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Autumn fern
Autumn fern
Autumn fern
Autumn fern
Autumn fern
Autumn fern
Autumn fern
Dryopteris erythrosora
Also known as : Fern, Shaggy shield fern, Copper shield fern
Autumn fern (Dryopteris erythrosora) is an evergreen fern whose new fronds emerge as reddish-orange in spring, providing a colorful contrast against the dark green mature fronds. It prefers partial shade to full shade. Grows best in moist to wet, organically-rich soil.
Planting Time
Planting Time
Early spring
care guide

Care Guide for Autumn fern

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Soil Care
Soil Care
Clay, Sand, Loam, Chalky, Acidic, Neutral
Details on Soil Care Soil Care
Ideal Lighting
Ideal Lighting
Partial sun, Full shade
Details on Sunlight Requirements Ideal Lighting
Ideal Temperature
Ideal Temperature
5 to 9
Details on Temperature Ideal Temperature
Planting Time
Planting Time
Early spring
Details on Planting Time Planting Time
Harvest Time
Harvest Time
Mid winter, Late winter
Details on Harvest Time Harvest Time
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Autumn fern
Water
Water
Twice per week
Sunlight
Sunlight
Partial sun
Planting Time
Planting Time
Early spring
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Questions About Autumn fern

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Watering Watering Watering
Pruning Pruning Pruning
Sunlight Sunlight Sunlight
Temperature Temperature Temperature
Fertilizing Fertilizing Fertilizing
What should I do if I water my Autumn fern too much or too little?
Overwatered Autumn fern
Despite how much it loves water, it is possible to overwater the Autumn fern. This is most likely to happen if you leave your plant sitting in a pool of water or use a planter that doesn’t have drainage holes. Either of those conditions will be too wet and will prevent the roots from being able to take up nutrients and moisture. Too much moisture in the soil can also allow fungal or bacterial diseases to develop.
Wilted and yellow leaves are the initial symptoms of overwatering. Over time, the stems may droop and fall over, or begin to feel soft and mushy. However, be sure to check for other causes if you suspect your Autumn fern is overwatered, since other issues can look similar and it’s difficult to give this plant too much water.
Underwatered Autumn fern
Vigilance is required to keep this plant wet enough, unless you’re using a self-watering planter, meaning that many fern owners inadvertently let their plant get too dry now and then. In dry conditions, this plant can change in appearance seemingly overnight, from lush and green to brown and crispy.
In extreme cases, the plant may dry up so thoroughly that it seems there are no living fronds left. But it may still be possible to save the plant if some of the roots are still healthy. Cut off all of the dry and dead stems, then water thoroughly and return the plant to its usual location. Unless the roots are all dead, this plant can be surprisingly resilient and start putting out new fronds. It may take several months to grow back to the size it was before, but this is possible if you provide proper care in that time.
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How can I water my Autumn fern properly?
Your Autumn fern prefers consistently moist soil that mimics its native enironment, which could mean watering as often as every one or two days. This is a plant that should not be allowed to dry out. Once the top layer of soil begins to feel even slightly dry, it’s time to water again. And don’t just give it a few drops of water: soak the soil completely until water drains out from the bottom of the pot. After the excess water has drained out, dump it so the pot isn’t sitting in a puddle. This is the best method to ensure that soil never gets too dry.
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What should I consider when watering my Autumn fern?
The amount of humidity in the air around your Autumn fern will influence how often you need to water it. Higher humidity in the air means less frequent watering, as evaporation is slower. Keeping this plant near a heating or cooling vent will cause it to dry out quickly, so choose a location that is protected from any type of draft. They prefer dappled and indirect sunlight and temperatures between 55-80 degrees F (13-27 degrees C) meaning that keeping these ferns in a warm and sunny spot windowsill could cause them to get dehydrated quickly.
Rainwater or distilled water is great for this plant if you have access to it, although tap water in most places also works fine. Certain minerals and chemicals in tap water can cause brown leaf tips, especially since Autumn fern has very thin and delicate leaves.
Small pots can cause issues for Autumn fern , because they only hold a small amount of potting medium and can dry out more quickly. It is best to allow this plant more space in the pot than many other houseplants.
Consider using a self-watering planter for Autumn fern. This type of pot uses a wicking system that allows the soil to continuously soak up water from a central reservoir, meaning that the moisture level in the soil stays consistently moist. Not only does this type of pot keep you from having to constantly water your fern, but it is also quite beneficial for the roots to have a constant supply of water instead of going from dry to wet and then back again.
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Key Facts About Autumn fern

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Attributes of Autumn fern

Lifespan
Perennial
Plant Type
Fern
Planting Time
Early spring
Harvest Time
Mid winter, Late winter
Plant Height
46 cm to 61 cm
Spread
60 cm to 90 cm
Leaf Color
Green
Red
Bronze
Orange
Flower Color
Purple
Black
Stem Color
Green
Brown
Pink
Dormancy
Winter dormancy
Leaf type
Evergreen
Ideal Temperature
5 - 35 ℃
Growth Rate
Slow

Usages

Garden Use
Autumn fern attracts gardeners due to its unusual foliage, which is the color of autumn leaves when it sprouts but turns green as it ages, instead of the other way around. It is also very tough and low-maintenance. In the garden, it is most often used in shady spots that need some color, moist areas such as beside ponds, or areas with poor soil. It is also used in mixed borders.

Trivia and Interesting Facts

Woodfern leaves are like the tail of a squirrel. Each leaf is arranged on the stem in an orderly manner, and gradually shortens from the bottom to the head. The orderly arranged woodfern really soothes obsessive-compulsive disorders.

Scientific Classification of Autumn fern

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pests

Common Pests & Diseases About Autumn fern

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Common issues for Autumn fern based on 10 million real cases
Brown spot
Brown spot Brown spot
Brown spot
This infection can cause brown spots or patches to appear on the plant.
Solutions: In minor cases of brown spot, there isn’t any need to treat the disease. However, if much of the foliage is affected and defoliation occurs, the plant will benefit from getting rid of the infection. It is recommended to start by applying organic treatment options, working up to the more potent synthetic, chemical fungicides if necessary. Organic options won’t kill the fungus, but will prevent it from spreading. Dissolve ½ teaspoon of baking soda and one teaspoon of liquid soap in a gallon of water. Using a spray bottle, spray on tops and bottoms of leaves until the mixture drips off. Repeat every two weeks until existing spots stop enlarging and new spots no longer appear. Spray a copper-based fungicidal soap on the leaves, coating the top and bottom leaf surfaces. Reapply as directed on the product label. Copper penetrates the leaf surface and prevents germination of spores so the fungus cannot spread. Apply an all-purpose fungicide to the entire plant, following the label instructions carefully.
Leaf tips withering
Leaf tips withering Leaf tips withering
Leaf tips withering
Low air humidity can cause the edges of the leaves to dry out.
Solutions: If your plant has only a few dried tips, complete the following: Increase humidity. Increase the humidity around your plant by misting it with a spray bottle daily. Alternatively, you can use a humidifier. Water plant. If your soil is dry, water until the soil is moist but not damp. Water again when soil dries out. If a large portion of the leaves is suffering from dry tips, complete the following: Prune away affected tissue. Using sharp and clean pruning shears, remove the dried out tips using clean cuts to avoid harming healthy tissue. Plant tissue will heal on its own, but you can apply a pruning seal for extra protection.
Thrips
Thrips Thrips
Thrips
Thrips are 1 to 2 mm bugs with slender black or translucent-yellow bodies. They move quickly and feed on the plant's sap.
Solutions: Thrips can be controlled in several ways. Spray plants with Pyrethrin, which is an organic pesticide derived from marigolds (follow label instructions) or Permethrin, the synthetic version of Pyrethrin. Introduce beneficial insects to the garden that eat thrips, such as minute pirate bugs and green lacewings. Remove heavily infested plants from the area and discard. Address viral diseases that may have been transmitted by the pests. For less serious cases -use a hose to spray the thrips off of the plants.
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Brown spot
plant poor
Brown spot
This infection can cause brown spots or patches to appear on the plant.
Overview
Overview
Discolored spots on the foliage of plants are one of the most common disease problems people observe. These spots are caused by fungal and bacterial diseases, with most infections related to a fungal pathogen.
Brown spot can occurs on all houseplants, flowering ornamentals, vegetable plants, and leaves of trees, bushes, and shrubs. No plants are resistant to it, and the problem is worse in warm, wet environments. It can occur at any point in the life stage as long as leaves are present.
Small brownish spots appear on the foliage and enlarge as the disease progresses. In severe cases, the plant or tree is weakened when the lesions interrupt photosynthesis or cause defoliation.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
In most cases, brown spot only affects a small percentage of the whole plant, appearing on a small amount of the leaves. A small infection only puts minor stress on the plant. However, if left untreated and the disease progresses over numerous seasons, it will severely impact the health and productivity of the infected specimen.
  • Sporulation begins (reproduction of the fungal spores), and tiny spots appear on leaves.
  • Placement is often random and scattered as diseases are spread through raindrops.
  • May appear on lower leaves and the interior of the plant where humidity is higher.
  • Brown spots enlarge and grow large enough to touch neighboring spots to form a more prominent blotch.
  • Leaf margins may turn yellow.
  • Tiny black dots (fruiting bodies of the fungi) appear in the dead spots.
  • Blotches grow in size until the entire leaf is brown.
  • The leaf falls off the plant.
Severe Symptoms
  • Partial or complete premature defoliation
  • Reduced growth
  • Increased susceptibility to pests and other diseases
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
Brown spot, or leaf spot, is a common descriptive term given to several diseases affecting the leaves of plants and trees. Around 85% of diseases exhibiting leaf spots are due to fungus or fungus-like organisms. Sometimes brown spot is caused by a bacterial infection, or insect activity with similar symptoms.
When conditions are warm and the leaf surfaces are wet, fungal spores being transported by wind or rain land on the surface and cling to it. They do not rupture the cell walls but grow in the space between the plant plasma membrane and the plant cell wall. As the spores reproduce, they release toxins and enzymes that cause necrotic spots (i.e., dead tissue) on the leaves, allowing the fungi to consume the products released when the cells degrade.
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Leaf tips withering
plant poor
Leaf tips withering
Low air humidity can cause the edges of the leaves to dry out.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
The tips and the edges of the plants’ leaves are dried out and brown. They may be crunchy when touched. This is caused by low humidity and/or a lack of water.
Solutions
Solutions
If your plant has only a few dried tips, complete the following:
  1. Increase humidity. Increase the humidity around your plant by misting it with a spray bottle daily. Alternatively, you can use a humidifier.
  2. Water plant. If your soil is dry, water until the soil is moist but not damp. Water again when soil dries out.
If a large portion of the leaves is suffering from dry tips, complete the following:
  1. Prune away affected tissue. Using sharp and clean pruning shears, remove the dried out tips using clean cuts to avoid harming healthy tissue. Plant tissue will heal on its own, but you can apply a pruning seal for extra protection.
Prevention
Prevention
Many houseplants come from moist tropical areas with high humidity.
To prevent dry and brown tips, you should complete the following:
  1. Water regularly. Water when soil is dry.
  2. Keep humidity high. Keep moisture high by regularly misting the air or using a humidifier.
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Thrips
plant poor
Thrips
Thrips are 1 to 2 mm bugs with slender black or translucent-yellow bodies. They move quickly and feed on the plant's sap.
Overview
Overview
Thrips are tiny, flying, sap-sucking insects that attack the tender parts of plants, causing scarring and weakening of the plant and sometimes, if the infestation is severe enough, plant death. They have undersized double wings with a fringe on them, resembling tiny, misshapen damselflies. Thrips have a taste for many houseplants and crops, making them a serious nuisance.
They appear in early spring after the last frost has occurred. If not controlled in early spring, they will persist for most of the season. They are often attracted to weakened plants, such as those struck by drought/underwatering or malnutrition. Excessive use of nitrogen fertilizer also seems to attract them to a plant. Thrips can spread various viruses between plants, leading to more serious damage.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Thrips are so small that they may not be noticed (1 to 2 mm long), but infested plants present several key signs. Tiny pale spots appear on leaves, which may start to deform, show white or silver discoloration, or become papery in texture.
Flower petals may be damaged as well, and might display color break, which is dark or pale discoloring of petal tissue damaged before the buds had a chance to open. Fruits may show scabby or silvery scarring. Tiny black spots of the insects' excrement may be visible.
As the infestation progresses, infested terminals roll and become discolored, and leaves may drop prematurely. The plant's growth may be stunted. Secondary viral and bacterial infections, which thrips can transmit, may become evident.
The good news? Thrips rarely kill or seriously weaken shrubs and trees. Smaller plants, such as vegetable crops and herbaceous ornamentals, tend to be more severely affected.
Solutions
Solutions
Thrips can be controlled in several ways.
  • Spray plants with Pyrethrin, which is an organic pesticide derived from marigolds (follow label instructions) or Permethrin, the synthetic version of Pyrethrin.
  • Introduce beneficial insects to the garden that eat thrips, such as minute pirate bugs and green lacewings.
  • Remove heavily infested plants from the area and discard.
  • Address viral diseases that may have been transmitted by the pests.
  • For less serious cases -use a hose to spray the thrips off of the plants.
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distribution

Distribution of Autumn fern

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Habitat of Autumn fern

Light woodland shade on low mountains or hills
Northern Hemisphere
South Hemisphere

Distribution Map of Autumn fern

Autumn fern, a fern species, is native to temperate East Asia. It has spread beyond its native range, being introduced to parts of Europe. The species is also widely cultivated in various regions for its ornamental value.
distribution map
Native
Cultivated
Invasive
Potentially invasive
Exotic
No species reported
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More Info on Autumn Fern Growth and Care

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Basic Care Guide
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Lighting
Partial sun
Autumn fern thrives in conditions where it receives moderate levels of sunlight, although it can also grow healthily in completely shaded areas. An overabundance of sunlight can deplete its vigor, while too little may stunt its growth. Its original habitat features filtered sunlight, an incidence that is replicated in its sunlight needs.
Best Sunlight Practices
Temperature
-20 - 38 ℃
Autumn fern are native to temperate regions and require a cool environment to thrive. They prefer temperatures between 41 to 95 ℉ (5 to 35 ℃), with a cool nightly temperature. In warmer seasons, they benefit from partial shade to prevent overheating.
Temp for Healthy Growth
Transplant
18-24 inches
Transplant autumn fern ideally during the fresh growth period between early to mid-spring, which provides optimal root establishment. Choose a location with partial shade and well-draining soil. For healthier growth, allow adequate spacing between plants and be gentle with the delicate roots.
Transplant Techniques
Pruning
Spring, Winter
This perennial, known for its vibrant fronds that change colors seasonally, benefits from selective pruning. For autumn fern, remove any dead or damaged fronds at the base in early spring or late winter to maintain plant health and appearance. This timing allows gardeners to clear away old growth before new fronds unfurl. Pruning enhances air circulation and reduces disease risk. There's no need for extensive cutting back, as autumn fern is self-maintaining with minimal care.
Pruning techniques
Propagation
Spring, Autumn
The preferred propagation method for autumn fern is division, ideally done in spring or autumn. This process is fairly easy for new gardeners, and successful propagation is indicated by healthy new growth. Ensure proper moisture and soil support for optimal results.
Propagation Techniques
Feng shui direction
East
The autumn fern plant exudes a harmonious energy, making it adept for Feng Shui practices. Although it's commonly associated with a myriad of positive healing energies, its optimal compatibility aligns with an eastern-facing placement. This is because, in Feng Shui, the auspicious energy of Wood element, which this plant represents, is most potent in the East. However, remember that Feng Shui is quite subjective and its impact can differ from person to person.
Fengshui Details
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Plants Related to Autumn fern

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Common reed
Common reed
Common reed (Phragmites australis) is a perennial flowering grass that is considered highly invasive. Common reed has thick roots and rhizomes that spread underground. Each plant produces thousands of seeds. The rapid growth of this species upsets the natural ecological balance by overwhelming native species, destroying habitats, threatening wildlife and increasing the potential for fires.
Siamese cassia
Siamese cassia
Senna siamea (Burmese: မယ်ဇလီ, mezali; Thai: ขี้เหล็ก, khilek), also known as Siamese cassia, kassod tree, cassod tree and cassia tree, is a legume in the subfamily Caesalpinioideae. It is native to South and Southeast Asia, although its exact origin is unknown. It is a medium-size, evergreen tree growing up to 18 m with yellow flowers. It is often used as shade tree in cocoa, coffee and tea plantations. In Thailand it is the provincial tree of Chaiyaphum Province and some places in the country are named after it. Leaves are alternate, pinnately compound, with slender, green-reddish, tinged axis and 6 to 12 pairs of leaflets on short stalks, rounded at both ends.
Jersey cudweed
Jersey cudweed
Jersey cudweed is a biennial herb with hairy leaves and small, light-colored flowers. The species is thought to be native to Europe, Asia, Africa and Australia, but it has become widespread across the Americas as well. Jersey cudweed, a hardy generalist, sometimes out-competes native species and is considered invasive in parts of the southwestern U.S.
Japanese ivy
Japanese ivy
It is an evergreen wood vine or shrub or bush perennial climbing 10 m length, with aerial roots. Stems are green. The leaves of Hedera rhombea are medium green, rhombic diamond shaped leaves. Leaves have petiole, is glossy and dark green. The bisexual flowers are yellow-green having 4 to 5 mm diameter. Different kinds of flowers, small, greenish-yellow, gathered in large numbers in erect umbrellas.
African flag
African flag
African flag (Chasmanthe floribunda) is a sprouting perennial flowering plant native to South Africa. African flag also grows in California, Algeria, Australia, and Argentina. This species is endemic to the Cape Province region of South Africa.
Tree of heaven
Tree of heaven
While the tree of heaven has a lovely name, it has a bad reputation in many areas of the US. Several states consider it an invasive species because of its aggressive growth, rapid reproduction, and ability to thrive in poor conditions. The root system of this tree routinely damages sidewalks, sewer systems and other structures.
Poison ivy
Poison ivy
In pop culture, poison ivy is a symbol of an obnoxious weed because, despite its unthreatening looks, it gives a highly unpleasant contact rash to the unfortunate person who touches it. Still, it is commonly eaten by many animals, and the seeds are a favorite with birds. The leaves turn bright red in fall. Its sister species, Western poison ivy (Toxicodendron rydbergii), is not considered to be invasive in the United States, but is noxious in Australia and New Zealand.
Pokeweed
Pokeweed
Although its berries look juicy and tempting, the fruits and the root of pokeweed are toxic and should not be eaten. Pokeweed is considered a pest species by farmers but is nevertheless often grown as an ornamental plant. Its berries can be made into pokeberry ink as well.
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Autumn fern
Autumn fern
Autumn fern
Autumn fern
Autumn fern
Autumn fern
Autumn fern
Dryopteris erythrosora
Also known as: Fern, Shaggy shield fern, Copper shield fern
Autumn fern (Dryopteris erythrosora) is an evergreen fern whose new fronds emerge as reddish-orange in spring, providing a colorful contrast against the dark green mature fronds. It prefers partial shade to full shade. Grows best in moist to wet, organically-rich soil.
Planting Time
Planting Time
Early spring
care guide

Care Guide for Autumn fern

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Questions About Autumn fern

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Watering Watering Watering
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What should I do if I water my Autumn fern too much or too little?
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How can I water my Autumn fern properly?
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What should I consider when watering my Autumn fern?
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Key Facts About Autumn fern

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Attributes of Autumn fern

Lifespan
Perennial
Plant Type
Fern
Planting Time
Early spring
Harvest Time
Mid winter, Late winter
Plant Height
46 cm to 61 cm
Spread
60 cm to 90 cm
Leaf Color
Green
Red
Bronze
Orange
Flower Color
Purple
Black
Stem Color
Green
Brown
Pink
Dormancy
Winter dormancy
Leaf type
Evergreen
Ideal Temperature
5 - 35 ℃
Growth Rate
Slow
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Usages

Garden Use
Autumn fern attracts gardeners due to its unusual foliage, which is the color of autumn leaves when it sprouts but turns green as it ages, instead of the other way around. It is also very tough and low-maintenance. In the garden, it is most often used in shady spots that need some color, moist areas such as beside ponds, or areas with poor soil. It is also used in mixed borders.

Trivia and Interesting Facts

Woodfern leaves are like the tail of a squirrel. Each leaf is arranged on the stem in an orderly manner, and gradually shortens from the bottom to the head. The orderly arranged woodfern really soothes obsessive-compulsive disorders.

Scientific Classification of Autumn fern

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pests

Common Pests & Diseases About Autumn fern

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Common issues for Autumn fern based on 10 million real cases
Brown spot
Brown spot Brown spot Brown spot
This infection can cause brown spots or patches to appear on the plant.
Solutions: In minor cases of brown spot, there isn’t any need to treat the disease. However, if much of the foliage is affected and defoliation occurs, the plant will benefit from getting rid of the infection. It is recommended to start by applying organic treatment options, working up to the more potent synthetic, chemical fungicides if necessary. Organic options won’t kill the fungus, but will prevent it from spreading. Dissolve ½ teaspoon of baking soda and one teaspoon of liquid soap in a gallon of water. Using a spray bottle, spray on tops and bottoms of leaves until the mixture drips off. Repeat every two weeks until existing spots stop enlarging and new spots no longer appear. Spray a copper-based fungicidal soap on the leaves, coating the top and bottom leaf surfaces. Reapply as directed on the product label. Copper penetrates the leaf surface and prevents germination of spores so the fungus cannot spread. Apply an all-purpose fungicide to the entire plant, following the label instructions carefully.
Learn More About the Brown spot more
Leaf tips withering
Leaf tips withering Leaf tips withering Leaf tips withering
Low air humidity can cause the edges of the leaves to dry out.
Solutions: If your plant has only a few dried tips, complete the following: Increase humidity. Increase the humidity around your plant by misting it with a spray bottle daily. Alternatively, you can use a humidifier. Water plant. If your soil is dry, water until the soil is moist but not damp. Water again when soil dries out. If a large portion of the leaves is suffering from dry tips, complete the following: Prune away affected tissue. Using sharp and clean pruning shears, remove the dried out tips using clean cuts to avoid harming healthy tissue. Plant tissue will heal on its own, but you can apply a pruning seal for extra protection.
Learn More About the Leaf tips withering more
Thrips
Thrips Thrips Thrips
Thrips are 1 to 2 mm bugs with slender black or translucent-yellow bodies. They move quickly and feed on the plant's sap.
Solutions: Thrips can be controlled in several ways. Spray plants with Pyrethrin, which is an organic pesticide derived from marigolds (follow label instructions) or Permethrin, the synthetic version of Pyrethrin. Introduce beneficial insects to the garden that eat thrips, such as minute pirate bugs and green lacewings. Remove heavily infested plants from the area and discard. Address viral diseases that may have been transmitted by the pests. For less serious cases -use a hose to spray the thrips off of the plants.
Learn More About the Thrips more
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Brown spot
plant poor
Brown spot
This infection can cause brown spots or patches to appear on the plant.
Overview
Overview
Discolored spots on the foliage of plants are one of the most common disease problems people observe. These spots are caused by fungal and bacterial diseases, with most infections related to a fungal pathogen.
Brown spot can occurs on all houseplants, flowering ornamentals, vegetable plants, and leaves of trees, bushes, and shrubs. No plants are resistant to it, and the problem is worse in warm, wet environments. It can occur at any point in the life stage as long as leaves are present.
Small brownish spots appear on the foliage and enlarge as the disease progresses. In severe cases, the plant or tree is weakened when the lesions interrupt photosynthesis or cause defoliation.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
In most cases, brown spot only affects a small percentage of the whole plant, appearing on a small amount of the leaves. A small infection only puts minor stress on the plant. However, if left untreated and the disease progresses over numerous seasons, it will severely impact the health and productivity of the infected specimen.
  • Sporulation begins (reproduction of the fungal spores), and tiny spots appear on leaves.
  • Placement is often random and scattered as diseases are spread through raindrops.
  • May appear on lower leaves and the interior of the plant where humidity is higher.
  • Brown spots enlarge and grow large enough to touch neighboring spots to form a more prominent blotch.
  • Leaf margins may turn yellow.
  • Tiny black dots (fruiting bodies of the fungi) appear in the dead spots.
  • Blotches grow in size until the entire leaf is brown.
  • The leaf falls off the plant.
Severe Symptoms
  • Partial or complete premature defoliation
  • Reduced growth
  • Increased susceptibility to pests and other diseases
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
Brown spot, or leaf spot, is a common descriptive term given to several diseases affecting the leaves of plants and trees. Around 85% of diseases exhibiting leaf spots are due to fungus or fungus-like organisms. Sometimes brown spot is caused by a bacterial infection, or insect activity with similar symptoms.
When conditions are warm and the leaf surfaces are wet, fungal spores being transported by wind or rain land on the surface and cling to it. They do not rupture the cell walls but grow in the space between the plant plasma membrane and the plant cell wall. As the spores reproduce, they release toxins and enzymes that cause necrotic spots (i.e., dead tissue) on the leaves, allowing the fungi to consume the products released when the cells degrade.
Solutions
Solutions
In minor cases of brown spot, there isn’t any need to treat the disease. However, if much of the foliage is affected and defoliation occurs, the plant will benefit from getting rid of the infection. It is recommended to start by applying organic treatment options, working up to the more potent synthetic, chemical fungicides if necessary.
Organic options won’t kill the fungus, but will prevent it from spreading.
  1. Dissolve ½ teaspoon of baking soda and one teaspoon of liquid soap in a gallon of water. Using a spray bottle, spray on tops and bottoms of leaves until the mixture drips off. Repeat every two weeks until existing spots stop enlarging and new spots no longer appear.
  2. Spray a copper-based fungicidal soap on the leaves, coating the top and bottom leaf surfaces. Reapply as directed on the product label. Copper penetrates the leaf surface and prevents germination of spores so the fungus cannot spread.
  3. Apply an all-purpose fungicide to the entire plant, following the label instructions carefully.
Prevention
Prevention
Like many other diseases, it is easier to prevent brown spot than cure it, and this is done through cultural practices.
  • Clear fall leaves from the ground before winter to minimize places where fungi and bacteria can overwinter.
  • Maintain good air movement between plants through proper plant spacing.
  • Increase air circulation through the center of plants through pruning.
  • Thoroughly clean all pruning tools after working with diseased plants.
  • Never dispose of disease plant material in a compost pile.
  • Avoid overhead watering to keep moisture off of the foliage.
  • Keep plants healthy by providing adequate sunlight, water, and fertilizer.
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Leaf tips withering
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Leaf tips withering
Low air humidity can cause the edges of the leaves to dry out.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
The tips and the edges of the plants’ leaves are dried out and brown. They may be crunchy when touched. This is caused by low humidity and/or a lack of water.
Solutions
Solutions
If your plant has only a few dried tips, complete the following:
  1. Increase humidity. Increase the humidity around your plant by misting it with a spray bottle daily. Alternatively, you can use a humidifier.
  2. Water plant. If your soil is dry, water until the soil is moist but not damp. Water again when soil dries out.
If a large portion of the leaves is suffering from dry tips, complete the following:
  1. Prune away affected tissue. Using sharp and clean pruning shears, remove the dried out tips using clean cuts to avoid harming healthy tissue. Plant tissue will heal on its own, but you can apply a pruning seal for extra protection.
Prevention
Prevention
Many houseplants come from moist tropical areas with high humidity.
To prevent dry and brown tips, you should complete the following:
  1. Water regularly. Water when soil is dry.
  2. Keep humidity high. Keep moisture high by regularly misting the air or using a humidifier.
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Thrips
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Thrips
Thrips are 1 to 2 mm bugs with slender black or translucent-yellow bodies. They move quickly and feed on the plant's sap.
Overview
Overview
Thrips are tiny, flying, sap-sucking insects that attack the tender parts of plants, causing scarring and weakening of the plant and sometimes, if the infestation is severe enough, plant death. They have undersized double wings with a fringe on them, resembling tiny, misshapen damselflies. Thrips have a taste for many houseplants and crops, making them a serious nuisance.
They appear in early spring after the last frost has occurred. If not controlled in early spring, they will persist for most of the season. They are often attracted to weakened plants, such as those struck by drought/underwatering or malnutrition. Excessive use of nitrogen fertilizer also seems to attract them to a plant. Thrips can spread various viruses between plants, leading to more serious damage.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Thrips are so small that they may not be noticed (1 to 2 mm long), but infested plants present several key signs. Tiny pale spots appear on leaves, which may start to deform, show white or silver discoloration, or become papery in texture.
Flower petals may be damaged as well, and might display color break, which is dark or pale discoloring of petal tissue damaged before the buds had a chance to open. Fruits may show scabby or silvery scarring. Tiny black spots of the insects' excrement may be visible.
As the infestation progresses, infested terminals roll and become discolored, and leaves may drop prematurely. The plant's growth may be stunted. Secondary viral and bacterial infections, which thrips can transmit, may become evident.
The good news? Thrips rarely kill or seriously weaken shrubs and trees. Smaller plants, such as vegetable crops and herbaceous ornamentals, tend to be more severely affected.
Solutions
Solutions
Thrips can be controlled in several ways.
  • Spray plants with Pyrethrin, which is an organic pesticide derived from marigolds (follow label instructions) or Permethrin, the synthetic version of Pyrethrin.
  • Introduce beneficial insects to the garden that eat thrips, such as minute pirate bugs and green lacewings.
  • Remove heavily infested plants from the area and discard.
  • Address viral diseases that may have been transmitted by the pests.
  • For less serious cases -use a hose to spray the thrips off of the plants.
Prevention
Prevention
The best way to protect plants from thrips is to take preventative measures.
  • Avoid buying and transplanting infected plants. Check for signs of thrip damage before buying.
  • Regularly prune off dead branches and leaves.
  • Keep the garden weeded and remove debris such as dead branches and leaves.
  • Avoid unnecessary use of insecticides as they can kill predatory insects that keep thrips in check.
  • Plant a diverse variety of plants in the garden to provide habitat for predatory insects.
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distribution

Distribution of Autumn fern

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Habitat of Autumn fern

Light woodland shade on low mountains or hills
Northern Hemisphere
South Hemisphere

Distribution Map of Autumn fern

Autumn fern, a fern species, is native to temperate East Asia. It has spread beyond its native range, being introduced to parts of Europe. The species is also widely cultivated in various regions for its ornamental value.
distribution map
Native
Cultivated
Invasive
Potentially invasive
Exotic
No species reported
plant_info

Plants Related to Autumn fern

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Lighting
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Indoor
Indoor
Outdoor
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Requirements
Partial sun
Ideal
About 3-6 hours sunlight
Full shade
Tolerance
Less than 3 hours of sunlight
Watch how sunlight gracefully moves through your garden, and choose spots that provide the perfect balance of light and shade for your plants, ensuring their happiness.
Essentials
Autumn fern thrives in conditions where it receives moderate levels of sunlight, although it can also grow healthily in completely shaded areas. An overabundance of sunlight can deplete its vigor, while too little may stunt its growth. Its original habitat features filtered sunlight, an incidence that is replicated in its sunlight needs.
Preferred
Tolerable
Unsuitable
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Artificial lighting
Indoor plants require adequate lighting for optimal growth. When natural sunlight is insufficient, particularly in winter or in less sunny spaces, artificial lights offer a vital solution, promoting faster, healthier growth.
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Indoor plants require adequate lighting for optimal growth. When natural sunlight is insufficient, particularly in winter or in less sunny spaces, artificial lights offer a vital solution, promoting faster, healthier growth.
1. Choose the right type of artificial light: LED lights are a popular choice for indoor plant lighting because they can be customized to provide the specific wavelengths of light that your plants need.
Full sun plants need 30-50W/sq ft of artificial light, partial sun plants need 20-30W/sq ft, and full shade plants need 10-20W/sq ft.
2. Determine the appropriate distance: Place the light source 12-36 inches above the plant to mimic natural sunlight.
3. Determine the duration: Mimic the length of natural daylight hours for your plant species. most plants need 8-12 hours of light per day.
Important Symptoms
Symptoms of Insufficient Light in %s
Autumn fern thrives in shady environments and can tolerate low light. Although symptoms of light deficiency may not be readily apparent, it's important to provide adequate light to ensure optimal growth and health.
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Slower or no new growth
Autumn fern enters a survival mode when light conditions are poor, which leads to a halt in leaf production. As a result, the plant's growth becomes delayed or stops altogether.
Lighter-colored new leaves
Insufficient sunlight can cause leaves to develop irregular color patterns or appear pale. This indicates a lack of chlorophyll and essential nutrients.
Solutions
1. To optimize plant growth, shift them to increasingly sunnier spots each week until they receive 3-6 hours of direct sunlight daily, enabling gradual adaptation to changing light conditions.2. To provide additional light for your plant, consider using artificial light if it's large or not easily movable. Keep a desk or ceiling lamp on for at least 8 hours daily, or invest in professional plant grow lights for ample light.
Symptoms of Excessive light in %s
Autumn fern prefers shade and is sensitive to direct sunlight. Due to their intolerance to sun exposure, they easily develop symptoms of sunburn, making proper shading essential for their well-being.
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Chlorosis
Chlorosis is a condition where the plant's leaves lose their green color and turn yellow. This is due to the breakdown of chlorophyll from excessive sunlight, which negatively affects the plant's ability to photosynthesize.
Sunscald
Sunscald occurs when the plant's leaves or stems are damaged by intense sunlight exposure. It appears as pale, bleached, or necrotic areas on the plant tissue and can reduce the plant's overall health.
Leaf Curling
Leaf curling is a symptom where leaves curl or twist under extreme sunlight conditions. This is a defense mechanism used by the plant to reduce its surface area exposed to sunlight, minimizing water loss and damage.
Wilting
Wilting occurs when a plant loses turgor pressure and its leaves and stems begin to droop. Overexposure to sunlight can cause wilting by increasing the plant's water loss through transpiration, making it difficult for the plant to maintain adequate hydration.
Leaf Scorching
Leaf scorching is a symptom characterized by the appearance of brown, dry, and crispy edges or patches on leaves due to excessive sunlight. This can lead to a reduction in photosynthetic capacity and overall plant health.
Solutions
1. Move your plant to the optimal position where it can receive abundant sunlight but also have some shade. An east-facing window is an ideal choice as the morning sunlight is gentler. This way, your plant can enjoy ample sunlight while reducing the risk of sunburn.2. It is recommended to trim off any completely dehydrated or withered parts of the plant.
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Temperature
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Requirements
Ideal
Tolerable
Unsuitable
Just like people, each plant has its own preferences. Learn about your plants' temperature needs and create a comforting environment for them to flourish. As you care for your plants, your bond with them will deepen. Trust your intuition as you learn about their temperature needs, celebrating the journey you share. Lovingly monitor the temperature around your plants and adjust their environment as needed. A thermometer can be your ally in this heartfelt endeavor. Be patient and gentle with yourself as you explore your plants' temperature needs. Cherish your successes, learn from challenges, and nurture your garden with love, creating a haven that reflects the warmth of your care.
Essentials
Autumn fern are native to temperate regions and require a cool environment to thrive. They prefer temperatures between 41 to 95 ℉ (5 to 35 ℃), with a cool nightly temperature. In warmer seasons, they benefit from partial shade to prevent overheating.
Regional wintering strategies
Autumn fern has strong cold resistance, so special frost protection measures are usually not necessary during winter. However, if the winter temperatures are expected to drop below {Limit_growth_temperature}, it is still important to provide cold protection. This can be achieved by covering the plant with materials such as soil or straw. Before the first freeze in autumn, it is recommended to water the plant abundantly, ensuring the soil remains moist and enters a frozen state. This helps prevent drought and water scarcity for the plant during winter and early spring.
Important Symptoms
Symptoms of Low Temperature in Autumn fern
Autumn fern is cold-tolerant and thrives best when the temperature is above {Suitable_growth_temperature_min}. During winter, it should be kept above {Tolerable_growing_temperature_min}. When the temperature falls below {Limit_growth_temperature}, although there may not be any noticeable changes during winter, there may be a decrease in sprouting or even no sprouting during springtime.
Solutions
In spring, remove any parts that have failed to sprout.
Symptoms of High Temperature in Autumn fern
During summer, Autumn fern should be kept below {Suitable_growth_temperature_max}. When the temperature exceeds {Tolerable_growing_temperature_max}, the leaves of the plant may become lighter in color, prone to curling, and more susceptible to sunburn.
Solutions
Trim away the sunburned and dried-up parts. Move the plant to a location that provides shade from the midday and afternoon sun, or use a shade cloth to create shade. Water the plant in the morning and evening to keep the soil moist.
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