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Water Arum
Water Arum
Water Arum
Water Arum
Water Arum
Water Arum
Water Arum
Calla palustris
Also known as : Water-Dragon, Bog Arum, Calla Lily, Marsh Calla
Water Arum (*Calla palustris*) thrives best in shallow, cold water and is commonly found growing in marshes and bogs. “Palustris,” the species name, means “of the marshes.” “Keillor,” the genus name, comes from “kallos,” the Greek word for beauty.
Hardiness Zones
Hardiness Zones
4 to 8
more
care guide

Care Guide for Water Arum

Watering Care
Watering Care
Moisture-loving,keep the soil moist but do not let water accumulate.
Details on Watering Care Watering Care
Fertilizing Care
Fertilizing Care
Fertilization once a month during the growing season.
Details on Fertilizing Care Fertilizing Care
Pruning
Pruning
Trim the dead, diseased, overgrown branches in winter.
Details on Pruning Pruning
Soil Care
Soil Care
Sand, Loam, Acidic, Neutral, Alkaline
Details on Soil Care Soil Care
Ideal Lighting
Ideal Lighting
Full sun, Partial sun
Details on Sunlight Requirements Ideal Lighting
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Water Arum
Water
Water
Every week
Sunlight
Sunlight
Full sun
question

Questions About Water Arum

Watering Watering Watering
Pruning Pruning Pruning
Sunlight Sunlight Sunlight
Temperature Temperature Temperature
What is the best way to water my Water Arum?
There are plenty of viable ways to supply your Water Arum with water. If you grow your plant in an indoor pot, for the Water Arums in small pots, you can bring your potted plant to your kitchen sink. Then, use the faucet to add water to the container. By holding the pot in your hands, you should easily notice when the water begins to run through the pot’s drainage holes, at which point you can stop watering. The cold temperature will hurt the plants' root system, so please don't do this during winter or in cold climates. Most of the time, watering via your faucet is permissible for the Water Arum. However, if the local tap water contains a high proportion of fluorine, chlorine or salts, you should consider using rainwater or lake water.
Also, since the Water Arum can respond well to overhead watering and watering directly into the soil, you can use a watering can, hose, or just about any tool you’d like to water it.
Read More more
What should I do if I water my Water Arum too much or too little?
If you discover that you have underwatered your Water Arum, your first step towards remedying the situation is to give your plant some water. Water deeply until excess water runs from the container’s drainage hole, or if you grow outside, water until the soil has become entirely moist. If you find your Water Arum is receiving too much water, begin by reducing your watering schedule. You also want to address the soil and container your Water Arum grows in. If either the soil or the container makes it difficult for water to drain efficiently, your plant will likely become overwatered again. Resolve the issue by moving your plant to looser soils and/or a container with bigger drainage holes or a more porous material. Also check the location of the plant. If the plant is in places like a corner, then it is recommended to move it to a window or around a door to enhance ventilation. Making sure the plants are in a well-ventilated location can reduce the occurrence of overwatering to some extent.
Read More more
How often should I water my Water Arum?
The Water Arum is not a species that requires consistent soil moisture. Instead, it is better to allow this plant’s soil to become dry between waterings. If you are like the many gardeners who grow Water Arums in containers, you can judge whether or not it is time to add water by how dry the soil within the container is. For instance, if about top half of the soil in your container has become dry, it is time to add water. You can feel it by inserting your fingers or sticks into the soil or with soil moisture meter. For those who grow the Water Arum outdoors, you can plan to do your watering about once every other week, provided it has not rained recently.
Read More more
How much water does my Water Arum need?
After waiting for the first several layers of soil surrounding your Water Arum’s root to become dry(top half of the soil), it is time to add enough water to make them moist again. The amount of water it takes to achieve that goal depends on if you use a container, how large that container is, and how large your plant itself is. For a small Water Arum growing in a small to a medium-sized container, one to two cups may be enough to dampen the soil sufficiently. As you would expect, the volume of water you supply should increase for a larger plant. The best way to make sure your plant has received enough water is to stick your finger or a trowel into the soil and feel whether it is entirely moist. Alternatively, you can water until you see excess water draining from the holes at the bottom of your container.
Read More more
How can I tell if i'm watering my Water Arum enough?
Overwatering and underwatering are both bad for the health of your Water Arum. These two issues also manifest themselves in subtly different ways when they occur. Water Arum that receives too little water may begin to develop yellow leaves. Underwatering may also cause the leaf margins to become brown and brittle. By contrast, Water Arum that gets overwatered will often show yellow and brown marks on its leaves at the same time. Overwatering can also lead to diseases like root rot, some of which may also be visible on your plant. However, if you know the signs of overwatering and underwatering, you stand a good chance of correcting both issues.
Read More more
How should I water my Water Arum through the seasons?
During spring and fall, your watering schedule for the Water Arum will remain relatively the same, which will involve watering this plant about once every week. During summer, you may find that the hot weather causes your plant to need more water than usual, especially if it grows where there is a considerable amount of daily light exposure. In the winter, if it's hard to find some warm places for you plant, your Water Arum will enter a dormant growth phase, in which it will need far less water than usual. At this time, you may get by without watering your plant at all. If you do choose to water during winter, you should not do so more often than once every two to three weeks.
Read More more
How should I water my Water Arum at different growth stages?
After planting a new, young Water Arum or after transplanting an older Water Arum, you will probably need to give this plant more water than usual. Young plants often need consistent soil moisture during the early stages of their growth to help them adapt to their new growing locations. Transplants also need more water for a brief time to overcome transplant shock. In either case, you may need to water multiple times per week until your plant has exhibited continuous healthy growth. In most situations, your water should be moderate and should never be significant enough to cause overwatering.
Read More more
What's the difference between watering Water Arum indoors and outdoors?
There are a few reasons why you may need to water an indoor Water Arum more often than one that grows in the ground outdoors. First, indoor growing settings tend to be drier than outdoor ones, often due to the effect of air conditioning units. While thw size of the pot and the soil determines the warer accumulating ability. Additionally, when your plant grows indoors, it will rely on you entirely for its water By contrast, Water Arum that grows outside can receive water from rain. If you are in an area with high rainfall, you may not have to give it extra watering. When there is not enough rain, you should water additionally to ensure that the soil does not dry out completely.
Read More more
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plant_info

Key Facts About Water Arum

Attributes of Water Arum

Lifespan
Perennial
Plant Type
Herb
Bloom Time
Spring, Summer
Plant Height
10 cm to 50 cm
Spread
15 cm to 30 cm
Leaf Color
Green
Flower Size
5 mm to 1 cm
Flower Color
White
Yellow
Green
Fruit Color
Red
Stem Color
Green
Leaf type
Deciduous
Growth Season
Spring, Summer
Growth Rate
Slow

Name story

Bog arum||Calla lily||Marsh calla||Water arum||Wild calla
Due to its arrow-shaped leaves and a white spathe, Calla palustris is often referred to as water Arum or simply Arum, although it doesn't belong to the genus of Arum. Actually, Calla palustris is a single species in the genus Calla. Its other common names are mostly related to its habitats such as marshes, bogs, and generally wet soils.

Symbolism

Faith and purity.

Trivia and Interesting Facts

Calla palustris is often confused with so-called garden callas or calla lilies, which actually belong to the genus Zantedeschia. While water Arum is native to temperate regions of the northern hemisphere, Zantedeschia species are endemic to central and south Africa. However, none of these plants is a true lily and they all are considered toxic plants.

Scientific Classification of Water Arum

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pests

Common Pests & Diseases About Water Arum

Common issues for Water Arum based on 10 million real cases
Brown spot
Brown spot Brown spot
Brown spot
This infection can cause brown spots or patches to appear on the plant.
Solutions: In minor cases of brown spot, there isn’t any need to treat the disease. However, if much of the foliage is affected and defoliation occurs, the plant will benefit from getting rid of the infection. It is recommended to start by applying organic treatment options, working up to the more potent synthetic, chemical fungicides if necessary. Organic options won’t kill the fungus, but will prevent it from spreading. Dissolve ½ teaspoon of baking soda and one teaspoon of liquid soap in a gallon of water. Using a spray bottle, spray on tops and bottoms of leaves until the mixture drips off. Repeat every two weeks until existing spots stop enlarging and new spots no longer appear. Spray a copper-based fungicidal soap on the leaves, coating the top and bottom leaf surfaces. Reapply as directed on the product label. Copper penetrates the leaf surface and prevents germination of spores so the fungus cannot spread. Apply an all-purpose fungicide to the entire plant, following the label instructions carefully.
Flower withering
Flower withering Flower withering
Flower withering
Flowers may dry out due to a sudden change in environment or because the plant has completed its normal flowering period.
Solutions: If flower withering is a natural progression due to age, there is nothing that can be done to slow or stop the process. Once hormones within the plant begin the process of senescence, it’s irreversible. For lack of water, immediately water the plant using room temperature rainwater, bottled spring water, or filtered tap water. Water container plants until excess water drains out the bottom; water in-ground plants until the soil is soaked but there isn’t standing water on the surface. In the event of nutritional deficiencies, the best solution is to use a granular or water-soluble liquid fertilizer, and apply it to the soil at about half the recommended dosage. Keep it off the leaves and make sure granular products are watered into the soil well. If the plant is infected with a bacterial or fungal pathogen, there is no course of treatment that cures the diseased plants. The best solution is to remove the infected plants and dispose of the plant material off-site. Do not put in a compost pile.
Aged yellow and dry
Aged yellow and dry Aged yellow and dry
Aged yellow and dry
Natural aging can cause leaves to turn yellow and dry out.
Solutions: If the yellowing and drying of leaves and flowers is a natural progression due to age, nothing can be done to slow or stop the process. Once hormones within the plant begin the process of senescence, it’s irreversible.
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Brown spot
plant poor
Brown spot
This infection can cause brown spots or patches to appear on the plant.
Overview
Overview
Discolored spots on the foliage of plants are one of the most common disease problems people observe. These spots are caused by fungal and bacterial diseases, with most infections related to a fungal pathogen.
Brown spot can occurs on all houseplants, flowering ornamentals, vegetable plants, and leaves of trees, bushes, and shrubs. No plants are resistant to it, and the problem is worse in warm, wet environments. It can occur at any point in the life stage as long as leaves are present.
Small brownish spots appear on the foliage and enlarge as the disease progresses. In severe cases, the plant or tree is weakened when the lesions interrupt photosynthesis or cause defoliation.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
In most cases, brown spot only affects a small percentage of the whole plant, appearing on a small amount of the leaves. A small infection only puts minor stress on the plant. However, if left untreated and the disease progresses over numerous seasons, it will severely impact the health and productivity of the infected specimen.
  • Sporulation begins (reproduction of the fungal spores), and tiny spots appear on leaves.
  • Placement is often random and scattered as diseases are spread through raindrops.
  • May appear on lower leaves and the interior of the plant where humidity is higher.
  • Brown spots enlarge and grow large enough to touch neighboring spots to form a more prominent blotch.
  • Leaf margins may turn yellow.
  • Tiny black dots (fruiting bodies of the fungi) appear in the dead spots.
  • Blotches grow in size until the entire leaf is brown.
  • The leaf falls off the plant.
Severe Symptoms
  • Partial or complete premature defoliation
  • Reduced growth
  • Increased susceptibility to pests and other diseases
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
Brown spot, or leaf spot, is a common descriptive term given to several diseases affecting the leaves of plants and trees. Around 85% of diseases exhibiting leaf spots are due to fungus or fungus-like organisms. Sometimes brown spot is caused by a bacterial infection, or insect activity with similar symptoms.
When conditions are warm and the leaf surfaces are wet, fungal spores being transported by wind or rain land on the surface and cling to it. They do not rupture the cell walls but grow in the space between the plant plasma membrane and the plant cell wall. As the spores reproduce, they release toxins and enzymes that cause necrotic spots (i.e., dead tissue) on the leaves, allowing the fungi to consume the products released when the cells degrade.
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Flower withering
plant poor
Flower withering
Flowers may dry out due to a sudden change in environment or because the plant has completed its normal flowering period.
Overview
Overview
Flower withering occurs when flowers become weak, droopy, wilted, or faded until they can’t be revived. During withering, they begin to wrinkle and shrink until the flower becomes completely dry or dead.
Any flowers, regardless of the plant type or the climate they are grown in, are susceptible to withering. It is a worldwide problem across houseplants, herbs, flowering ornamentals, trees, shrubs, garden vegetables, and food crops.
Unlike wilting—which withering is often confused with—withering can be caused by different things and is often due to more than a lack of water. Withering can be fatal in severe cases.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Flower withering progresses from very mild cases to severe occurrences that kill the flower. The severity of the symptoms is related to the cause and how long the condition is allowed to progress before action is taken.
  • Wilted, droopy flowers
  • Petals and leaves begin to wrinkle
  • Brown papery streaks or spots appear on the petals and leaf tips
  • Flowerhead shrink in size
  • Petal color fades
  • Yellowing leaves
  • Complete death of the flower
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
The main causes of flower withering include natural age progress, lack of water, nutritional deficiencies, and bacterial or fungal diseases. It’s critical to determine the underlying cause when flower withering is noticed. This will guide the best course of action, if treatment is possible.
Check the soil for moisture and then closely examine the entire plant for signs of nutrient deficiencies. If neither of those appears to be the cause then cut open the stem below a flower. If a cross-section reveals brown or rust-colored stains it is safe to assume that this is a bacterial or fungal infection.
If the flower is nearing the end of its normal lifespan, genetic coding within the plant increases the production of ethylene, a phytohormone that controls senescence, or cell aging and death. Cell division stops and the plant begins breaking down resources within the flower to use in other parts of the plant.
In all other cases, flower withering happens when the plant seals off the stem as a defense mechanism, stopping transport within the vascular system. This prevents further water loss through the flowers but also stops bacteria and fungi from moving to healthy parts of the plant. Once water and nutrient transport stops, the flower begins to wither and ultimately die.
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Aged yellow and dry
plant poor
Aged yellow and dry
Natural aging can cause leaves to turn yellow and dry out.
Overview
Overview
Regardless of the type of plant or where it is grown, at some point, it will begin to aged yellow and dry. This is a natural, unavoidable process that happens when the plant has completed all of the steps in its life.
Annual plants go through this process at the end of a single growing season. Perennial plants live for multiple years, if not tens or hundreds of years, but will still ultimately exhibit these symptoms.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
When plants have progressed through their natural developmental stages and are nearing the end of their lifecycle, they begin showing signs of decline. Leaves will start to yellow and droop, and over time they turn papery brown and dry.
Once completely dry, the leaves begin to fall from the plant until the entire plant has dried out.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
At the end of its life, genetic coding within the plant increases the production of ethylene, a phytohormone that controls senescence or natural aging and death. Cell division stops, and the plant begins catabolizing resources to use in other parts of the plant.
As this happens, the tissues begin yellow and drying until the entire plant is desiccated and perishes.
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distribution

Distribution of Water Arum

Habitat of Water Arum

Cool, shaded swales and bogs where water is stagnant
Northern Hemisphere
South Hemisphere

Distribution Map of Water Arum

distribution map
Native
Cultivated
Invasive
Potentially invasive
Exotic
No species reported
habit
care_scenes

More Info on Water Arum Growth and Care

Basic Care Guide
Explore More
Lighting
Full sun
Water Arum thrives in areas receiving abundant light exposure and can endure less illuminated spaces. The plant's health and growth is favored by ample sunshine. It can adjust to moderate light in its natural marshy environment, but insufficient or excessive light can impact its flourishing.
Best Sunlight Practices
Temperature
-25 35 ℃
Water Arum is adapted to a native growth environment with temperatures ranging from 41 to 89.6 °F (5 to 32 ℃). It prefers a cool climate and may require adjustment to temperature during hotter seasons.
Temp for Healthy Growth
Transplant
1.5-2 feet
Transplant water Arum during the cool, mild seasons (S1-S3) to reduce stress and ensure root establishment. It prefers wet, partially-shaded locations. TIP: Always take care when handling the delicate roots during transplanting to avoid damage. Keep it convincing, friend!
Transplant Techniques
Feng shui direction
North
The water Arum harmonizes well with spaces facing North. Its calming aquatic energy aligns naturally with this direction tied to water. However, Feng Shui is a complex art, and individual experiences with this arrangement may widely vary.
Fengshui Details
other_plant

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About
Care Guide
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More About How-Tos
Related Plants
Water Arum
Water Arum
Water Arum
Water Arum
Water Arum
Water Arum
Water Arum
Calla palustris
Also known as: Water-Dragon, Bog Arum, Calla Lily, Marsh Calla
Water Arum (*Calla palustris*) thrives best in shallow, cold water and is commonly found growing in marshes and bogs. “Palustris,” the species name, means “of the marshes.” “Keillor,” the genus name, comes from “kallos,” the Greek word for beauty.
Hardiness Zones
Hardiness Zones
4 to 8
more
question

Questions About Water Arum

Watering Watering Watering
Pruning Pruning Pruning
Sunlight Sunlight Sunlight
Temperature Temperature Temperature
What is the best way to water my Water Arum?
more
What should I do if I water my Water Arum too much or too little?
more
How often should I water my Water Arum?
more
How much water does my Water Arum need?
more
How can I tell if i'm watering my Water Arum enough?
more
How should I water my Water Arum through the seasons?
more
How should I water my Water Arum at different growth stages?
more
What's the difference between watering Water Arum indoors and outdoors?
more
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Keep your plants happy and healthy with our guide to watering, lighting, feeding and more.
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close
plant_info

Key Facts About Water Arum

Attributes of Water Arum

Lifespan
Perennial
Plant Type
Herb
Bloom Time
Spring, Summer
Plant Height
10 cm to 50 cm
Spread
15 cm to 30 cm
Leaf Color
Green
Flower Size
5 mm to 1 cm
Flower Color
White
Yellow
Green
Fruit Color
Red
Stem Color
Green
Leaf type
Deciduous
Growth Season
Spring, Summer
Growth Rate
Slow
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Name story

Bog arum||Calla lily||Marsh calla||Water arum||Wild calla
Due to its arrow-shaped leaves and a white spathe, Calla palustris is often referred to as water Arum or simply Arum, although it doesn't belong to the genus of Arum. Actually, Calla palustris is a single species in the genus Calla. Its other common names are mostly related to its habitats such as marshes, bogs, and generally wet soils.

Symbolism

Faith and purity.

Trivia and Interesting Facts

Calla palustris is often confused with so-called garden callas or calla lilies, which actually belong to the genus Zantedeschia. While water Arum is native to temperate regions of the northern hemisphere, Zantedeschia species are endemic to central and south Africa. However, none of these plants is a true lily and they all are considered toxic plants.

Scientific Classification of Water Arum

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pests

Common Pests & Diseases About Water Arum

Common issues for Water Arum based on 10 million real cases
Brown spot
Brown spot Brown spot Brown spot
This infection can cause brown spots or patches to appear on the plant.
Solutions: In minor cases of brown spot, there isn’t any need to treat the disease. However, if much of the foliage is affected and defoliation occurs, the plant will benefit from getting rid of the infection. It is recommended to start by applying organic treatment options, working up to the more potent synthetic, chemical fungicides if necessary. Organic options won’t kill the fungus, but will prevent it from spreading. Dissolve ½ teaspoon of baking soda and one teaspoon of liquid soap in a gallon of water. Using a spray bottle, spray on tops and bottoms of leaves until the mixture drips off. Repeat every two weeks until existing spots stop enlarging and new spots no longer appear. Spray a copper-based fungicidal soap on the leaves, coating the top and bottom leaf surfaces. Reapply as directed on the product label. Copper penetrates the leaf surface and prevents germination of spores so the fungus cannot spread. Apply an all-purpose fungicide to the entire plant, following the label instructions carefully.
Learn More About the Brown spot more
Flower withering
Flower withering Flower withering Flower withering
Flowers may dry out due to a sudden change in environment or because the plant has completed its normal flowering period.
Solutions: If flower withering is a natural progression due to age, there is nothing that can be done to slow or stop the process. Once hormones within the plant begin the process of senescence, it’s irreversible. For lack of water, immediately water the plant using room temperature rainwater, bottled spring water, or filtered tap water. Water container plants until excess water drains out the bottom; water in-ground plants until the soil is soaked but there isn’t standing water on the surface. In the event of nutritional deficiencies, the best solution is to use a granular or water-soluble liquid fertilizer, and apply it to the soil at about half the recommended dosage. Keep it off the leaves and make sure granular products are watered into the soil well. If the plant is infected with a bacterial or fungal pathogen, there is no course of treatment that cures the diseased plants. The best solution is to remove the infected plants and dispose of the plant material off-site. Do not put in a compost pile.
Learn More About the Flower withering more
Aged yellow and dry
Aged yellow and dry Aged yellow and dry Aged yellow and dry
Natural aging can cause leaves to turn yellow and dry out.
Solutions: If the yellowing and drying of leaves and flowers is a natural progression due to age, nothing can be done to slow or stop the process. Once hormones within the plant begin the process of senescence, it’s irreversible.
Learn More About the Aged yellow and dry more
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close
Brown spot
plant poor
Brown spot
This infection can cause brown spots or patches to appear on the plant.
Overview
Overview
Discolored spots on the foliage of plants are one of the most common disease problems people observe. These spots are caused by fungal and bacterial diseases, with most infections related to a fungal pathogen.
Brown spot can occurs on all houseplants, flowering ornamentals, vegetable plants, and leaves of trees, bushes, and shrubs. No plants are resistant to it, and the problem is worse in warm, wet environments. It can occur at any point in the life stage as long as leaves are present.
Small brownish spots appear on the foliage and enlarge as the disease progresses. In severe cases, the plant or tree is weakened when the lesions interrupt photosynthesis or cause defoliation.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
In most cases, brown spot only affects a small percentage of the whole plant, appearing on a small amount of the leaves. A small infection only puts minor stress on the plant. However, if left untreated and the disease progresses over numerous seasons, it will severely impact the health and productivity of the infected specimen.
  • Sporulation begins (reproduction of the fungal spores), and tiny spots appear on leaves.
  • Placement is often random and scattered as diseases are spread through raindrops.
  • May appear on lower leaves and the interior of the plant where humidity is higher.
  • Brown spots enlarge and grow large enough to touch neighboring spots to form a more prominent blotch.
  • Leaf margins may turn yellow.
  • Tiny black dots (fruiting bodies of the fungi) appear in the dead spots.
  • Blotches grow in size until the entire leaf is brown.
  • The leaf falls off the plant.
Severe Symptoms
  • Partial or complete premature defoliation
  • Reduced growth
  • Increased susceptibility to pests and other diseases
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
Brown spot, or leaf spot, is a common descriptive term given to several diseases affecting the leaves of plants and trees. Around 85% of diseases exhibiting leaf spots are due to fungus or fungus-like organisms. Sometimes brown spot is caused by a bacterial infection, or insect activity with similar symptoms.
When conditions are warm and the leaf surfaces are wet, fungal spores being transported by wind or rain land on the surface and cling to it. They do not rupture the cell walls but grow in the space between the plant plasma membrane and the plant cell wall. As the spores reproduce, they release toxins and enzymes that cause necrotic spots (i.e., dead tissue) on the leaves, allowing the fungi to consume the products released when the cells degrade.
Solutions
Solutions
In minor cases of brown spot, there isn’t any need to treat the disease. However, if much of the foliage is affected and defoliation occurs, the plant will benefit from getting rid of the infection. It is recommended to start by applying organic treatment options, working up to the more potent synthetic, chemical fungicides if necessary.
Organic options won’t kill the fungus, but will prevent it from spreading.
  1. Dissolve ½ teaspoon of baking soda and one teaspoon of liquid soap in a gallon of water. Using a spray bottle, spray on tops and bottoms of leaves until the mixture drips off. Repeat every two weeks until existing spots stop enlarging and new spots no longer appear.
  2. Spray a copper-based fungicidal soap on the leaves, coating the top and bottom leaf surfaces. Reapply as directed on the product label. Copper penetrates the leaf surface and prevents germination of spores so the fungus cannot spread.
  3. Apply an all-purpose fungicide to the entire plant, following the label instructions carefully.
Prevention
Prevention
Like many other diseases, it is easier to prevent brown spot than cure it, and this is done through cultural practices.
  • Clear fall leaves from the ground before winter to minimize places where fungi and bacteria can overwinter.
  • Maintain good air movement between plants through proper plant spacing.
  • Increase air circulation through the center of plants through pruning.
  • Thoroughly clean all pruning tools after working with diseased plants.
  • Never dispose of disease plant material in a compost pile.
  • Avoid overhead watering to keep moisture off of the foliage.
  • Keep plants healthy by providing adequate sunlight, water, and fertilizer.
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Flower withering
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Flower withering
Flowers may dry out due to a sudden change in environment or because the plant has completed its normal flowering period.
Overview
Overview
Flower withering occurs when flowers become weak, droopy, wilted, or faded until they can’t be revived. During withering, they begin to wrinkle and shrink until the flower becomes completely dry or dead.
Any flowers, regardless of the plant type or the climate they are grown in, are susceptible to withering. It is a worldwide problem across houseplants, herbs, flowering ornamentals, trees, shrubs, garden vegetables, and food crops.
Unlike wilting—which withering is often confused with—withering can be caused by different things and is often due to more than a lack of water. Withering can be fatal in severe cases.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Flower withering progresses from very mild cases to severe occurrences that kill the flower. The severity of the symptoms is related to the cause and how long the condition is allowed to progress before action is taken.
  • Wilted, droopy flowers
  • Petals and leaves begin to wrinkle
  • Brown papery streaks or spots appear on the petals and leaf tips
  • Flowerhead shrink in size
  • Petal color fades
  • Yellowing leaves
  • Complete death of the flower
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
The main causes of flower withering include natural age progress, lack of water, nutritional deficiencies, and bacterial or fungal diseases. It’s critical to determine the underlying cause when flower withering is noticed. This will guide the best course of action, if treatment is possible.
Check the soil for moisture and then closely examine the entire plant for signs of nutrient deficiencies. If neither of those appears to be the cause then cut open the stem below a flower. If a cross-section reveals brown or rust-colored stains it is safe to assume that this is a bacterial or fungal infection.
If the flower is nearing the end of its normal lifespan, genetic coding within the plant increases the production of ethylene, a phytohormone that controls senescence, or cell aging and death. Cell division stops and the plant begins breaking down resources within the flower to use in other parts of the plant.
In all other cases, flower withering happens when the plant seals off the stem as a defense mechanism, stopping transport within the vascular system. This prevents further water loss through the flowers but also stops bacteria and fungi from moving to healthy parts of the plant. Once water and nutrient transport stops, the flower begins to wither and ultimately die.
Solutions
Solutions
If flower withering is a natural progression due to age, there is nothing that can be done to slow or stop the process. Once hormones within the plant begin the process of senescence, it’s irreversible.
For lack of water, immediately water the plant using room temperature rainwater, bottled spring water, or filtered tap water. Water container plants until excess water drains out the bottom; water in-ground plants until the soil is soaked but there isn’t standing water on the surface.
In the event of nutritional deficiencies, the best solution is to use a granular or water-soluble liquid fertilizer, and apply it to the soil at about half the recommended dosage. Keep it off the leaves and make sure granular products are watered into the soil well.
If the plant is infected with a bacterial or fungal pathogen, there is no course of treatment that cures the diseased plants. The best solution is to remove the infected plants and dispose of the plant material off-site. Do not put in a compost pile.
Prevention
Prevention
This is definitely one of those instances where prevention is more effective than cure. Here are some preventative measures for avoiding premature flower withering.
  • Water plants according to their needs -- either keep the soil slightly moist or allow the top inch or two to dry out before watering again.
  • Fertilize lightly on a consistent basis, depending upon the plant’s growth. Quick-growing plants and those that flower or develop fruit will need more frequent fertilizing than slow-growing plants.
  • Purchase plants that are certified disease- or pathogen-free.
  • Look for disease-resistant cultivars.
  • Isolate plants showing disease symptoms to prevent the spread to neighboring plants.
  • Practice good plant hygiene by removing any fallen plant material as soon as possible.
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Aged yellow and dry
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Aged yellow and dry
Natural aging can cause leaves to turn yellow and dry out.
Overview
Overview
Regardless of the type of plant or where it is grown, at some point, it will begin to aged yellow and dry. This is a natural, unavoidable process that happens when the plant has completed all of the steps in its life.
Annual plants go through this process at the end of a single growing season. Perennial plants live for multiple years, if not tens or hundreds of years, but will still ultimately exhibit these symptoms.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
When plants have progressed through their natural developmental stages and are nearing the end of their lifecycle, they begin showing signs of decline. Leaves will start to yellow and droop, and over time they turn papery brown and dry.
Once completely dry, the leaves begin to fall from the plant until the entire plant has dried out.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
At the end of its life, genetic coding within the plant increases the production of ethylene, a phytohormone that controls senescence or natural aging and death. Cell division stops, and the plant begins catabolizing resources to use in other parts of the plant.
As this happens, the tissues begin yellow and drying until the entire plant is desiccated and perishes.
Solutions
Solutions
If the yellowing and drying of leaves and flowers is a natural progression due to age, nothing can be done to slow or stop the process. Once hormones within the plant begin the process of senescence, it’s irreversible.
Prevention
Prevention
Unfortunately, there is no way to prevent plants from dying of “old age.” To help prolong their life, and put off symptoms of aged yellow and dry for as long as possible, take care of them by giving them enough water, fertilizing them appropriately, and making sure they get enough sunlight.
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distribution

Distribution of Water Arum

Habitat of Water Arum

Cool, shaded swales and bogs where water is stagnant
Northern Hemisphere
South Hemisphere

Distribution Map of Water Arum

distribution map
Native
Cultivated
Invasive
Potentially invasive
Exotic
No species reported
care_scenes

More Info on Water Arum Growth and Care

Basic Care Guide
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Plants Related to Water Arum

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Lighting
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Indoor
Indoor
Outdoor
Choose a site here for personalized care tips.
Requirements
Full sun
Ideal
Above 6 hours sunlight
Partial sun
Tolerance
About 3-6 hours sunlight
Watch how sunlight gracefully moves through your garden, and choose spots that provide the perfect balance of light and shade for your plants, ensuring their happiness.
Essentials
Water Arum thrives in areas receiving abundant light exposure and can endure less illuminated spaces. The plant's health and growth is favored by ample sunshine. It can adjust to moderate light in its natural marshy environment, but insufficient or excessive light can impact its flourishing.
Preferred
Tolerable
Unsuitable
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Artificial lighting
Indoor plants require adequate lighting for optimal growth. When natural sunlight is insufficient, particularly in winter or in less sunny spaces, artificial lights offer a vital solution, promoting faster, healthier growth.
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Indoor plants require adequate lighting for optimal growth. When natural sunlight is insufficient, particularly in winter or in less sunny spaces, artificial lights offer a vital solution, promoting faster, healthier growth.
1. Choose the right type of artificial light: LED lights are a popular choice for indoor plant lighting because they can be customized to provide the specific wavelengths of light that your plants need.
Full sun plants need 30-50W/sq ft of artificial light, partial sun plants need 20-30W/sq ft, and full shade plants need 10-20W/sq ft.
2. Determine the appropriate distance: Place the light source 12-36 inches above the plant to mimic natural sunlight.
3. Determine the duration: Mimic the length of natural daylight hours for your plant species. most plants need 8-12 hours of light per day.
Important Symptoms
Insufficient light
Water Arum is commonly grown as an aquatic plant, thriving in open and sunlit environments. However, when placed in indoor settings with insufficient light, subtle symptoms of light deficiency may arise, often going unnoticed.
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(Symptom details and solutions)
Small leaves
New leaves may grow smaller in size compared to the previous ones once they have matured.
Leggy or sparse growth
The spaces between leaves or stems of your Water Arum may become longer, resulting in a thin and stretched-out appearance. This can make the plant look sparse and weak, and it may easily break or lean due to its own weight.
Faster leaf drop
When plants are exposed to low light conditions, they tend to shed older leaves early to conserve resources. Within a limited time, these resources can be utilized to grow new leaves until the plant's energy reserves are depleted.
Slower or no new growth
Water Arum enters a survival mode when light conditions are poor, which leads to a halt in leaf production. As a result, the plant's growth becomes delayed or stops altogether.
Lighter-colored new leaves
Insufficient sunlight can cause leaves to develop irregular color patterns or appear pale. This indicates a lack of chlorophyll and essential nutrients.
Solutions
1. To ensure optimal growth, gradually move plants to a sunnier location each week, until they receive at least 6 hours of direct sunlight daily. Use a south-facing window and keep curtains open during the day for maximum sunlight exposure and nutrient accumulation.2. To provide additional light for your plant, consider using artificial light if it's large or not easily movable. Keep a desk or ceiling lamp on for at least 8 hours daily, or invest in professional plant grow lights for ample light.
Excessive light
Water Arum thrives in full sun exposure and can tolerate intense sunlight. With their remarkable resilience, symptoms of sunburn may not be easily visible, as they rarely suffer from it.
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(Symptom details and solutions)
Chlorosis
Chlorosis is a condition where the plant's leaves lose their green color and turn yellow. This is due to the breakdown of chlorophyll from excessive sunlight, which negatively affects the plant's ability to photosynthesize.
Sunscald
Sunscald occurs when the plant's leaves or stems are damaged by intense sunlight exposure. It appears as pale, bleached, or necrotic areas on the plant tissue and can reduce the plant's overall health.
Leaf Curling
Leaf curling is a symptom where leaves curl or twist under extreme sunlight conditions. This is a defense mechanism used by the plant to reduce its surface area exposed to sunlight, minimizing water loss and damage.
Wilting
Wilting occurs when a plant loses turgor pressure and its leaves and stems begin to droop. Overexposure to sunlight can cause wilting by increasing the plant's water loss through transpiration, making it difficult for the plant to maintain adequate hydration.
Leaf Scorching
Leaf scorching is a symptom characterized by the appearance of brown, dry, and crispy edges or patches on leaves due to excessive sunlight. This can lead to a reduction in photosynthetic capacity and overall plant health.
Solutions
1. Move your plant to the optimal position where it can receive abundant sunlight but also have some shade. An east-facing window is an ideal choice as the morning sunlight is gentler. This way, your plant can enjoy ample sunlight while reducing the risk of sunburn.2. It is recommended to trim off any completely dehydrated or withered parts of the plant.
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Temperature
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Indoor
Outdoor
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Requirements
Ideal
Tolerable
Unsuitable
Just like people, each plant has its own preferences. Learn about your plants' temperature needs and create a comforting environment for them to flourish. As you care for your plants, your bond with them will deepen. Trust your intuition as you learn about their temperature needs, celebrating the journey you share. Lovingly monitor the temperature around your plants and adjust their environment as needed. A thermometer can be your ally in this heartfelt endeavor. Be patient and gentle with yourself as you explore your plants' temperature needs. Cherish your successes, learn from challenges, and nurture your garden with love, creating a haven that reflects the warmth of your care.
Essentials
Water Arum is adapted to a native growth environment with temperatures ranging from 41 to 89.6 °F (5 to 32 ℃). It prefers a cool climate and may require adjustment to temperature during hotter seasons.
Regional wintering strategies
Water Arum has strong cold resistance, so special frost protection measures are usually not necessary during winter. However, if the winter temperatures are expected to drop below {Limit_growth_temperature}, it is still important to provide cold protection. This can be achieved by covering the plant with materials such as soil or straw. Before the first freeze in autumn, it is recommended to water the plant abundantly, ensuring the soil remains moist and enters a frozen state. This helps prevent drought and water scarcity for the plant during winter and early spring.
Important Symptoms
Low Temperature
Water Arum is cold-tolerant and thrives best when the temperature is above {Suitable_growth_temperature_min}. During winter, it should be kept above {Tolerable_growing_temperature_min}. When the temperature falls below {Limit_growth_temperature}, although there may not be any noticeable changes during winter, there may be a decrease in sprouting or even no sprouting during springtime.
Solutions
In spring, remove any parts that have failed to sprout.
High Temperature
During summer, Water Arum should be kept below {Suitable_growth_temperature_max}. When the temperature exceeds {Tolerable_growing_temperature_max}, the leaves of the plant may become lighter in color, prone to curling, susceptible to sunburn, and in severe cases, the entire plant may wilt and become dry.
Solutions
Trim away the sunburned and dried-up parts. Move the plant to a location that provides shade from the midday and afternoon sun, or use a shade cloth to create shade. Water the plant in the morning and evening to keep the soil moist.
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Transplant
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How to Successfully Transplant Water Arum?
Transplant water Arum during the cool, mild seasons (S1-S3) to reduce stress and ensure root establishment. It prefers wet, partially-shaded locations. TIP: Always take care when handling the delicate roots during transplanting to avoid damage. Keep it convincing, friend!
What Preparations are Needed Before Transplanting Water Arum?
What is the Ideal Time for Transplanting Water Arum?
The ideal time to relocate water Arum is in the middle seasons, particularly S1-S3. This period assures strong root development before winter. Transplanting water Arum during these seasons leads to a healthier, lovely plant soon to bloom in glory. Trust me, your garden will sparkle!
How Much Space Should You Leave Between Water Arum Plants?
When transplanting water Arum, ensure adequate space for each plant to grow optimally. Aim for a distance of about 1.5-2 feet (45-60 cm) apart. This affords them enough room to spread and flourish.
What is the Best Soil Mix for Water Arum Transplanting?
Prepare the garden soil by enriching it with organic matter, creating a loamy and well-draining mix. Adding a slow-release base fertilizer can provide water Arum with essential nutrients for a good start.
Where Should You Relocate Your Water Arum?
Choose a location that gets partial to full sunlight. Water Arum prefers locations with filtered sunlight, but can tolerate brighter spots too. Just make sure it's not exposed to intense midday sun.
What Equipments Should You Prepare Before Transplantation Water Arum?
Gardening Gloves
To help protect your hands while working with the soil and water Arum.
Shovel or Spade
These will be used for digging the planting hole for the water Arum as well as removing it from its original location.
Garden Trowel
A smaller tool that may be easier for digging out potted or seedling tray water Arum plants.
Watering Can
To thoroughly wet the soil around the water Arum during and after transplantation.
Compost or Organic Matter
This can be mixed in with the native soil to provide extra nutrients for the water Arum when transplanting.
Mulch
Shredded leaves, wood chips, or straw to place around the base of the water Arum after transplanting to conserve moisture.
How Do You Remove Water Arum from the Soil?
From Ground: Begin by lightly watering the area around the water Arum, which makes the soil easier to dig. Using a spade or shovel, carefully dig a trench around the water Arum, ensuring to preserve the root ball. Gently lift the water Arum from the ground, trying to keep as much soil around the roots as possible.
From Pot: Start by watering your water Arum in its pot. Then, tip the pot sideways, gently squeezing or tapping it to loosen the water Arum and pull out it slowly, ensuring to keep the root ball intact.
From Seedling Tray: Give the tray a good water before transplanting. Carefully separate each water Arum making sure to avoid damage to the delicate roots and stems.
Step-by-Step Guide for Transplanting Water Arum
Step1 Preparing the New Site
Dig a hole twice as wide and as deep as the root ball of your water Arum. Mix some compost or organic matter into the soil you've removed.
Step2 Positioning the Plant
Carefully place your water Arum in the hole, making sure the top of the root ball is level with the ground surface.
Step3 Backfilling the Hole
Gradually backfill the hole with your improved soil, gently firming it around the base of the water Arum as you go.
Step4 Watering
Give your newly transplanted water Arum a good watering, ensuring the water penetrates the soil deeply.
Step5 Mulching
Finally, apply mulch around the base of your water Arum, being careful not to mound it against the stem.
How Do You Care For Water Arum After Transplanting?
Watering
Ensure your water Arum gets enough water, keeping the soil consistently moist but not waterlogged. The watering frequency depends on the weather conditions, but usually, it's necessary for the first few weeks post transplant.
Pruning
If the water Arum seems to struggle post-transplant, it might be beneficial to trim it back to reduce stress on the new root system.
Checking
Keep an eye out for signs of transplant shock in your water Arum, such as yellowing or dropping leaves. If you notice these, consider seeking advice from a local nursery or extension service.
Regrowth
Do not expect instant growth after transplanting; the water Arum will need some time to re-establish its root system. As long as the leaves remain healthy overall, your plant should be fine.
Mulching
Reapply mulch as necessary to conserve moisture and prevent weed growth.
Troubleshooting Common Issues with Water Arum Transplantation.
When is the best time to transplant water Arum?
Transplanting water Arum is ideal during early to late spring (S1-S3). This gives the plant ample time to establish before the peak of summer.
How far apart should I space water Arum when transplanting?
Space the water Arum around 1.5 to 2 feet (45-60 cm) apart. This ample space promotes healthy growth and prevents overcrowding.
Why are my transplanted water Arum wilting?
Wilting after transplant could indicate shock. Ensure the water Arum are well watered, but not overwatered. They should recover in a week or two.
My transplanted water Arum have yellow leaves. What could be causing this?
Yellow leaves could indicate too much sun or water. Water Arum enjoys partial shade and moist soil. Adjust its location or watering habits accordingly.
How deep should I plant water Arum during transplanting?
The transplant hole for water Arum should be deep enough to cover the root ball. A depth of about 10 inches (25 cm) should suffice.
How should I water water Arum after transplanting?
Once you've transplanted water Arum, water it thoroughly. Maintain a consistently moist soil but avoid waterlogging which can lead to root rot.
Why are the blooms on my transplanted water Arum disappearing?
Bloom loss could be due to transplant shock or it might need more time to establish. Keeping the plant well-watered will help combat this.
What kind of soil is best for water Arum?
Water Arum thrives in consistently moist, well-drained soil that’s moderately fertile. Adding organic matter like compost can enhance the soil quality.
My transplanted water Arum doesn't seem to be growing. What's wrong?
Slow growth post-transplant might be due to transplant shock, inadequate light, or poor soil. Consider these factors and adjust the conditions as needed.
Why are the edges of my transplanted water Arum's leaves brown?
Brown leaf edges could signify underwatering or too much sunlight. Ensure water Arum receives consistent moisture and is located in a partially shaded area.
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