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Common salsify
Common salsify
Common salsify
Common salsify
Common salsify
Common salsify
Common salsify
Tragopogon porrifolius
Also known as : Vegetable oyster, Purple Goat's beard, Jack go to bed
Hardiness Zones
Hardiness Zones
6 to 10
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Care Guide for Common salsify

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6 to 10
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Common salsify
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6 to 10
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Questions About Common salsify

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Watering Watering Watering
Pruning Pruning Pruning
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What is the best way to water my Common salsify?
Not only does the Common salsify have certain preferences regarding how much water it receives, but it also cares deeply about how you provide that water. In fact, if you don't use the proper watering technique, you risk harming your tomatoes. The best way to water Common salsify is to apply the water directly to the soil in a slow and gentle manner. You should not pour all of the water into the soil at once, and you should not do overhead watering for your Common salsify. Although you should water slowly, you should also water deeply to ensure that all of the soil in which your Common salsify grows is sufficiently moist.
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What should I do if I water my Common salsify too much or too little?
If you find that you have overwatered your Common salsify and you are concerned about the associated risk of disease, you should intervene immediately. Often the best approach for an overwatered Common salsify is to uproot it from its current growing location. Once the plant is out of the ground, you can allow its roots to dry a bit before planting it in a new growing location. Ensure that the new growing location has soil with good drainage. If you grow in pots, you may also want to move your plant to a pot with more or larger drainage holes. In the case of underwatering, all you will need to do is increase the frequency with which you supply water to your plant.
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How often should I water my Common salsify?
Overall, Common salsify requires a significant amount of water throughout the growing season. To meet that high water need, you'll need to water early and often throughout the spring and summer. During the earlier parts of the growing season, you should water your Common salsify about once or twice per week. As the season progresses, you should increase your watering frequency. You may need to water it twice per day or more during summer, depending on the weather. After your Common salsify have gone through their major seasonal growth phases, you can reduce the frequency of your watering to about once per week until the end of the growing season.
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How much water does my Common salsify need?
Since Common salsify are incredibly popular, with many professional and amateur gardeners growing them successfully, we have a pretty clear idea of how to care for these plants. That understanding includes specific knowledge about the precise volume of water an average Common salsify should receive. Generally, Common salsify will require about 1 - 1.5 inches of water per week. That volume should be dispersed evenly through your weekly watering. As the weather gets warmer, you may need to supply more water, but in most cases, two inches per week is a good baseline amount.
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How can I tell if i'm watering my Common salsify enough?
Underwatering and overwatering can both occur as problems for your Common salsify, and both these problems can manifest with similar symptoms. For example, foliage discoloration and wilting can both result from either overwatering or underwatering. When your Common salsify is underwatered, its leaves will be curling and drooping at the beginning. You will see a bunch of leaves turn less vigorous. Underwatering is also likely to cause stunted growth and poor overall development as both the flowers and this plant require a high amount of water. Overwatering is more likely to lead to disease, including rot. Overwatering may also lead to unpleasant smells rising from your plant's soil. The symptoms of underwatering will show up quicker than overwatering. Overwatering can also be evident in soil conditions. Mainly, if you notice a lot of standing water or waterlogged soils, overwatering is likely to occur.
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How should I water my Common salsify through the seasons?
As alluded to above, your Common salsify's water needs will repeatedly change throughout the seasons. During most of spring and summer, you should water your Common salsify about once every week. As the heat of summer arrives, you should plan to increase your watering frequency to once or twice per day. In the late summer and fall, towards the end of the harvest period, you can reduce your watering frequency to about once per week. After harvest has ended, you can cease watering as your Common salsify has reached the end of its life cycle and will require no further soil moisture. The maintenance schedule of Common salsify will require you to alter the amount of water you provide depending on the plant's current growth stage. Early on, especially if you grow your Common salsify from seeds, you'll need to provide water often enough to maintain consistent soil moisture, which encourages root development. When the plant becomes old enough to produce flowers, it will likely need even more water. During the fruit development growth stage, your Common salsify will likely need the most water out of any growth period, at times requiring water more than twice per day. Following that phase, the water needs of Common salsify will decline significantly.
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What's the difference between watering Common salsify indoors and outdoors?
Whether you grow Common salsify indoors or outdoors can also play a role in how you water them. Common salsify that grows outdoors may receive water from natural rainfall, which will reduce the amount of supplemental water you should supply. However, it is incredibly rare for rainfall to adequately replace your watering entirely. Plants that grow indoors, along with any Common salsify that grows in a container, will need to be watered more frequently than those that grow in the ground outdoors. If you choose this route, please make sure that the plant gets enough water by checking the soil moisture within your pot often to keep your Common salsify healthy.
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Key Facts About Common salsify

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Attributes of Common salsify

Lifespan
Biennial
Plant Type
Herb
Planting Time
Spring
Bloom Time
Spring, Summer, Early fall
Harvest Time
Early spring, Mid fall, Late fall, Winter
Plant Height
1.2 m
Spread
30 cm
Leaf Color
Green
Blue
Flower Size
5 cm
Flower Color
Purple
Pink
Fruit Color
Brown
White
Copper
Stem Color
Green
Leaf type
Deciduous
Ideal Temperature
20 - 35 ℃
Growth Season
Spring, Summer
Growth Rate
Moderate

Scientific Classification of Common salsify

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Common Pests & Diseases About Common salsify

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Flower withering
Flower withering Flower withering
Flower withering
Flowers may dry out due to a sudden change in environment or because the plant has completed its normal flowering period.
Solutions: If flower withering is a natural progression due to age, there is nothing that can be done to slow or stop the process. Once hormones within the plant begin the process of senescence, it’s irreversible. For lack of water, immediately water the plant using room temperature rainwater, bottled spring water, or filtered tap water. Water container plants until excess water drains out the bottom; water in-ground plants until the soil is soaked but there isn’t standing water on the surface. In the event of nutritional deficiencies, the best solution is to use a granular or water-soluble liquid fertilizer, and apply it to the soil at about half the recommended dosage. Keep it off the leaves and make sure granular products are watered into the soil well. If the plant is infected with a bacterial or fungal pathogen, there is no course of treatment that cures the diseased plants. The best solution is to remove the infected plants and dispose of the plant material off-site. Do not put in a compost pile.
Aged yellow and dry
Aged yellow and dry Aged yellow and dry
Aged yellow and dry
Natural aging can cause leaves to turn yellow and dry out.
Solutions: If the yellowing and drying of leaves and flowers is a natural progression due to age, nothing can be done to slow or stop the process. Once hormones within the plant begin the process of senescence, it’s irreversible.
Brown spot
Brown spot Brown spot
Brown spot
This infection can cause brown spots or patches to appear on the plant.
Solutions: In minor cases of brown spot, there isn’t any need to treat the disease. However, if much of the foliage is affected and defoliation occurs, the plant will benefit from getting rid of the infection. It is recommended to start by applying organic treatment options, working up to the more potent synthetic, chemical fungicides if necessary. Organic options won’t kill the fungus, but will prevent it from spreading. Dissolve ½ teaspoon of baking soda and one teaspoon of liquid soap in a gallon of water. Using a spray bottle, spray on tops and bottoms of leaves until the mixture drips off. Repeat every two weeks until existing spots stop enlarging and new spots no longer appear. Spray a copper-based fungicidal soap on the leaves, coating the top and bottom leaf surfaces. Reapply as directed on the product label. Copper penetrates the leaf surface and prevents germination of spores so the fungus cannot spread. Apply an all-purpose fungicide to the entire plant, following the label instructions carefully.
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Flower withering
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Flower withering
Flowers may dry out due to a sudden change in environment or because the plant has completed its normal flowering period.
Overview
Overview
Flower withering occurs when flowers become weak, droopy, wilted, or faded until they can’t be revived. During withering, they begin to wrinkle and shrink until the flower becomes completely dry or dead.
Any flowers, regardless of the plant type or the climate they are grown in, are susceptible to withering. It is a worldwide problem across houseplants, herbs, flowering ornamentals, trees, shrubs, garden vegetables, and food crops.
Unlike wilting—which withering is often confused with—withering can be caused by different things and is often due to more than a lack of water. Withering can be fatal in severe cases.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Flower withering progresses from very mild cases to severe occurrences that kill the flower. The severity of the symptoms is related to the cause and how long the condition is allowed to progress before action is taken.
  • Wilted, droopy flowers
  • Petals and leaves begin to wrinkle
  • Brown papery streaks or spots appear on the petals and leaf tips
  • Flowerhead shrink in size
  • Petal color fades
  • Yellowing leaves
  • Complete death of the flower
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
The main causes of flower withering include natural age progress, lack of water, nutritional deficiencies, and bacterial or fungal diseases. It’s critical to determine the underlying cause when flower withering is noticed. This will guide the best course of action, if treatment is possible.
Check the soil for moisture and then closely examine the entire plant for signs of nutrient deficiencies. If neither of those appears to be the cause then cut open the stem below a flower. If a cross-section reveals brown or rust-colored stains it is safe to assume that this is a bacterial or fungal infection.
If the flower is nearing the end of its normal lifespan, genetic coding within the plant increases the production of ethylene, a phytohormone that controls senescence, or cell aging and death. Cell division stops and the plant begins breaking down resources within the flower to use in other parts of the plant.
In all other cases, flower withering happens when the plant seals off the stem as a defense mechanism, stopping transport within the vascular system. This prevents further water loss through the flowers but also stops bacteria and fungi from moving to healthy parts of the plant. Once water and nutrient transport stops, the flower begins to wither and ultimately die.
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Aged yellow and dry
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Aged yellow and dry
Natural aging can cause leaves to turn yellow and dry out.
Overview
Overview
Regardless of the type of plant or where it is grown, at some point, it will begin to aged yellow and dry. This is a natural, unavoidable process that happens when the plant has completed all of the steps in its life.
Annual plants go through this process at the end of a single growing season. Perennial plants live for multiple years, if not tens or hundreds of years, but will still ultimately exhibit these symptoms.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
When plants have progressed through their natural developmental stages and are nearing the end of their lifecycle, they begin showing signs of decline. Leaves will start to yellow and droop, and over time they turn papery brown and dry.
Once completely dry, the leaves begin to fall from the plant until the entire plant has dried out.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
At the end of its life, genetic coding within the plant increases the production of ethylene, a phytohormone that controls senescence or natural aging and death. Cell division stops, and the plant begins catabolizing resources to use in other parts of the plant.
As this happens, the tissues begin yellow and drying until the entire plant is desiccated and perishes.
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Brown spot
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Brown spot
This infection can cause brown spots or patches to appear on the plant.
Overview
Overview
Discolored spots on the foliage of plants are one of the most common disease problems people observe. These spots are caused by fungal and bacterial diseases, with most infections related to a fungal pathogen.
Brown spot can occurs on all houseplants, flowering ornamentals, vegetable plants, and leaves of trees, bushes, and shrubs. No plants are resistant to it, and the problem is worse in warm, wet environments. It can occur at any point in the life stage as long as leaves are present.
Small brownish spots appear on the foliage and enlarge as the disease progresses. In severe cases, the plant or tree is weakened when the lesions interrupt photosynthesis or cause defoliation.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
In most cases, brown spot only affects a small percentage of the whole plant, appearing on a small amount of the leaves. A small infection only puts minor stress on the plant. However, if left untreated and the disease progresses over numerous seasons, it will severely impact the health and productivity of the infected specimen.
  • Sporulation begins (reproduction of the fungal spores), and tiny spots appear on leaves.
  • Placement is often random and scattered as diseases are spread through raindrops.
  • May appear on lower leaves and the interior of the plant where humidity is higher.
  • Brown spots enlarge and grow large enough to touch neighboring spots to form a more prominent blotch.
  • Leaf margins may turn yellow.
  • Tiny black dots (fruiting bodies of the fungi) appear in the dead spots.
  • Blotches grow in size until the entire leaf is brown.
  • The leaf falls off the plant.
Severe Symptoms
  • Partial or complete premature defoliation
  • Reduced growth
  • Increased susceptibility to pests and other diseases
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
Brown spot, or leaf spot, is a common descriptive term given to several diseases affecting the leaves of plants and trees. Around 85% of diseases exhibiting leaf spots are due to fungus or fungus-like organisms. Sometimes brown spot is caused by a bacterial infection, or insect activity with similar symptoms.
When conditions are warm and the leaf surfaces are wet, fungal spores being transported by wind or rain land on the surface and cling to it. They do not rupture the cell walls but grow in the space between the plant plasma membrane and the plant cell wall. As the spores reproduce, they release toxins and enzymes that cause necrotic spots (i.e., dead tissue) on the leaves, allowing the fungi to consume the products released when the cells degrade.
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Weed Control About Common salsify

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Weeds
Common salsify is native to Mediterranean Europe and North Africa. It prefers moist soils in disturbed areas, such as fields or roadsides, and occupies USDA zones 4 to 8. It is considered an invasive weed in twelve countries, including Belgium, Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. In Australia, it invades grain crops and reduces the value of commercial yields. Cattle and sheep graze on common salsify and contribute to its spread by carrying seeds in their coats or by depositing seeds in fecal matter. When necessary, common salsify can be mechanically removed or treated with fire. It can also be treated with biological means, such as with seed-eating insects or fungus.
How to Control it
Best weeding time: before fruition Removal: You can remove this weed by gloved hand or by tool in early autumn or early spring each year. Due to it being perennial, you need to completely clean out its root system to prevent it from regrowth. Chemical control: If the weed is too much to pull out, herbicides will be helpful for its eradication. Mowing: Mow twice by the end of spring each year and repeatedly do so for two consecutive years, and the spread of the weed could be contained. For weed on larger-sized land, machine mowing is recommended.
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Distribution of Common salsify

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Habitat of Common salsify

Disturbed sites
Northern Hemisphere
South Hemisphere

Distribution Map of Common salsify

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Native
Cultivated
Invasive
Potentially invasive
Exotic
No species reported
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More Info on Common Salsify Growth and Care

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Basic Care Guide
Lighting
Full sun
Common salsify flourishes in areas where the sun's rays are most abundant. It manages to survive in moderate sunlit conditions, as well. Exposure to too much or too little sunshine can lead to stunted growth or wilting. From seedling to full maturity, common salsify thrives best under a generous sun.
Best Sunlight Practices
Transplant
1-3 feet
The prime window for relocating common salsify spans from the rejuvenating warmth of late spring to the onset of summer's embrace, ensuring robust growth. Select a sunny spot with well-drained soil, and if needed, enrich with organic matter to welcome common salsify's roots.
Transplant Techniques
Temperature
0 - 41 ℃
Common salsify is native to environments with moderate climates, preferring temperatures of 68 to 95 ℉ (20 to 35 ℃). To aid in the adjustment of temperature across seasons, its heat requirements should be monitored and met as necessary.
Temp for Healthy Growth
Pruning
Spring, Summer
A biennial bearing purple blooms and edible roots, common salsify thrives with minimal maintenance. Prune to remove any spent flowers or damaged foliage, fostering growth and reducing disease risk. The optimal pruning period aligns with active growth in spring and summer. Pruning outside this window can hinder next season's blooms. Timely pruning ensures plant vigor and maximizes root development, paramount for this species cultivated for its taproot.
Pruning techniques
Propagation
Spring
An ornamental and edible root vegetable, common salsify is propagated by sowing seeds. For successful cultivation, choose a well-drained, fertile soil and plant seeds in rows, lightly covering them with soil. Maintain consistent moisture until germination, then thin seedlings to prevent crowding. Common salsify will be ready to harvest when roots are well-formed; with proper care, the plant produces distinctive purple flowers, adding both aesthetic and culinary value to gardens.
Propagation Techniques
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Plants Related to Common salsify

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Malay apple
Malay apple
The malay apple (Syzygium malaccense) is a common sight as a shorter-growing tree in tropical rainforests. Although its lumber is prone to warping, it is quite hard and used for handicrafts, beams, and occasionally railroad ties. The bark of the malay apple tree has a rich color and is often used to create brown dye.
Japanese sedge
Japanese sedge
Carex kobomugi is a low-growing sedge that extends along the ground with thick rhizomes. It produces flowering stems up to 30 cm tall and 3 to 4 mm in diameter, with male and female flowers generally produced on different plants. The leaves are 3 to 8 mm wide, and longer than the stems, and the lowest bracts are similar to the leaves.
Illinois Bundleflower
Illinois Bundleflower
The illinois Bundleflower, or Desmanthus illinoensis, is a legume and a beneficial plant for prairie restoration and plant collecting. This unusual plant features dark green segmented leaves and white fluffy flowers that attract pollinators.
Herb of grace
Herb of grace
The herb of grace is a perennial, non-aromatic herb that serves various uses. For example, this plant, with succulent, rounded-shaped, thick evergreen leaves and white flowers with four to five petals, is used in traditional Ayurvedic medicine. The leaves of this herb can be eaten as well.
Henbit deadnettle
Henbit deadnettle
Henbit deadnettle is a very important part of the North American and Eurasian ecosystems, as it is utilized by bees and other pollinators as a source of nectar. Additionally, the seeds are favored by birds and the leaves, stems, and flowers are edible to humans either raw or cooked.
Garden cosmos
Garden cosmos
Garden cosmos (Cosmos bipinnatus) is a herbaceous annual plant often cultivated as an ornamental in temperate regions. Due to its self-sowing ability, garden cosmos can grow on the same spot for several years, even though it is an annual. Not surprisingly, this quality also made it an invasive species in certain areas of the world.
Poison ivy
Poison ivy
In pop culture, poison ivy is a symbol of an obnoxious weed because, despite its unthreatening looks, it gives a highly unpleasant contact rash to the unfortunate person who touches it. Still, it is commonly eaten by many animals, and the seeds are a favorite with birds. The leaves turn bright red in fall. Its sister species, Western poison ivy (Toxicodendron rydbergii), is not considered to be invasive in the United States, but is noxious in Australia and New Zealand.
Pokeweed
Pokeweed
Although its berries look juicy and tempting, the fruits and the root of pokeweed are toxic and should not be eaten. Pokeweed is considered a pest species by farmers but is nevertheless often grown as an ornamental plant. Its berries can be made into pokeberry ink as well.
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Common salsify
Common salsify
Common salsify
Common salsify
Common salsify
Common salsify
Common salsify
Tragopogon porrifolius
Also known as: Vegetable oyster, Purple Goat's beard, Jack go to bed
Hardiness Zones
Hardiness Zones
6 to 10
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Weeds
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Care Guide for Common salsify

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Questions About Common salsify

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Watering Watering Watering
Pruning Pruning Pruning
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Temperature Temperature Temperature
Fertilizing Fertilizing Fertilizing
What is the best way to water my Common salsify?
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What should I do if I water my Common salsify too much or too little?
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How often should I water my Common salsify?
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How much water does my Common salsify need?
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How can I tell if i'm watering my Common salsify enough?
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How should I water my Common salsify through the seasons?
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What's the difference between watering Common salsify indoors and outdoors?
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Key Facts About Common salsify

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Attributes of Common salsify

Lifespan
Biennial
Plant Type
Herb
Planting Time
Spring
Bloom Time
Spring, Summer, Early fall
Harvest Time
Early spring, Mid fall, Late fall, Winter
Plant Height
1.2 m
Spread
30 cm
Leaf Color
Green
Blue
Flower Size
5 cm
Flower Color
Purple
Pink
Fruit Color
Brown
White
Copper
Stem Color
Green
Leaf type
Deciduous
Ideal Temperature
20 - 35 ℃
Growth Season
Spring, Summer
Growth Rate
Moderate
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Scientific Classification of Common salsify

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Common Pests & Diseases About Common salsify

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Flower withering
Flower withering Flower withering Flower withering
Flowers may dry out due to a sudden change in environment or because the plant has completed its normal flowering period.
Solutions: If flower withering is a natural progression due to age, there is nothing that can be done to slow or stop the process. Once hormones within the plant begin the process of senescence, it’s irreversible. For lack of water, immediately water the plant using room temperature rainwater, bottled spring water, or filtered tap water. Water container plants until excess water drains out the bottom; water in-ground plants until the soil is soaked but there isn’t standing water on the surface. In the event of nutritional deficiencies, the best solution is to use a granular or water-soluble liquid fertilizer, and apply it to the soil at about half the recommended dosage. Keep it off the leaves and make sure granular products are watered into the soil well. If the plant is infected with a bacterial or fungal pathogen, there is no course of treatment that cures the diseased plants. The best solution is to remove the infected plants and dispose of the plant material off-site. Do not put in a compost pile.
Learn More About the Flower withering more
Aged yellow and dry
Aged yellow and dry Aged yellow and dry Aged yellow and dry
Natural aging can cause leaves to turn yellow and dry out.
Solutions: If the yellowing and drying of leaves and flowers is a natural progression due to age, nothing can be done to slow or stop the process. Once hormones within the plant begin the process of senescence, it’s irreversible.
Learn More About the Aged yellow and dry more
Brown spot
Brown spot Brown spot Brown spot
This infection can cause brown spots or patches to appear on the plant.
Solutions: In minor cases of brown spot, there isn’t any need to treat the disease. However, if much of the foliage is affected and defoliation occurs, the plant will benefit from getting rid of the infection. It is recommended to start by applying organic treatment options, working up to the more potent synthetic, chemical fungicides if necessary. Organic options won’t kill the fungus, but will prevent it from spreading. Dissolve ½ teaspoon of baking soda and one teaspoon of liquid soap in a gallon of water. Using a spray bottle, spray on tops and bottoms of leaves until the mixture drips off. Repeat every two weeks until existing spots stop enlarging and new spots no longer appear. Spray a copper-based fungicidal soap on the leaves, coating the top and bottom leaf surfaces. Reapply as directed on the product label. Copper penetrates the leaf surface and prevents germination of spores so the fungus cannot spread. Apply an all-purpose fungicide to the entire plant, following the label instructions carefully.
Learn More About the Brown spot more
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Flower withering
plant poor
Flower withering
Flowers may dry out due to a sudden change in environment or because the plant has completed its normal flowering period.
Overview
Overview
Flower withering occurs when flowers become weak, droopy, wilted, or faded until they can’t be revived. During withering, they begin to wrinkle and shrink until the flower becomes completely dry or dead.
Any flowers, regardless of the plant type or the climate they are grown in, are susceptible to withering. It is a worldwide problem across houseplants, herbs, flowering ornamentals, trees, shrubs, garden vegetables, and food crops.
Unlike wilting—which withering is often confused with—withering can be caused by different things and is often due to more than a lack of water. Withering can be fatal in severe cases.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Flower withering progresses from very mild cases to severe occurrences that kill the flower. The severity of the symptoms is related to the cause and how long the condition is allowed to progress before action is taken.
  • Wilted, droopy flowers
  • Petals and leaves begin to wrinkle
  • Brown papery streaks or spots appear on the petals and leaf tips
  • Flowerhead shrink in size
  • Petal color fades
  • Yellowing leaves
  • Complete death of the flower
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
The main causes of flower withering include natural age progress, lack of water, nutritional deficiencies, and bacterial or fungal diseases. It’s critical to determine the underlying cause when flower withering is noticed. This will guide the best course of action, if treatment is possible.
Check the soil for moisture and then closely examine the entire plant for signs of nutrient deficiencies. If neither of those appears to be the cause then cut open the stem below a flower. If a cross-section reveals brown or rust-colored stains it is safe to assume that this is a bacterial or fungal infection.
If the flower is nearing the end of its normal lifespan, genetic coding within the plant increases the production of ethylene, a phytohormone that controls senescence, or cell aging and death. Cell division stops and the plant begins breaking down resources within the flower to use in other parts of the plant.
In all other cases, flower withering happens when the plant seals off the stem as a defense mechanism, stopping transport within the vascular system. This prevents further water loss through the flowers but also stops bacteria and fungi from moving to healthy parts of the plant. Once water and nutrient transport stops, the flower begins to wither and ultimately die.
Solutions
Solutions
If flower withering is a natural progression due to age, there is nothing that can be done to slow or stop the process. Once hormones within the plant begin the process of senescence, it’s irreversible.
For lack of water, immediately water the plant using room temperature rainwater, bottled spring water, or filtered tap water. Water container plants until excess water drains out the bottom; water in-ground plants until the soil is soaked but there isn’t standing water on the surface.
In the event of nutritional deficiencies, the best solution is to use a granular or water-soluble liquid fertilizer, and apply it to the soil at about half the recommended dosage. Keep it off the leaves and make sure granular products are watered into the soil well.
If the plant is infected with a bacterial or fungal pathogen, there is no course of treatment that cures the diseased plants. The best solution is to remove the infected plants and dispose of the plant material off-site. Do not put in a compost pile.
Prevention
Prevention
This is definitely one of those instances where prevention is more effective than cure. Here are some preventative measures for avoiding premature flower withering.
  • Water plants according to their needs -- either keep the soil slightly moist or allow the top inch or two to dry out before watering again.
  • Fertilize lightly on a consistent basis, depending upon the plant’s growth. Quick-growing plants and those that flower or develop fruit will need more frequent fertilizing than slow-growing plants.
  • Purchase plants that are certified disease- or pathogen-free.
  • Look for disease-resistant cultivars.
  • Isolate plants showing disease symptoms to prevent the spread to neighboring plants.
  • Practice good plant hygiene by removing any fallen plant material as soon as possible.
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Aged yellow and dry
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Aged yellow and dry
Natural aging can cause leaves to turn yellow and dry out.
Overview
Overview
Regardless of the type of plant or where it is grown, at some point, it will begin to aged yellow and dry. This is a natural, unavoidable process that happens when the plant has completed all of the steps in its life.
Annual plants go through this process at the end of a single growing season. Perennial plants live for multiple years, if not tens or hundreds of years, but will still ultimately exhibit these symptoms.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
When plants have progressed through their natural developmental stages and are nearing the end of their lifecycle, they begin showing signs of decline. Leaves will start to yellow and droop, and over time they turn papery brown and dry.
Once completely dry, the leaves begin to fall from the plant until the entire plant has dried out.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
At the end of its life, genetic coding within the plant increases the production of ethylene, a phytohormone that controls senescence or natural aging and death. Cell division stops, and the plant begins catabolizing resources to use in other parts of the plant.
As this happens, the tissues begin yellow and drying until the entire plant is desiccated and perishes.
Solutions
Solutions
If the yellowing and drying of leaves and flowers is a natural progression due to age, nothing can be done to slow or stop the process. Once hormones within the plant begin the process of senescence, it’s irreversible.
Prevention
Prevention
Unfortunately, there is no way to prevent plants from dying of “old age.” To help prolong their life, and put off symptoms of aged yellow and dry for as long as possible, take care of them by giving them enough water, fertilizing them appropriately, and making sure they get enough sunlight.
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Brown spot
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Brown spot
This infection can cause brown spots or patches to appear on the plant.
Overview
Overview
Discolored spots on the foliage of plants are one of the most common disease problems people observe. These spots are caused by fungal and bacterial diseases, with most infections related to a fungal pathogen.
Brown spot can occurs on all houseplants, flowering ornamentals, vegetable plants, and leaves of trees, bushes, and shrubs. No plants are resistant to it, and the problem is worse in warm, wet environments. It can occur at any point in the life stage as long as leaves are present.
Small brownish spots appear on the foliage and enlarge as the disease progresses. In severe cases, the plant or tree is weakened when the lesions interrupt photosynthesis or cause defoliation.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
In most cases, brown spot only affects a small percentage of the whole plant, appearing on a small amount of the leaves. A small infection only puts minor stress on the plant. However, if left untreated and the disease progresses over numerous seasons, it will severely impact the health and productivity of the infected specimen.
  • Sporulation begins (reproduction of the fungal spores), and tiny spots appear on leaves.
  • Placement is often random and scattered as diseases are spread through raindrops.
  • May appear on lower leaves and the interior of the plant where humidity is higher.
  • Brown spots enlarge and grow large enough to touch neighboring spots to form a more prominent blotch.
  • Leaf margins may turn yellow.
  • Tiny black dots (fruiting bodies of the fungi) appear in the dead spots.
  • Blotches grow in size until the entire leaf is brown.
  • The leaf falls off the plant.
Severe Symptoms
  • Partial or complete premature defoliation
  • Reduced growth
  • Increased susceptibility to pests and other diseases
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
Brown spot, or leaf spot, is a common descriptive term given to several diseases affecting the leaves of plants and trees. Around 85% of diseases exhibiting leaf spots are due to fungus or fungus-like organisms. Sometimes brown spot is caused by a bacterial infection, or insect activity with similar symptoms.
When conditions are warm and the leaf surfaces are wet, fungal spores being transported by wind or rain land on the surface and cling to it. They do not rupture the cell walls but grow in the space between the plant plasma membrane and the plant cell wall. As the spores reproduce, they release toxins and enzymes that cause necrotic spots (i.e., dead tissue) on the leaves, allowing the fungi to consume the products released when the cells degrade.
Solutions
Solutions
In minor cases of brown spot, there isn’t any need to treat the disease. However, if much of the foliage is affected and defoliation occurs, the plant will benefit from getting rid of the infection. It is recommended to start by applying organic treatment options, working up to the more potent synthetic, chemical fungicides if necessary.
Organic options won’t kill the fungus, but will prevent it from spreading.
  1. Dissolve ½ teaspoon of baking soda and one teaspoon of liquid soap in a gallon of water. Using a spray bottle, spray on tops and bottoms of leaves until the mixture drips off. Repeat every two weeks until existing spots stop enlarging and new spots no longer appear.
  2. Spray a copper-based fungicidal soap on the leaves, coating the top and bottom leaf surfaces. Reapply as directed on the product label. Copper penetrates the leaf surface and prevents germination of spores so the fungus cannot spread.
  3. Apply an all-purpose fungicide to the entire plant, following the label instructions carefully.
Prevention
Prevention
Like many other diseases, it is easier to prevent brown spot than cure it, and this is done through cultural practices.
  • Clear fall leaves from the ground before winter to minimize places where fungi and bacteria can overwinter.
  • Maintain good air movement between plants through proper plant spacing.
  • Increase air circulation through the center of plants through pruning.
  • Thoroughly clean all pruning tools after working with diseased plants.
  • Never dispose of disease plant material in a compost pile.
  • Avoid overhead watering to keep moisture off of the foliage.
  • Keep plants healthy by providing adequate sunlight, water, and fertilizer.
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weed

Weed Control About Common salsify

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Weeds
Common salsify is native to Mediterranean Europe and North Africa. It prefers moist soils in disturbed areas, such as fields or roadsides, and occupies USDA zones 4 to 8. It is considered an invasive weed in twelve countries, including Belgium, Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. In Australia, it invades grain crops and reduces the value of commercial yields. Cattle and sheep graze on common salsify and contribute to its spread by carrying seeds in their coats or by depositing seeds in fecal matter. When necessary, common salsify can be mechanically removed or treated with fire. It can also be treated with biological means, such as with seed-eating insects or fungus.
How to Control it
Best weeding time: before fruition Removal: You can remove this weed by gloved hand or by tool in early autumn or early spring each year. Due to it being perennial, you need to completely clean out its root system to prevent it from regrowth. Chemical control: If the weed is too much to pull out, herbicides will be helpful for its eradication. Mowing: Mow twice by the end of spring each year and repeatedly do so for two consecutive years, and the spread of the weed could be contained. For weed on larger-sized land, machine mowing is recommended.
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Distribution of Common salsify

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Habitat of Common salsify

Disturbed sites
Northern Hemisphere
South Hemisphere

Distribution Map of Common salsify

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Potentially invasive
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No species reported
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Plants Related to Common salsify

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Lighting
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Indoor
Indoor
Outdoor
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Requirements
Full sun
Ideal
Above 6 hours sunlight
Partial sun
Tolerance
About 3-6 hours sunlight
Watch how sunlight gracefully moves through your garden, and choose spots that provide the perfect balance of light and shade for your plants, ensuring their happiness.
Essentials
Common salsify flourishes in areas where the sun's rays are most abundant. It manages to survive in moderate sunlit conditions, as well. Exposure to too much or too little sunshine can lead to stunted growth or wilting. From seedling to full maturity, common salsify thrives best under a generous sun.
Preferred
Tolerable
Unsuitable
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Artificial lighting
Indoor plants require adequate lighting for optimal growth. When natural sunlight is insufficient, particularly in winter or in less sunny spaces, artificial lights offer a vital solution, promoting faster, healthier growth.
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Indoor plants require adequate lighting for optimal growth. When natural sunlight is insufficient, particularly in winter or in less sunny spaces, artificial lights offer a vital solution, promoting faster, healthier growth.
1. Choose the right type of artificial light: LED lights are a popular choice for indoor plant lighting because they can be customized to provide the specific wavelengths of light that your plants need.
Full sun plants need 30-50W/sq ft of artificial light, partial sun plants need 20-30W/sq ft, and full shade plants need 10-20W/sq ft.
2. Determine the appropriate distance: Place the light source 12-36 inches above the plant to mimic natural sunlight.
3. Determine the duration: Mimic the length of natural daylight hours for your plant species. most plants need 8-12 hours of light per day.
Important Symptoms
Symptoms of Insufficient Light in %s
Common salsify thrives in full sunlight and is commonly cultivated outdoors. When grown indoors with limited light, it may exhibit subtle symptoms of light deficiency that can easily go unnoticed.
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Small leaves
New leaves may grow smaller in size compared to the previous ones once they have matured.
Leggy or sparse growth
The spaces between leaves or stems of your Common salsify may become longer, resulting in a thin and stretched-out appearance. This can make the plant look sparse and weak, and it may easily break or lean due to its own weight.
Faster leaf drop
When plants are exposed to low light conditions, they tend to shed older leaves early to conserve resources. Within a limited time, these resources can be utilized to grow new leaves until the plant's energy reserves are depleted.
Slower or no new growth
Common salsify enters a survival mode when light conditions are poor, which leads to a halt in leaf production. As a result, the plant's growth becomes delayed or stops altogether.
Lighter-colored new leaves
Insufficient sunlight can cause leaves to develop irregular color patterns or appear pale. This indicates a lack of chlorophyll and essential nutrients.
Solutions
1. To ensure optimal growth, gradually move plants to a sunnier location each week, until they receive at least 6 hours of direct sunlight daily. Use a south-facing window and keep curtains open during the day for maximum sunlight exposure and nutrient accumulation.2. To provide additional light for your plant, consider using artificial light if it's large or not easily movable. Keep a desk or ceiling lamp on for at least 8 hours daily, or invest in professional plant grow lights for ample light.
Symptoms of Excessive light in %s
Common salsify thrives in full sun exposure and can tolerate intense sunlight. With their remarkable resilience, symptoms of sunburn may not be easily visible, as they rarely suffer from it.
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Chlorosis
Chlorosis is a condition where the plant's leaves lose their green color and turn yellow. This is due to the breakdown of chlorophyll from excessive sunlight, which negatively affects the plant's ability to photosynthesize.
Sunscald
Sunscald occurs when the plant's leaves or stems are damaged by intense sunlight exposure. It appears as pale, bleached, or necrotic areas on the plant tissue and can reduce the plant's overall health.
Leaf Curling
Leaf curling is a symptom where leaves curl or twist under extreme sunlight conditions. This is a defense mechanism used by the plant to reduce its surface area exposed to sunlight, minimizing water loss and damage.
Wilting
Wilting occurs when a plant loses turgor pressure and its leaves and stems begin to droop. Overexposure to sunlight can cause wilting by increasing the plant's water loss through transpiration, making it difficult for the plant to maintain adequate hydration.
Leaf Scorching
Leaf scorching is a symptom characterized by the appearance of brown, dry, and crispy edges or patches on leaves due to excessive sunlight. This can lead to a reduction in photosynthetic capacity and overall plant health.
Solutions
1. Move your plant to the optimal position where it can receive abundant sunlight but also have some shade. An east-facing window is an ideal choice as the morning sunlight is gentler. This way, your plant can enjoy ample sunlight while reducing the risk of sunburn.2. It is recommended to trim off any completely dehydrated or withered parts of the plant.
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Temperature
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Requirements
Ideal
Tolerable
Unsuitable
Just like people, each plant has its own preferences. Learn about your plants' temperature needs and create a comforting environment for them to flourish. As you care for your plants, your bond with them will deepen. Trust your intuition as you learn about their temperature needs, celebrating the journey you share. Lovingly monitor the temperature around your plants and adjust their environment as needed. A thermometer can be your ally in this heartfelt endeavor. Be patient and gentle with yourself as you explore your plants' temperature needs. Cherish your successes, learn from challenges, and nurture your garden with love, creating a haven that reflects the warmth of your care.
Essentials
Common salsify is native to environments with moderate climates, preferring temperatures of 68 to 95 ℉ (20 to 35 ℃). To aid in the adjustment of temperature across seasons, its heat requirements should be monitored and met as necessary.
Regional wintering strategies
Common salsify prefers relatively warm temperatures, so maintaining temperatures above {Suitable_growth_temperature_min} during winter cultivation is beneficial for plant growth. The minimum temperature should be kept above freezing point to prevent the plant from freezing damage. When the outdoor temperature approaches -5°C (25°F) during winter, it is advisable to bring Common salsify indoors or provide protection by setting up a temporary greenhouse or using materials such as plastic film or fabric to wrap the plant.
Important Symptoms
Symptoms of Low Temperature in Common salsify
Common salsify has moderate tolerance to low temperatures and thrives best when the temperature is between {Suitable_growth_temperature_min} and {Suitable_growth_temperature_max}. During winter, it should be kept above {Tolerable_growing_temperature_min}. When the temperature falls below {Limit_growth_temperature}, the leaves may darken in color. In severe cases, water-soaked necrosis, wilting, and drooping may occur, and the color of the leaves gradually turns brown.
Solutions
Trim away the frost-damaged parts. Immediately move indoors to a warm environment or set up a makeshift greenhouse for cold protection. When placing the plant indoors, choose a location near a south-facing window to ensure ample sunlight. If there is insufficient light, you can use supplemental lighting.
Symptoms of High Temperature in Common salsify
During summer, Common salsify should be kept below {Suitable_growth_temperature_max}. When the temperature exceeds {Tolerable_growing_temperature_max}, the plant's growth slows down, the color of its leaves becomes lighter, and it becomes more susceptible to sunburn.
Solutions
Trim away the sunburned and dried-up parts. Move the plant to a location that provides shade from the afternoon sun. Water the plant in the morning and evening to keep the soil moist.
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