eaten away as well, and flowers can be affected as well.
Some are easy to see, but others need to be searched for. This is because their bodies are often camouflaged to look like part of the plant. Gardeners need to look carefully along the stems of the plant as well as under the leaves. Also, look for tiny white, yellow, or brown eggs that can be found in groups on the underside of leaves.
Once the caterpillar is fully grown, it transforms into a pupa or chrysalis. Then, after a period of time that varies according to the species, a butterfly or moth will emerge from the pupa and the cycle begins again.
Solutions
Solutions
Even though caterpillars are diverse, they all chew on plant parts and can cause significant damage if present in large numbers.
For severe cases:
  1. Apply insecticide. For an organic solution, spray plants with a Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), which specifically affects the larval stage of moths and butterflies. Be sure to coat plants, since caterpillars need to ingest Bt for it to be effective. This will not harm other insects.
  2. Spray a chili extract. Chili seeds can be cooked in water to make a spicy spray that caterpillars don't like. Spray this mixture on the plants, but be aware it will also be spicy to humans.
  3. Introduce beneficial insects. Release beneficial insects to the garden that eat caterpillars, such as parasitic wasps.
For less severe cases:
  1. Hand pick. Using gloves, pick off caterpillars on plants and dispose of them in a bucket of soapy water.
  2. Dust plants with diatomaceous earth. This powder is harmless to humans but irritates caterpillars. Therefore, it will make it difficult for caterpillars to move and eat.
Prevention
Prevention
Prevention may require less effort than attempts to eradicate infestations that have already begun. Here are our top steps for prevention:
  1. Monitor plants. Check plants regularly for caterpillar eggs on leaves. If they do not belong to an endangered species, they should be squished.
  2. Use insect netting. Cover plants with insect netting to prevent butterflies and moths from laying eggs on plants.
  3. Apply diatomaceous earth. Apply DE to plants early in the season and reapply after rain.
  4. Encourage plant diversity. This will attract predatory insects including parasitic wasps.
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Flower withering
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Flower withering
Flowers may dry out due to a sudden change in environment or because the plant has completed its normal flowering period.
Overview
Overview
Flower withering occurs when flowers become weak, droopy, wilted, or faded until they can’t be revived. During withering, they begin to wrinkle and shrink until the flower becomes completely dry or dead.
Any flowers, regardless of the plant type or the climate they are grown in, are susceptible to withering. It is a worldwide problem across houseplants, herbs, flowering ornamentals, trees, shrubs, garden vegetables, and food crops.
Unlike wilting—which withering is often confused with—withering can be caused by different things and is often due to more than a lack of water. Withering can be fatal in severe cases.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Flower withering progresses from very mild cases to severe occurrences that kill the flower. The severity of the symptoms is related to the cause and how long the condition is allowed to progress before action is taken.
  • Wilted, droopy flowers
  • Petals and leaves begin to wrinkle
  • Brown papery streaks or spots appear on the petals and leaf tips
  • Flowerhead shrink in size
  • Petal color fades
  • Yellowing leaves
  • Complete death of the flower
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
The main causes of flower withering include natural age progress, lack of water, nutritional deficiencies, and bacterial or fungal diseases. It’s critical to determine the underlying cause when flower withering is noticed. This will guide the best course of action, if treatment is possible.
Check the soil for moisture and then closely examine the entire plant for signs of nutrient deficiencies. If neither of those appears to be the cause then cut open the stem below a flower. If a cross-section reveals brown or rust-colored stains it is safe to assume that this is a bacterial or fungal infection.
If the flower is nearing the end of its normal lifespan, genetic coding within the plant increases the production of ethylene, a phytohormone that controls senescence, or cell aging and death. Cell division stops and the plant begins breaking down resources within the flower to use in other parts of the plant.
In all other cases, flower withering happens when the plant seals off the stem as a defense mechanism, stopping transport within the vascular system. This prevents further water loss through the flowers but also stops bacteria and fungi from moving to healthy parts of the plant. Once water and nutrient transport stops, the flower begins to wither and ultimately die.
Solutions
Solutions
If flower withering is a natural progression due to age, there is nothing that can be done to slow or stop the process. Once hormones within the plant begin the process of senescence, it’s irreversible.
For lack of water, immediately water the plant using room temperature rainwater, bottled spring water, or filtered tap water. Water container plants until excess water drains out the bottom; water in-ground plants until the soil is soaked but there isn’t standing water on the surface.
In the event of nutritional deficiencies, the best solution is to use a granular or water-soluble liquid fertilizer, and apply it to the soil at about half the recommended dosage. Keep it off the leaves and make sure granular products are watered into the soil well.
If the plant is infected with a bacterial or fungal pathogen, there is no course of treatment that cures the diseased plants. The best solution is to remove the infected plants and dispose of the plant material off-site. Do not put in a compost pile.
Prevention
Prevention
This is definitely one of those instances where prevention is more effective than cure. Here are some preventative measures for avoiding premature flower withering.
  • Water plants according to their needs -- either keep the soil slightly moist or allow the top inch or two to dry out before watering again.
  • Fertilize lightly on a consistent basis, depending upon the plant’s growth. Quick-growing plants and those that flower or develop fruit will need more frequent fertilizing than slow-growing plants.
  • Purchase plants that are certified disease- or pathogen-free.
  • Look for disease-resistant cultivars.
  • Isolate plants showing disease symptoms to prevent the spread to neighboring plants.
  • Practice good plant hygiene by removing any fallen plant material as soon as possible.
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Wilting after blooming
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Wilting after blooming
Flowers may wither for a variety of reasons.
Overview
Overview
Wilting after blooming is sometimes a natural aging process of the flower, while other times it may indicate a problem. Orchids, for example, can bloom for anywhere from two weeks to three months, so wilting after a few days signals a problem for most varieties. This can happen to virtually any ornamental flowering plant, but those with shallow roots and limited tolerance for drought, full sun, and low humidity are more susceptible.
This is a common problem, and often has an easy fix. Sometimes, however, it is the result of more serious causes such as pests or disease of the root system.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
  • At first, flowers may look a little limp.
  • Petals may start to appear dried out and turn brown.
  • Eventually they may drop off the plant all together.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
Wilting blooms can be a sign of an unhealthy root system. Any condition that prevents the plant from absorbing enough water and nutrition can result in wilting blooms and sometimes other symptoms. If the plant doesn’t have enough water, it cannot maintain appropriate pressure within stems, leaves, and blooms, causing them to wilt.
This can result from physical damage – for example from root breakage during re-potting or attack by insects like cutworms. If you recently re-potted your plant, physical damage to the roots is a likely cause. If you see insects, they may be eating leaves, roots, or flowers. Fungal infections can also cause root rot and damage, preventing water and nutrient uptake.
Finally, wilting blooms can result simply from age. If no other symptoms are visible, it may simply signal the natural end of the flower’s lifespan. If it seems premature, this may be caused by environmental factors: water, humidity, light, or stress. Under-watering is a common cause. Similarly, plants adapted to high humidity dry out easily when humidity is low, like during winter or in dry climates. Too much light can also stress plants that need shade, causing blooms to wilt.
Solutions
Solutions
  • Check the soil or potting medium. Coarse textures can allow water to drain too rapidly, preventing the plant from taking up enough. If the soil and roots seem very dry, add sphagnum moss or other mediums that hold water.
  • Water according to recommendations for each plant's species.
  • Low humidity can be corrected by misting the plant regularly or placing it near a humidifier. Keeping it near other plants helps, too.
  • Keep the environment consistent in terms of temperature, humidity, and lighting. Keep it away from vents, heaters, and air conditioners, and avoid moving it to locations where it will experience a temperature shock. Hot, dry heat, and cold drafts are problematic for many plants.
  • Especially if the plant is outside, it could be experiencing heat or light stress. Try moving it to a shadier location.
Prevention
Prevention
  • Read up on moisture, light, and soil type preferences for each plant to avoid underwatering, incorrect light levels, or other conditions that can cause wilting blooms.
  • Avoid re-potting during the flowering period. This causes additional stress on the plants because they need to repair root damage and adapt to the new micro-environment, all of which can result in wilting.
  • One other potential cause is ethylene gas, a plant hormone related to ripening. Some fruits and vegetables emit ethylene, especially bananas. Apples, grapes, melons, avocados, and potatoes can also give it off, so keep flowering plants away from fresh produce.
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Brown spot
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Brown spot
This infection can cause brown spots or patches to appear on the plant.
Overview
Overview
Discolored spots on the foliage of plants are one of the most common disease problems people observe. These spots are caused by fungal and bacterial diseases, with most infections related to a fungal pathogen.
Brown spot can occurs on all houseplants, flowering ornamentals, vegetable plants, and leaves of trees, bushes, and shrubs. No plants are resistant to it, and the problem is worse in warm, wet environments. It can occur at any point in the life stage as long as leaves are present.
Small brownish spots appear on the foliage and enlarge as the disease progresses. In severe cases, the plant or tree is weakened when the lesions interrupt photosynthesis or cause defoliation.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
In most cases, brown spot only affects a small percentage of the whole plant, appearing on a small amount of the leaves. A small infection only puts minor stress on the plant. However, if left untreated and the disease progresses over numerous seasons, it will severely impact the health and productivity of the infected specimen.
  • Sporulation begins (reproduction of the fungal spores), and tiny spots appear on leaves.
  • Placement is often random and scattered as diseases are spread through raindrops.
  • May appear on lower leaves and the interior of the plant where humidity is higher.
  • Brown spots enlarge and grow large enough to touch neighboring spots to form a more prominent blotch.
  • Leaf margins may turn yellow.
  • Tiny black dots (fruiting bodies of the fungi) appear in the dead spots.
  • Blotches grow in size until the entire leaf is brown.
  • The leaf falls off the plant.
Severe Symptoms
  • Partial or complete premature defoliation
  • Reduced growth
  • Increased susceptibility to pests and other diseases
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
Brown spot, or leaf spot, is a common descriptive term given to several diseases affecting the leaves of plants and trees. Around 85% of diseases exhibiting leaf spots are due to fungus or fungus-like organisms. Sometimes brown spot is caused by a bacterial infection, or insect activity with similar symptoms.
When conditions are warm and the leaf surfaces are wet, fungal spores being transported by wind or rain land on the surface and cling to it. They do not rupture the cell walls but grow in the space between the plant plasma membrane and the plant cell wall. As the spores reproduce, they release toxins and enzymes that cause necrotic spots (i.e., dead tissue) on the leaves, allowing the fungi to consume the products released when the cells degrade.
Solutions
Solutions
In minor cases of brown spot, there isn’t any need to treat the disease. However, if much of the foliage is affected and defoliation occurs, the plant will benefit from getting rid of the infection. It is recommended to start by applying organic treatment options, working up to the more potent synthetic, chemical fungicides if necessary.
Organic options won’t kill the fungus, but will prevent it from spreading.
  1. Dissolve ½ teaspoon of baking soda and one teaspoon of liquid soap in a gallon of water. Using a spray bottle, spray on tops and bottoms of leaves until the mixture drips off. Repeat every two weeks until existing spots stop enlarging and new spots no longer appear.
  2. Spray a copper-based fungicidal soap on the leaves, coating the top and bottom leaf surfaces. Reapply as directed on the product label. Copper penetrates the leaf surface and prevents germination of spores so the fungus cannot spread.
  3. Apply an all-purpose fungicide to the entire plant, following the label instructions carefully.
Prevention
Prevention
Like many other diseases, it is easier to prevent brown spot than cure it, and this is done through cultural practices.
  • Clear fall leaves from the ground before winter to minimize places where fungi and bacteria can overwinter.
  • Maintain good air movement between plants through proper plant spacing.
  • Increase air circulation through the center of plants through pruning.
  • Thoroughly clean all pruning tools after working with diseased plants.
  • Never dispose of disease plant material in a compost pile.
  • Avoid overhead watering to keep moisture off of the foliage.
  • Keep plants healthy by providing adequate sunlight, water, and fertilizer.
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Aged yellow and dry
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Aged yellow and dry
Natural aging can cause leaves to turn yellow and dry out.
Overview
Overview
Regardless of the type of plant or where it is grown, at some point, it will begin to aged yellow and dry. This is a natural, unavoidable process that happens when the plant has completed all of the steps in its life.
Annual plants go through this process at the end of a single growing season. Perennial plants live for multiple years, if not tens or hundreds of years, but will still ultimately exhibit these symptoms.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
When plants have progressed through their natural developmental stages and are nearing the end of their lifecycle, they begin showing signs of decline. Leaves will start to yellow and droop, and over time they turn papery brown and dry.
Once completely dry, the leaves begin to fall from the plant until the entire plant has dried out.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
At the end of its life, genetic coding within the plant increases the production of ethylene, a phytohormone that controls senescence or natural aging and death. Cell division stops, and the plant begins catabolizing resources to use in other parts of the plant.
As this happens, the tissues begin yellow and drying until the entire plant is desiccated and perishes.
Solutions
Solutions
If the yellowing and drying of leaves and flowers is a natural progression due to age, nothing can be done to slow or stop the process. Once hormones within the plant begin the process of senescence, it’s irreversible.
Prevention
Prevention
Unfortunately, there is no way to prevent plants from dying of “old age.” To help prolong their life, and put off symptoms of aged yellow and dry for as long as possible, take care of them by giving them enough water, fertilizing them appropriately, and making sure they get enough sunlight.
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Weed Control About Black-eyed susan

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Weeds
Black-eyed susan is native to North America. Although it is not invasive in the sense of taking over non-native habitats, black-eyed susan can still spread uncontrollably and cause issues in areas where it has been planted as a decorative plant. Black-eyed susan is troublesome as it can spread through its seeds and its rhizomatous roots, and once it gets well established, it is difficult to get rid of. It can colonize disturbed areas where there has been recent damage to the terrain, e.g., after a fire or messy mowing. The plant can survive repeated mowing or cutting to the ground, and can even produce seed in maintenance regimes with long periods between mowing, but is not able to flower or set seed in regularly mowed lawns.
How to Control it
The best time to remove weeds is before bearing fruits. Pulling out: For a kind of herb, wear gloves or use tools to dig weeds. Pruning: For an annual plant, pruning its aboveground parts can effectively control the growth. Plowing: Plow the soil before cultivation and bury the whole weed in the soil. Chemical control: If in large amounts, weeds can be removed by the herbicide.
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Distribution of Black-eyed susan

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Habitat of Black-eyed susan

Parks, gardens
Northern Hemisphere
South Hemisphere

Distribution Map of Black-eyed susan

Black-eyed susan is native to most of North America. Popularized as a garden ornamental, it can now be found widely in west and central Europe, Scandinavia, Korea, and Myanmar. Its native ecosystem is grasslands, fields and other areas with few trees to block out light.
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Potentially invasive
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No species reported
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Water
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Black-eyed Susan Watering Instructions
Black-eyed susan hails from North-America, enjoying an environment characterized by moderate rainfall and significant sunlight. Chiefly found in dry or damp meadows and woodland edges, this plant can sustain dampness, but thrives better in conditions that aren't oversaturated. Therefore, watering should resemble this context: a generous supply, while ensuring proper drainage. Too much water can lead to root rot. Always gauge moisture levels in soil before watering.
When Should I Water My Black-eyed Susan?
Importance of Timely Watering
The health and flourishing growth of black-eyed susan greatly depend on correct and timely watering. Inadequate or excessive watering can negatively impact its growth, leading to weak plants or root rot. Employing visual and tactile checks can help estimate the plant's water requirements more precisely.
Leaf Color
The color of black-eyed susan's leaves could indicate a need for water. If the leaves begin to lose their usual lush green color and start turning a pale, noticeable signs that indicate the plant is in need of watering.
Leaf Texture
Normally, black-eyed susan's leaves are firm and robust. If they become droopy or wilt, it is a sign that the plant is under-watered. Rehydrate the plant slowly and watch for signs of recovery.
Topsoil Moisture
Feel the soil around the black-eyed susan. If the top 1-2 inches of the soil are dry to the touch, it's time to water. The plant prefers well-drained soil, so it is important not to let it sit in water.
Seasonal Variations
During the growing season (spring and summer), black-eyed susan typically requires more water than during the dormant season (fall and winter). Daily temperature and humidity levels can further influence its requirements.
Risks of Improper Watering
Watering black-eyed susan either too soon or too late poses risks. Over-watering can cause root rot, fungus, and other diseases, while under-watering can cause dehydration and hamper the plant's growth. Ignoring these indicators can severely impact the plant's health and may ultimately lead to its death.
How Should I Water My Black-eyed Susan?
Plant Features
Black-eyed susan is a hearty perennial plant that can withstand periods of drought and excessive moisture. However, proper watering is vital to maintain its vibrant blooms.
Watering Technique
The 'soaker method' is generally preferred for this plant. Water black-eyed susan using a soaking hose or a watering can with a soft-spout, to prevent splashing, directly at the base of the plant. This protects the foliage from excess moisture while reaching the deeper roots.
Water Sensitivity
Black-eyed susan is relatively drought tolerant but still requires regular watering. The plant is also tolerant of overwatering to a certain extent, but consistently soggy soil conditions can lead to root rot. Use a 'finger-test' to determine when watering is required: if the top 2 inches of soil are dry, it is time to water black-eyed susan.
Special Equipment
A moisture meter can be a helpful tool to avoid both underwatering and overwatering. This will measure the moisture level near the roots, not just at the surface, ensuring black-eyed susan is adequately watered.
Avoidance Areas
Try to avoid getting the petals and leaves of black-eyed susan wet as this can cause fungal diseases. Water at the base of the plant directly towards the soil.
Focus Areas
Pay particular attention to the bases of black-eyed susan especially in dryer months. The deep root structure of black-eyed susan means it is crucial to ensure enough water is provided to reach these deeper root areas.
How Much Water Does Black-eyed Susan Really Need?
Natural Habitat Hydration Context
Known to thrive in its native North American environments, black-eyed susan capitalizes on rainfall, especially during the periods of drought, which underscores its moderate water requirements and drought-resistance attributes.
Optimal Water Quantity
Black-eyed susan in a pot that is around 30 cm (12 inches) in diameter needs approximately 2 liters (0.5 gallons) of water to maintain its vitality. Bear in mind that the given quantity may vary based on pot size and root depth, which influence the required amount of water. Black-eyed susan's robust root system, typically measuring nearly 30 cm (12 inches) in depth, necessitates comprehensive water penetration. Also, the plant's overall size is a crucial parameter; a grown black-eyed susan seize up to 120 cm (47 inches) tall and 45 cm (18 inches) wide necessitates proportionate hydration.
Watering Indication Signals
A healthy black-eyed susan showcases dark green foliage, firm stems, and vibrant yellow-orange flowers, indicating optimal hydration levels. Leaf wilting or yellowing or the presence of brittle, light brown lower leaves may signal underwatering. Overwatering is frequently characterized by root rot, manifested in blackening and wilting of lower leaves or a generally sickly appearance. An obligatory drying-out period between waterings is advisable to forestall such conditions.
Watering Implications
Underwatering starves black-eyed susan off essential nutrients, leading to weaker plants that bloom less profusely. Overwatering, on the other hand, can cause leaf discoloration, root rot, and in severe cases, can usher in the peril of plant death due to suffocation of roots.
How Often Should I Water Black-eyed Susan?
Twice per week
Watering Frequency
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Just like people, each plant has its own preferences and needs. Devote time to understanding your plants so you can nurture them properly. Observe your plants attentively, learning from their growth patterns, and becoming more in tune with their needs as you grow together. Keep a watchful eye on new plants and seedlings, as they are sensitive to both overwatering and underwatering. Shower them with gentle love and attention, fostering their growth and strength. Let the rhythm of your local climate guide your watering habits, adapting your schedule to the changing weather and the needs of your plants.
What Kind of Water is Best for Black-eyed Susan?
Water Type Guide for black-eyed susan
Water Sensitivity: Moderate - black-eyed susan prefers well-draining soil and should not be overly saturated with water.
Water Types
Distilled Water: Ideal for black-eyed susan as it is pure and free from any contaminants. Rainwater: A suitable alternative to distilled water, as long as it is collected in a clean container and free from pollution or acid rain. Tap Water: Can be used if no other water sources are available. However, it may contain chlorine and other chemicals that can be harmful to the plant. Filtered Water: Another alternative, as long as it removes any harmful contaminants.
Chlorine Sensitivity
Moderate - black-eyed susan is somewhat sensitive to chlorine in tap water, which can cause leaf burn and overall stress to the plant.
Fluoride Sensitivity
Unknown - black-eyed susan sensitivity to fluoride in water is not well-documented. However, it is generally recommended to avoid excessively fluoridated water for most plants.
Mineral Sensitivity
Low - black-eyed susan can tolerate moderate levels of minerals in water, but excessive amounts can lead to salt build-up in the soil and negatively impact the plant's health.
Water Treatments
Dechlorination: It is recommended to let tap water sit out for at least 24 hours before using it on black-eyed susan. This allows the chlorine to dissipate and makes the water safer for the plant. Filtration: Using a carbon or activated charcoal filter can help remove chlorine and other impurities from tap water, making it safer for black-eyed susan.
Water Temperature Preferences
Moderate - black-eyed susan generally prefers water at room temperature (around 68-72°F or 20-22°C). Avoid using water that is too cold or too hot, as extreme temperatures can shock the plant.
How Do Black-eyed Susan's Watering Needs Change with the Seasons?
How to Water black-eyed susan in Spring?
During spring, black-eyed susan's growth period starts as the environmental conditions are favourable. Increased sunlight and warmer temperatures spark the plant to break dormancy and initiate new growth. As the plant is actively growing during this time, it requires more water than in its dormancy period. Water black-eyed susan enough to keep the soil consistently moist. Watch for signs of overwatering, which include yellowing leaves or a wilted appearance.
How to Water black-eyed susan in Summer?
In summer, black-eyed susan goes through its peak growth phase and blooms profusely. Due to the increased sunlight and temperature during this season, the plant's water requirement increases. However, black-eyed susan is a drought-tolerant plant, adapted to withstand prolonged periods without water. Thus, while it's vital to maintain a regular watering schedule, ensure the soil is allowed to dry out between watering sessions to prevent root rot.
How to Water black-eyed susan in Autumn?
Black-eyed susan's growth rate slows down during autumn in preparation for the winter dormancy period. As temperatures drop and the plants receive less sunlight, reduce watering frequency. However, the soil should never be allowed to completely dry. Avoid waterlogging the soil as it can lead to root rot and other issues.
How to Water black-eyed susan in Winter?
Black-eyed susan goes into a dormancy period in winter. It is not actively growing during this time and therefore, its watering requirements lessen. However, the plant is not completely inactive and still requires some water to maintain the basic processes. Water black-eyed susan sparingly, allowing the soil to dry out completely before watering again. Excess water during this period may cause the roots to rot as this plant isn't able to utilize the water as effectively in winter.
What Expert Tips Can Enhance Black-eyed Susan Watering Routine?
Watering Tool:
Using a soaker hose or drip irrigation system can help ensure that water is delivered directly to the root zone of black-eyed susan, minimizing water waste and reducing the risk of fungal diseases.
Morning Watering:
Water black-eyed susan in the morning to allow the foliage to dry quickly, reducing the chances of fungal infections. This also gives the plant plenty of time to absorb the water before the heat of the day.
Soil Moisture Testing:
When assessing soil moisture levels, it's important to go beyond the surface. Use a finger or a trowel to dig about an inch or two into the soil near the plant's base to check for moisture. It should feel slightly damp but not excessively wet.
Smart Watering Schedule:
Establish a watering schedule based on the weather conditions and the plant's needs. During hot and dry periods, increase the frequency of watering, but always prioritize allowing the soil to dry out between waterings to prevent root rot.
Avoid Over-Watering:
One common mistake is over-watering black-eyed susan. It is a relatively drought-tolerant plant and thrives in well-drained soil. Only water when the top inch of the soil feels dry to the touch.
Signs of Thirst:
When black-eyed susan becomes thirsty, its leaves may wilt slightly. This is a good indicator that it's time to water. However, if the leaves are completely droopy and the stems are soft, this indicates over-watering.
Watering During Heatwaves:
During a heatwave, black-eyed susan might require additional watering to combat the extreme temperatures. Monitor the soil moisture more frequently and water deeply to ensure adequate hydration.
Extended Rain:
During extended periods of rain, check for waterlogged soil and reduce watering accordingly. Overly saturated soil can drown the roots and lead to root rot.
Stress Watering:
When black-eyed susan is under stress, such as transplant shock or prolonged exposure to extreme weather conditions, it may require additional watering until it recovers. Be mindful of the plant's signs of stress and adjust watering accordingly.
Fertilizer Dilution:
If using a water-soluble fertilizer on black-eyed susan, dilute it to half-strength to prevent over-fertilization and potential damage to the plant's roots.
Soil Amendments:
Adding organic matter, like compost or well-aged manure, to the soil before planting black-eyed susan can improve water retention and drainage, creating a favorable environment for the plant's root system.
Considering Hydroponics? How to Manage a Water-Grown Black-eyed Susan?
Overview
Black-eyed susan is a plant that can be grown using hydroponics, a method of growing plants without soil. Hydroponics uses water-based solutions to provide nutrients directly to the plant roots. This method can be advantageous for black-eyed susan as it allows for better control over nutrient levels and eliminates the risk of soil-borne diseases.
Hydroponic System
The nutrient film technique (NFT) is a suitable hydroponic system for growing black-eyed susan. In this system, a shallow stream of nutrient-rich water continuously flows over the roots, providing a constant supply of nutrients. This system promotes healthy root growth and maximizes nutrient uptake.
Nutrient Solution
Black-eyed susan prefers a balanced nutrient solution with a pH level of 6.0-6.5 for optimal growth. The nutrient solution should contain macro and micronutrients, including nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, and trace elements. The concentration of these nutrients should be adjusted as black-eyed susan progresses through different growth stages.
Frequency of Nutrient Change
The nutrient solution should be changed every 1-2 weeks to prevent nutrient imbalances and accumulation of toxins. It is essential to monitor the nutrient levels regularly and adjust the solution accordingly to ensure black-eyed susan receives the necessary nutrients.
Challenges and Common Issues
Root rot is a common issue when growing black-eyed susan hydroponically. To prevent this, maintain proper oxygenation in the root zone by providing adequate aeration to the nutrient solution. Nutrient imbalances can also occur, leading to stunted growth or leaf discoloration. Regular monitoring and adjustment of nutrient concentrations can help prevent these issues. Additionally, black-eyed susan requires sufficient light for photosynthesis. Providing appropriate light intensity and duration is crucial for its healthy growth.
Monitoring Plant Health
Monitor black-eyed susan for signs of stress or nutrient deficiencies, such as yellowing leaves, stunted growth, or wilting. Adjust the nutrient solution or lighting conditions accordingly to address these issues. Additionally, check the root system for any signs of root rot, such as slimy or discolored roots.
Adjusting Hydroponic Environment
As black-eyed susan progresses through different growth stages, adjust the hydroponic environment to meet its specific needs. This includes modifying nutrient concentrations, optimizing lighting conditions, and providing adequate spacing for root development.
Harvesting black-eyed susan
Harvest black-eyed susan when the flowers are fully bloomed. Cut the stem at the base and use the flowers for decorative or medicinal purposes. Regularly monitor black-eyed susan for mature flowers to ensure the timely harvest.
Important Symptoms
Overwatering Symptoms of Black-eyed susan
Black-eyed susan is more susceptible to developing disease symptoms when overwatered because it prefers a soil environment with moderate humidity. Symptoms of overwatering include yellowing leaves, brown or black spots, root rot...
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Brown or black spots
Excessive watering can damage the plant's root system, making it vulnerable to fungal infections. The plant may develop dark brown to black spots that spread upwards from the lower leaves which are usually the first to be affected.
Root rot
Excess water in the soil can lead to the growth of harmful fungi and bacteria, causing the roots to rot and eventually kill the plant.
Soft or mushy stems
Excess water can cause stems to become soft and mushy, as the cells become waterlogged and lose their structural integrity.
Increased susceptibility diseases
Overwatering plants may become more susceptible and diseases as their overall health declines, weakening their natural defenses.
Solutions
1. Adjust watering frequency based on seasons and soil dryness. Wait for soil to dry before watering.2. Increase soil aeration by loosening surface and gently stirring with a wooden stick or chopstick.3. Optimize environment with good ventilation and warmth to enhance water evaporation and prevent overwatering.
Underwatering Symptoms of Black-eyed susan
Black-eyed susan is more susceptible to plant health issues when lacking watering, as it can only tolerate short periods of drought. Symptoms of dehydration include wilting, leaf curling, yellowing leaves...
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Wilting
Due to the dry soil and insufficient water absorption by the roots, the leaves of the plant will appear limp, droopy, and lose vitality.
Leaf curling
Leaves may curl inward or downward as they attempt to conserve water and minimize water loss through transpiration.
Increased susceptibility to pests and diseases
Underwatered plants may become more susceptible to pests and diseases as their overall health declines, weakening their natural defenses.
Dying plant
If underwatering continues for an extended period, the plant may ultimately die as a result of severe water stress and an inability to carry out essential functions.
Solutions
1. Thoroughly saturate soil with slow ring watering to ensure uniform and sufficient moisture for plants. 2. Increase air humidity with water trays or misting to slow leaf water evaporation. 3. Watering according to the recommended frequency.Adjust watering frequency based on seasons and soil dryness.
Watering Troubleshooting for Black-eyed Susan
Why are the leaves of my black-eyed susan turning yellow?
Yellow leaves can be a sign of over-watering. Black-eyed susan prefers well-drained soil and can be susceptible to root rot if watered too frequently or if the soil does not drain properly. Cut back on watering and ensure your plant is in a pot with proper drainage holes.
The bottom leaves of my black-eyed susan are wilting and falling off, what's going wrong?
This may be a symptom of under-watering. Black-eyed susan plants require regular watering, particularly in dry conditions. Increase the frequency of watering, while being careful not to overwater as this could lead to other problems like root rot.
The edges of my black-eyed susan leaves are turning brown, is this due to water issues?
Yes, this can be due to over-watering or poor-quality water. Check your watering frequency first; if that's not the issue, try using rainwater or filtered water to water your black-eyed susan. High amounts of chlorine or other chemicals in tap water can cause leaf tip burn.
The leaves of my black-eyed susan are curling, could it be due to incorrect watering?
Leaf curl in black-eyed susan could be due to both under- and over-watering, check the soil moisture level before watering. Correct watering method is to water deeply but infrequently, allowing the soil to dry out between watering sessions.
Why does my black-eyed susan show no growth despite regular watering?
Over-watering can sometimes drown the roots, depriving them of oxygen needed for growth. On the contrary, under-watering can also stunt the growth as the plant may not be getting enough water to sustain itself. Always maintain a balance by checking the soil moisture before watering.
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Lighting
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Indoor
Outdoor
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Requirements
Full sun
Ideal
Above 6 hours sunlight
Partial sun
Tolerance
About 3-6 hours sunlight
Watch how sunlight gracefully moves through your garden, and choose spots that provide the perfect balance of light and shade for your plants, ensuring their happiness.
Essentials
The black-eyed susan flourishes best with abundant light exposure, prospering in locations where the sun shines strong and unhindered. It can also adapt to conditions where the sunshine is less abundant. In its native habitat, it thrives amidst open sunlit expanses. Lack of sufficient light could lead to unhealthy, leggy growth, whereas too much can cause leaf scorch.
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Artificial lighting
Indoor plants require adequate lighting for optimal growth. When natural sunlight is insufficient, particularly in winter or in less sunny spaces, artificial lights offer a vital solution, promoting faster, healthier growth.
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Indoor plants require adequate lighting for optimal growth. When natural sunlight is insufficient, particularly in winter or in less sunny spaces, artificial lights offer a vital solution, promoting faster, healthier growth.
1. Choose the right type of artificial light: LED lights are a popular choice for indoor plant lighting because they can be customized to provide the specific wavelengths of light that your plants need.
Full sun plants need 30-50W/sq ft of artificial light, partial sun plants need 20-30W/sq ft, and full shade plants need 10-20W/sq ft.
2. Determine the appropriate distance: Place the light source 12-36 inches above the plant to mimic natural sunlight.
3. Determine the duration: Mimic the length of natural daylight hours for your plant species. most plants need 8-12 hours of light per day.
Important Symptoms
Symptoms of Insufficient Light in %s
Black-eyed susan thrives in full sunlight and is commonly grown outdoors where it receives ample sunlight. When placed in rooms with inadequate lighting, symptoms of light deficiency may not be readily apparent.
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Small leaves
New leaves may grow smaller in size compared to the previous ones once they have matured.
Leggy or sparse growth
The spaces between leaves or stems of your black-eyed susan may become longer, resulting in a thin and stretched-out appearance. This can make the plant look sparse and weak, and it may easily break or lean due to its own weight.
Faster leaf drop
When plants are exposed to low light conditions, they tend to shed older leaves early to conserve resources. Within a limited time, these resources can be utilized to grow new leaves until the plant's energy reserves are depleted.
Slower or no new growth
Black-eyed susan enters a survival mode when light conditions are poor, which leads to a halt in leaf production. As a result, the plant's growth becomes delayed or stops altogether.
Lighter-colored new leaves
Insufficient sunlight can cause leaves to develop irregular color patterns or appear pale. This indicates a lack of chlorophyll and essential nutrients.
Solutions
1. To ensure optimal growth, gradually move plants to a sunnier location each week, until they receive at least 6 hours of direct sunlight daily. Use a south-facing window and keep curtains open during the day for maximum sunlight exposure and nutrient accumulation.2. To provide additional light for your plant, consider using artificial light if it's large or not easily movable. Keep a desk or ceiling lamp on for at least 8 hours daily, or invest in professional plant grow lights for ample light.
Symptoms of Excessive light in %s
Black-eyed susan thrives in full sun exposure and can tolerate intense sunlight. With their remarkable resilience, symptoms of sunburn may not be easily visible, as they rarely suffer from it.
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Chlorosis
Chlorosis is a condition where the plant's leaves lose their green color and turn yellow. This is due to the breakdown of chlorophyll from excessive sunlight, which negatively affects the plant's ability to photosynthesize.
Sunscald
Sunscald occurs when the plant's leaves or stems are damaged by intense sunlight exposure. It appears as pale, bleached, or necrotic areas on the plant tissue and can reduce the plant's overall health.
Leaf Curling
Leaf curling is a symptom where leaves curl or twist under extreme sunlight conditions. This is a defense mechanism used by the plant to reduce its surface area exposed to sunlight, minimizing water loss and damage.
Wilting
Wilting occurs when a plant loses turgor pressure and its leaves and stems begin to droop. Overexposure to sunlight can cause wilting by increasing the plant's water loss through transpiration, making it difficult for the plant to maintain adequate hydration.
Leaf Scorching
Leaf scorching is a symptom characterized by the appearance of brown, dry, and crispy edges or patches on leaves due to excessive sunlight. This can lead to a reduction in photosynthetic capacity and overall plant health.
Solutions
1. Move your plant to the optimal position where it can receive abundant sunlight but also have some shade. An east-facing window is an ideal choice as the morning sunlight is gentler. This way, your plant can enjoy ample sunlight while reducing the risk of sunburn.2. It is recommended to trim off any completely dehydrated or withered parts of the plant.
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Just like people, each plant has its own preferences. Learn about your plants' temperature needs and create a comforting environment for them to flourish. As you care for your plants, your bond with them will deepen. Trust your intuition as you learn about their temperature needs, celebrating the journey you share. Lovingly monitor the temperature around your plants and adjust their environment as needed. A thermometer can be your ally in this heartfelt endeavor. Be patient and gentle with yourself as you explore your plants' temperature needs. Cherish your successes, learn from challenges, and nurture your garden with love, creating a haven that reflects the warmth of your care.
Essentials
Black-eyed susan is native to temperate environments, flourishing in temperatures from 68 to 95 °F (20 to 35 ℃). It's hearty in both spring and fall due to its broad temperature tolerance. Adjust watering in extreme summer or winter to avoid stress.
Regional wintering strategies
Black-eyed susan has strong cold resistance, so special frost protection measures are usually not necessary during winter. However, if the winter temperatures are expected to drop below {Limit_growth_temperature}, it is still important to provide cold protection. This can be achieved by covering the plant with materials such as soil or straw. Before the first freeze in autumn, it is recommended to water the plant abundantly, ensuring the soil remains moist and enters a frozen state. This helps prevent drought and water scarcity for the plant during winter and early spring.
Important Symptoms
Symptoms of Low Temperature in Black-eyed susan
Black-eyed susan is cold-tolerant and thrives best when the temperature is above {Suitable_growth_temperature_min}. During winter, it should be kept above {Tolerable_growing_temperature_min}. When the temperature falls below {Limit_growth_temperature}, although there may not be any noticeable changes during winter, there may be a decrease in sprouting or even no sprouting during springtime.
Solutions
In spring, remove any parts that have failed to sprout.
Symptoms of High Temperature in Black-eyed susan
During summer, Black-eyed susan should be kept below {Suitable_growth_temperature_max}. When the temperature exceeds {Tolerable_growing_temperature_max}, the leaves of the plant may become lighter in color, prone to curling, susceptible to sunburn, and in severe cases, the entire plant may wilt and become dry.
Solutions
Trim away the sunburned and dried-up parts. Move the plant to a location that provides shade from the midday and afternoon sun, or use a shade cloth to create shade. Water the plant in the morning and evening to keep the soil moist.
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