PictureThis
camera identify
Use App
tab list
Home Identify Application
English
English
繁體中文
日本語
Español
Français
Deutsch
Pусский
Português
Italiano
한국어
Nederlands
العربية
Svenska
Polskie
ภาษาไทย
Bahasa Melayu
Bahasa Indonesia
Get App
This page looks better in the app
about about
About
care_guide care_guide
Care Guide
topic topic
Care FAQ
plant_info plant_info
More Info
pests pests
Pests & Diseases
distribution_map distribution_map
Distribution
care_scenes care_scenes
More About How-Tos
more_plants more_plants
Related Plants
pic top
Toyon
Toyon
Toyon
Toyon
Toyon
Toyon
Toyon
Heteromeles arbutifolia
Toyon produces a berry that has multiple culinary uses. The berries can be cooked and eaten by themselves, or made in multiple preparations. Some of the most common of these are jellies, custards, and teas. The berries can also be dried and stored for later consumption. These berries have been a food staple for Native American tribes for generations.
Planting Time
Planting Time
Winter
care guide

Care Guide for Toyon

Watering Care
Watering Care
Average water needs, watering when the top 3 cm of soil has dried out.
Details on Watering Care Watering Care
Soil Care
Soil Care
Sand, Loam, Neutral, Alkaline
Details on Soil Care Soil Care
What Are the Lighting Requirements for Toyon?
What Are the Lighting Requirements for Toyon?
Full sun, Partial sun
Details on Sunlight Requirements What Are the Lighting Requirements for Toyon?
What is the Ideal Temperature Range for Toyon?
What is the Ideal Temperature Range for Toyon?
8 to 10
Details on Temperature What is the Ideal Temperature Range for Toyon?
What is the Best Time to Planting Toyon?
What is the Best Time to Planting Toyon?
Winter
Details on Planting Time What is the Best Time to Planting Toyon?
care guide bg
Know the light your plants really get.
Find the best spots for them to optimize their health, simply using your phone.
Download the App
Picture This
A Botanist in Your Pocket
qrcode
Scan QR code to download
label
cover
Toyon
Sunlight
Sunlight
Full sun
Hardiness Zones
Hardiness Zones
8 to 10
Planting Time
Planting Time
Winter
question

Questions About Toyon

Watering Watering Watering
Sunlight Sunlight Sunlight
Temperature Temperature Temperature
Fertilizing Fertilizing Fertilizing
What is the best way to water my Toyon?
Your Toyon will not be too picky about how you choose to water it. As such, you can use just about any common watering tool to moisten this plant’s soil. Watering cans, hoses, and even cups will work just fine when it is time to water your Toyon. Regardless of which watering tool you use, you should typically apply the water directly to the soil. In doing so, you should ensure that you moisten all soil areas equally to give all parts of the root system the water it needs. It can help to use filtered water, as tap water can contain particles that are harmful to plants. It is also beneficial to use water that is at or slightly above room temperature, as colder or hotter water can be somewhat shocking to the Toyon. However, the Toyon usually responds well to any kind of water you give it.
Read More more
What should I do if I water my Toyon too much or too little?
For outdoor plants, especially newly planted plants or plant seedlings, they can be prone to lack of watering. Remember that you need to keep watering enough for a few months when the tree is small or just planted. This is because once the roots are established, Toyon can rely on rain most of the time.
When your Toyon is planted in pots, overwatering is often more likely to.When you accidentally overwater your Toyon, you should be prepared to remedy the situation immediately. First, you should stop watering your plant right away to minimize the effect of your overwatering. After, you should consider removing your Toyon from its pot to inspect its roots. If you find that none of the roots have developed root rot, it may be permissible to return your plant to its container. If you do discover signs of root rot, then you should trim away any roots that have been affected. You may also want to apply a fungicide to prevent further damage. Lastly, you should repot your Toyon in soil that is well-draining. In the case of an underwatered Toyon, simply water this plant more frequently.
Underwatering is often an easy fix. If you underwater, the plant's leaves will tend to droop and dry out and fall off, and the leaves will quickly return to fullness after sufficient watering. Please correct your watering frequency as soon as underwatering occurs.
Read More more
How often should I water my Toyon?
Most plants that grow naturally outdoors can be allowed to grow normally with rainfall. If your area lacks rainfall, consider giving your plants adequate watering every 2 weeks during the spring and fall. More frequent watering is needed in summer. In winter, when growth becomes slower and plants need less water, water more sparingly. Throughout the winter, you may not give it additional watering at all. If your Toyon is young or newly planted, then you should water more frequently to help it establish, and mature and grow up to have more adaptable and drought tolerant plants.
For potted plants, there are two main ways that you can determine how often to water your Toyon. The first way is to set a predetermined watering schedule. If you choose this route, you should plan to water this plant about once every week or once every other week. However, this approach may not always work as it does not consider the unique conditions of the growing environment for your Toyon .
Your watering frequency can also change depending on the season. For instance, a predetermined watering schedule will likely not suffice during summer when this plant's water needs are highest. An alternative route is to set your watering frequency based on soil moisture. Typically, it is best to wait until the first two to four inches of soil, usually ⅓ to ½ depth of the pots, have dried out entirely before you give more water.
Read More more
How much water does my Toyon need?
When it comes time to water your Toyon, you may be surprised to find that this plant does not always need a high volume of water. Instead, if only a few inches of soil have dried since your last watering, you can support healthy growth in the Toyon by giving it about five to ten ounces of water every time you water. You can also decide your water volume based on soil moisture. As mentioned above, you should note how many inches of soil have dried out between waterings. A surefire way to make sure your Toyon gets the moisture it needs is to supply enough water to moisten all the soil layers that became dry since the last time you watered. If more than half of the soil has become dry, you should consider giving more water than usual. In those cases, continue adding water until you see excess water draining from your pot’s drainage holes.
If your Toyon is planted in an area that gets plenty of rain outdoors, it may not need additional watering. When the Toyon is young or just getting established, make sure it gets 1-2 inches of rain per week. As it continues to grow and establish, it can survive entirely on rainwater and only when the weather is hot and there is no rainfall at all for 2-3 weeks, then consider giving your Toyon a full watering to prevent them from suffering stress.
Read More more
How can I tell if i'm watering my Toyon enough?
Overwatering is a far more common problem for the Toyon, and there are several signs you should look for when this occurs. Generally, an overwatered Toyon will have yellowing leaves and may even drop some leaves. Also, overwatering can cause the overall structure of your plant to shrivel and may also promote root rot. On the other hand, an underwatered Toyon will also begin to wilt. It may also display leaves that are brown or brittle to the touch. Whether you see signs of overwatering or underwatering, you should be prepared to intervene and restore the health of your Toyon.
Read More more
How can I water my Toyon at different growth stages?
When the Toyon is very young, such as when it is in a seedling stage, you will need to give it more water than you would if it were at a mature age. During the early stages of this plant’s life, it is important to keep the soil consistently moist to encourage root development. The same is true for any Toyon that you have transplanted to a new growing location. Also, the Toyon can develop showy flowers and fruits when you give them the correct care. If your Toyon is in a flowering or fruiting phase, you will likely need to give a bit more water than you usually would to support these plant structures.
Read More more
How can I water my Toyon through the seasons?
The seasonal changes will affect how often you water your Toyon. Mainly, during the hottest summer months, you will likely need to increase how much you water this plant, especially if it grows in an area that receives ample sunlight. Strong summer sunlight can cause soil to dry out much faster than usual, meaning that you’ll need to water more frequently. By contrast, your Toyon will need much less water during the winter, as it will not be in an active growing phase. During winter, you can get by with watering once every 2 to 3 weeks or sometimes not at all. For those growing this plant indoors, you should be somewhat wary of appliances such as air conditioners, which can cause your plant to dry out more quickly, which also calls for more frequent watering.
Read More more
What's the difference between watering my Toyon indoors vs outdoors?
In some cases, your Toyon may not need any supplemental watering when it grows outside and will survive on rainwater alone. However, if you live in an area of little to no rain, you should water this plant about every two weeks. If you belong to the group of people who live out of this plant's natural hardiness zone, you should grow it indoors. In an indoor setting, you should monitor your plant's soil as it can dry out more quickly when it is in a container or when it is exposed to HVAC units such as air conditioners. Those drying factors will lead you to water this plant a bit more often than if you grew it outdoors.
Read More more
icon
Get tips and tricks for your plants.
Keep your plants happy and healthy with our guide to watering, lighting, feeding and more.
close
plant_info

Key Facts About Toyon

Attributes of Toyon

Lifespan
Perennial
Plant Type
Shrub
Planting Time
Winter
Bloom Time
Late spring, Summer
Harvest Time
Fall, Winter
Plant Height
8 m
Spread
3 m
Leaf Color
Green
Blue
Flower Size
6 mm to 1 cm
Flower Color
White
Yellow
Fruit Color
Red
Stem Color
Brown
Dormancy
Non-dormant
Leaf type
Evergreen
Pollinators
Beetles, Wasps, Flies, Hummingbirds
Benefits to Pollinating Insects
Adult food, Larval food

Name story

Toyon
Toyon is a prominent part of the coastal sage scrub community. Its common name "Toyon" is a Spanish alteration of "totcon", the word used for the plant by the Ohlone Indians of the central and northern California coast.

Usages

Garden Use
Toyon is a common perennial shrub that is appreciated for both its hardiness and attractive berries. It needs very little water, making it perfect for xeriscape gardening. Toyon is frequently used for hedging or along house walls due to its dense leaves, tolerance to pruning, and resistance to fire (compared to other chaparrals). It grows well with Coffeeberry (Rhamnus californica), Manzanita (Arctostaphylos), and oak trees.

Scientific Classification of Toyon

icon
Find your perfect green friends.
Plan your green oasis based on your criteria: plant type, pet safety, skill level, sites, and more.
pests

Common Pests & Diseases About Toyon

Common issues for Toyon based on 10 million real cases
Brown spot
Brown spot Brown spot
Brown spot
This infection can cause brown spots or patches to appear on the plant.
Solutions: In minor cases of brown spot, there isn’t any need to treat the disease. However, if much of the foliage is affected and defoliation occurs, the plant will benefit from getting rid of the infection. It is recommended to start by applying organic treatment options, working up to the more potent synthetic, chemical fungicides if necessary. Organic options won’t kill the fungus, but will prevent it from spreading. Dissolve ½ teaspoon of baking soda and one teaspoon of liquid soap in a gallon of water. Using a spray bottle, spray on tops and bottoms of leaves until the mixture drips off. Repeat every two weeks until existing spots stop enlarging and new spots no longer appear. Spray a copper-based fungicidal soap on the leaves, coating the top and bottom leaf surfaces. Reapply as directed on the product label. Copper penetrates the leaf surface and prevents germination of spores so the fungus cannot spread. Apply an all-purpose fungicide to the entire plant, following the label instructions carefully.
Gall
Gall Gall
Gall
Insects or diseases can cause strange protrusions on the leaves, sometimes manifesting in a range of colors and shapes.
Solutions: While galls may look alarming, the physical structures themselves pose little threat to the plant or tree and do not require chemical treatment. If the galls are unsightly, they can be removed using sterilized (10% bleach solution) pruners or loppers. Discard or destroy all removed plant parts. It is important to treat the underlying cause, as insects or diseases can create long-term damage if left untreated. After identifying the pest, natural or chemical may be used, depending upon individual gardening preferences. To treat pests naturally apply an insecticidal soap. Dilute 1 tablespoon of soap per quart of water in a spray bottle and mix gently. Spray the entire plant until the leaves are dripping, making sure to coat the underside and tops. Re-spray every 2 to 3 days. To treat organically apply neem oil, a naturally occurring pesticide, per label directions every 7 days until pests are eradicated. To treat chemically apply an insecticidal foliar spray. Follow the dosing instructions provided by the manufacturer on the product label. For fungal or bacterial causes, apply a bactericide or copper-based fungicide in the spring, following the dosing instructions provided on the product label.
Leaf beetles
Leaf beetles Leaf beetles
Leaf beetles
Leaf beetles are a class of colored insects 1 to 2 cm in size. They gnaw on leaves and petals resulting in small, round holes scattered over the surface.
Solutions: For less serious cases: Remove beetles, nymphs, and eggs. Remove all life stages of the beetles and kill them by placing them in a bucket of warm, soapy water. This can be done more easily by placing the bucket under affected leaves and shaking the plant. This method is most effective in the afternoon when leaf beetles are more active. Always dispose of insects in a sealed bag or container to avoid escape and spread. To treat more serious infestations: Apply organic insecticides. Use naturally-derived insecticides before moving on to synthetic insecticides. Neem oil and pyrethrum are naturally-derived insecticides that should be applied following label instructions. Apply synthetic insecticides. Examples of insecticides effective for leaf beetles include carbaryl, permethrin, and bifenthrin. Apply insecticides according to label instructions.
Fruit withering
Fruit withering Fruit withering
Fruit withering
Fungal infection or normal ripening can cause the fruit to dry out.
Solutions: There are a number of appropriate solutions to control fruit withering: Remove any fruit as soon as it shows any signs of infection. Do not compost. Use a fungicide prior to leaf bud and then as per manufacturers instructions throughout the season.
icon
Treat and prevent plant diseases.
AI-powered plant doctor helps you diagnose plant problems in seconds.
close
Brown spot
plant poor
Brown spot
This infection can cause brown spots or patches to appear on the plant.
Overview
Overview
Discolored spots on the foliage of plants are one of the most common disease problems people observe. These spots are caused by fungal and bacterial diseases, with most infections related to a fungal pathogen.
Brown spot can occurs on all houseplants, flowering ornamentals, vegetable plants, and leaves of trees, bushes, and shrubs. No plants are resistant to it, and the problem is worse in warm, wet environments. It can occur at any point in the life stage as long as leaves are present.
Small brownish spots appear on the foliage and enlarge as the disease progresses. In severe cases, the plant or tree is weakened when the lesions interrupt photosynthesis or cause defoliation.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
In most cases, brown spot only affects a small percentage of the whole plant, appearing on a small amount of the leaves. A small infection only puts minor stress on the plant. However, if left untreated and the disease progresses over numerous seasons, it will severely impact the health and productivity of the infected specimen.
  • Sporulation begins (reproduction of the fungal spores), and tiny spots appear on leaves.
  • Placement is often random and scattered as diseases are spread through raindrops.
  • May appear on lower leaves and the interior of the plant where humidity is higher.
  • Brown spots enlarge and grow large enough to touch neighboring spots to form a more prominent blotch.
  • Leaf margins may turn yellow.
  • Tiny black dots (fruiting bodies of the fungi) appear in the dead spots.
  • Blotches grow in size until the entire leaf is brown.
  • The leaf falls off the plant.
Severe Symptoms
  • Partial or complete premature defoliation
  • Reduced growth
  • Increased susceptibility to pests and other diseases
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
Brown spot, or leaf spot, is a common descriptive term given to several diseases affecting the leaves of plants and trees. Around 85% of diseases exhibiting leaf spots are due to fungus or fungus-like organisms. Sometimes brown spot is caused by a bacterial infection, or insect activity with similar symptoms.
When conditions are warm and the leaf surfaces are wet, fungal spores being transported by wind or rain land on the surface and cling to it. They do not rupture the cell walls but grow in the space between the plant plasma membrane and the plant cell wall. As the spores reproduce, they release toxins and enzymes that cause necrotic spots (i.e., dead tissue) on the leaves, allowing the fungi to consume the products released when the cells degrade.
Continue reading in our app - it's better
A database of 400000+ plants and unlimited guides at your fingertips...
qrcode
Scan the QR code with your phone camera to download the app
Gall
plant poor
Gall
Insects or diseases can cause strange protrusions on the leaves, sometimes manifesting in a range of colors and shapes.
Overview
Overview
A general symptom of plant irritation, a gall is a spherical or lumpy, tumor-like growth that appears on leaves, stems, branches and trunks of various plants, especially trees. Galls form around a potential problem or irritation, like a pearl forming around a bit of sand in an oyster shell, to separate the cause from the rest of the plant. Many form around insect damage or a localized infection.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Abnormal growths appear on leaves or other parts of the plant. The brown or brightly colored bumps may be simple or complicated structures.
  • Leaf galls appear on most herbaceous plants and trees. They are more prone to develop on new growth and following mild winters in which insects and diseases were not killed by the cold.
  • Leaf galls look like leaf curls, nipples, blisters, or erineums (hairy growths) and can occur on upper or lower leaf surfaces.
  • Bud or flower galls cause these parts to be deformed in size or shape.
  • Stem and twig galls cause deformed growth on twigs and stems, with symptom severity ranging from slight swelling to large, knot-like growth.
  • Stunted plant growth is possible, as galls steal nutrients from the plant.
  • Long-lasting damage can occur if there are many galls or galls present for a long period of time.
It's important to note that galls, especially leaf galls, are extremely common. Noticing galls is not a cause to panic – most plants will have galls from time to time. However, it is when they are widespread or long-lasting that steps will need to be taken to remove them.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
There are many different processes and organisms that produce galls. Some appear when sap-sucking insects feed on leaves; some shelter developing insect eggs; some develop as a response to fungal or bacterial infection.
The most common culprits include:
  • Feeding or egg-laying mites and insects - the saliva and other secretions cause the plants to produce more growth hormones.
  • High hormone production resulting in increased cell numbers or cell size (because of this, mature plants tend not to be affected).
  • Fungal infection
  • Galls forming on leaf blades and sheaths are more often caused by viruses or bacteria.
  • Nematodes can also cause galls to form on plants, but these tend to form in the roots.
  • Parasitic plants such as mistletoe can cause galls on their hosts.
Continue reading in our app - it's better
A database of 400000+ plants and unlimited guides at your fingertips...
qrcode
Scan the QR code with your phone camera to download the app
Leaf beetles
plant poor
Leaf beetles
Leaf beetles are a class of colored insects 1 to 2 cm in size. They gnaw on leaves and petals resulting in small, round holes scattered over the surface.
Overview
Overview
Leaf beetles range in size from 1.5 mm to 2 cm. Both adult beetles and their larvae eat the leaves of many different types of plants. There are over 35,000 different species of leaf beetles, in a variety of colors including gold, green, yellow-striped, and red striped. Some of these have been mistaken for ladybirds because of their shape and coloring. They can be oval, round, or elongated in shape. These insect pests are most active in spring and summer.
If not controlled, leaf beetles can do a lot of damage to vegetable crops and ornamental plants. They feed on the leaves, flowers, stems, roots, and fruits of different plants. They can fly, which means it's easy for them to move from one plant to another. Some species of leaf beetles only target one specific crop, while others will target many different types of plants. Although a lot of the damage that they cause is cosmetic, an infestation can weaken a plant and leave it prone to other more problematic diseases.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
The first signs of a leaf beetles infestation are small visible holes in leaves. Leaves then become discolored and dark beetle droppings can be seen. As the leaves turn yellow and brown, they will drop off the plant onto the ground. Some leaves will appear skeletonized with only the veins still remaining.
Infestation begins in spring, when the adult beetles emerge from the soil and lay their eggs on the leaves of plants. When these eggs hatch, the young nymphs start munching on the leaves as they grow up. Once leaf beetles are large and mature, they'll fall to the ground and pupate in the soil over winter before starting the cycle all over again.
Leaf beetles also eat holes in fruits and vegetables. These can be seen as small round holes that sometimes have a larger brown area surrounding them.
Solutions
Solutions
For less serious cases:
  1. Remove beetles, nymphs, and eggs. Remove all life stages of the beetles and kill them by placing them in a bucket of warm, soapy water. This can be done more easily by placing the bucket under affected leaves and shaking the plant. This method is most effective in the afternoon when leaf beetles are more active. Always dispose of insects in a sealed bag or container to avoid escape and spread.
To treat more serious infestations:
  1. Apply organic insecticides. Use naturally-derived insecticides before moving on to synthetic insecticides. Neem oil and pyrethrum are naturally-derived insecticides that should be applied following label instructions.
  2. Apply synthetic insecticides. Examples of insecticides effective for leaf beetles include carbaryl, permethrin, and bifenthrin. Apply insecticides according to label instructions.
Continue reading in our app - it's better
A database of 400000+ plants and unlimited guides at your fingertips...
qrcode
Scan the QR code with your phone camera to download the app
Fruit withering
plant poor
Fruit withering
Fungal infection or normal ripening can cause the fruit to dry out.
Overview
Overview
Fruit withering is common on many tree fruits, including apples, pears, peaches, cherries, and plums, as well as fruiting shrubs. It is caused by a fungal pathogen and will result in wrinkled and desiccated fruit.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Here are the most common symptoms in the order that they are likely to occur.
  1. Both leaves and blossom on the tips of branches will go brown and wither.
  2. Gray powdery patches will appear on infected leaves and flowers, and this will be most apparent after rain.
  3. Any fruit that does appear will turn wrinkled and fail to develop.
  4. Branch tips begin to die, progressing back to larger branches, causing general deterioration of the tree or plant.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
The withering is caused by one of two fungal pathogens, one called Monilina laxa and the other called M. fructigen. The spores overwinter on infected plant material and are then spread the following spring by wind, rain, or animal vectors. The problem will start to become noticeable in mid-spring, but will increase in severity as summer progresses and the fungus grows. If not addressed, the disease will intensify and spread to other plants in the vicinity.
Continue reading in our app - it's better
A database of 400000+ plants and unlimited guides at your fingertips...
qrcode
Scan the QR code with your phone camera to download the app
distribution

Distribution of Toyon

Habitat of Toyon

Drought-adapted chaparral and mixed oak woodland habitats
Northern Hemisphere
South Hemisphere

Distribution Map of Toyon

Toyon is native to southwestern North America. It is found on slopes in dry and woodland areas.
distribution map
Native
Cultivated
Invasive
Potentially invasive
Exotic
No species reported
habit
care_scenes

More Info on Toyon Growth and Care

Basic Care Guide
Explore More
Lighting
Full sun
Toyon flourishes under unobstructed, full-day exposure to the sun, and can also survive in locations with less sunlight, although this may hinder optimum development. Its native habitats showcase this light preference uniformly. Excessive shading may result in poor health, while excessive exposure is typically well tolerated.
Best Sunlight Practices
Temperature
-5 41 ℃
The temperature requirements of toyon are within the range of 59 to 95 ℉ (15 to 35 ℃). This plant is native to temperate regions and prefers a moderate temperature. It is suggested to adjust the temperature indoors according to different seasons to maintain its ideal temperature range.
Temp for Healthy Growth
Transplant
5-6 feet
For toyon, the perfect transplantation time is [S1], typically late winter or early spring, prime for root development before the growing season. Place toyon in a well-draining location with full sun to partial shade. Remember, never force the roots into the hole, gently settle them in.
Transplant Techniques
Feng shui direction
East
The toyon is considered moderately compatible according to Feng Shui principles. When facing East, it might interact positively with the wood elements, enhancing growth and prosperity. However, the results are significantly influenced by the individual's energy and surroundings; thus, results may appear inconsistent.
Fengshui Details
other_plant

Plants Related to Toyon

Autograph tree
Autograph tree
Autograph tree (Clusia rosea) is indigenous to tropical regions of America. It has a nasty tendency to grow on top of and strangle other plants. Unlike most other plants, it can absorb carbon dioxide during nighttime hours, as pineapples and jade plants do. It’s called the autograph tree because its leaves are so hard, you can carve into them.
Pennywort
Pennywort
Pennywort is a crawling aquatic perennial plant endemic to North Africa and Europe. When cooked, its leaves smell and taste like carrots. It is edible but should not be consumed in large quantities. This plant is grown for ground cover in ponds, water gardens, and even as a houseplant.
Flax-leaved daphne
Flax-leaved daphne
Flax-leaved daphne (Daphne gnidium) is an attractive, evergreen shrub with fragrant white flowers, but it is highly poisonous. Even the sap can irritate the skin. Coming from southern Europe, the Middle East, and north Africa, it can grow in poor soil and on inhospitable hillsides.
Wild iris
Wild iris
Wild iris (Dietes grandiflora) is a large wild perennial plant in the iris family. It's commonly seen in its native regions of South Africa, used for horticulture and beautification of public spaces and gardens. In Australia, wild iris is considered a weed.
Japanese box
Japanese box
Japanese box (Buxus microphylla) is a dwarf evergreen shrub native to Japan and China. This species is also called the Japanese box. Japanese box is often planted in ornamental hedging. One cultivar of this species is often grown as a bonsai tree. In Japan, japanese box wood is used to make a hanko, or printing stamp seal.
Perez's sea lavender
Perez's sea lavender
Perez's sea lavender (Limonium perezii) is a plant species native to the Canary Islands. Commonly grown in gardens around the globe, this plant is also known as Papierblom or Everlasting in South Africa.
Cape jasmine
Cape jasmine
Gardenia jasminoides is an evergreen shrub with unique, glossy evergreen leaves and stunning flowers. The sophisticated, matte white flowers are often used in bouquets. The exceptional beauty of this ornamental plant has made it a popular and highly appreciated plant amongst gardeners and horticulturalists.
Golden pothos
Golden pothos
The golden pothos (Epipremnum aureum) is a popular houseplant that is commonly seen in Australia, Asia, and the West Indies. It goes by many nicknames, including "devil's ivy", because it is so hard to kill and can even grow in low light conditions. Golden pothos has poisonous sap, so it should be kept away from pets and children.
View More Plants
close
product icon
Continue reading in our app - it's better
A database of 400000+ plants and unlimited guides at your fingertips...
Your Ultimate Guide to Plants
Identify grow and nurture the better way!
product icon
17,000 local species +400,000 global species studied
product icon
Nearly 5 years of research
product icon
80+ scholars in botany and gardening
ad
ad
Botanist in your pocket
Scan the QR code with your phone camera to download the app
About
Care Guide
Care FAQ
More Info
Pests & Diseases
Distribution
More About How-Tos
Related Plants
Toyon
Toyon
Toyon
Toyon
Toyon
Toyon
Toyon
Heteromeles arbutifolia
Toyon produces a berry that has multiple culinary uses. The berries can be cooked and eaten by themselves, or made in multiple preparations. Some of the most common of these are jellies, custards, and teas. The berries can also be dried and stored for later consumption. These berries have been a food staple for Native American tribes for generations.
Planting Time
Planting Time
Winter
question

Questions About Toyon

Watering Watering Watering
Sunlight Sunlight Sunlight
Temperature Temperature Temperature
Fertilizing Fertilizing Fertilizing
What is the best way to water my Toyon?
more
What should I do if I water my Toyon too much or too little?
more
How often should I water my Toyon?
more
How much water does my Toyon need?
more
How can I tell if i'm watering my Toyon enough?
more
How can I water my Toyon at different growth stages?
more
How can I water my Toyon through the seasons?
more
What's the difference between watering my Toyon indoors vs outdoors?
more
icon
Get tips and tricks for your plants.
Keep your plants happy and healthy with our guide to watering, lighting, feeding and more.
Download the App
close
plant_info

Key Facts About Toyon

Attributes of Toyon

Lifespan
Perennial
Plant Type
Shrub
Planting Time
Winter
Bloom Time
Late spring, Summer
Harvest Time
Fall, Winter
Plant Height
8 m
Spread
3 m
Leaf Color
Green
Blue
Flower Size
6 mm to 1 cm
Flower Color
White
Yellow
Fruit Color
Red
Stem Color
Brown
Dormancy
Non-dormant
Leaf type
Evergreen
Pollinators
Beetles, Wasps, Flies, Hummingbirds
Benefits to Pollinating Insects
Adult food, Larval food
icon
Gain more valuable plant knowledge
Explore a rich botanical encyclopedia for deeper insights
Download the App

Name story

Toyon
Toyon is a prominent part of the coastal sage scrub community. Its common name "Toyon" is a Spanish alteration of "totcon", the word used for the plant by the Ohlone Indians of the central and northern California coast.

Usages

Garden Use
Toyon is a common perennial shrub that is appreciated for both its hardiness and attractive berries. It needs very little water, making it perfect for xeriscape gardening. Toyon is frequently used for hedging or along house walls due to its dense leaves, tolerance to pruning, and resistance to fire (compared to other chaparrals). It grows well with Coffeeberry (Rhamnus californica), Manzanita (Arctostaphylos), and oak trees.

Scientific Classification of Toyon

icon
Never miss a care task again!
Plant care made easier than ever with our tailor-made smart care reminder.
Download the App
pests

Common Pests & Diseases About Toyon

Common issues for Toyon based on 10 million real cases
Brown spot
Brown spot Brown spot Brown spot
This infection can cause brown spots or patches to appear on the plant.
Solutions: In minor cases of brown spot, there isn’t any need to treat the disease. However, if much of the foliage is affected and defoliation occurs, the plant will benefit from getting rid of the infection. It is recommended to start by applying organic treatment options, working up to the more potent synthetic, chemical fungicides if necessary. Organic options won’t kill the fungus, but will prevent it from spreading. Dissolve ½ teaspoon of baking soda and one teaspoon of liquid soap in a gallon of water. Using a spray bottle, spray on tops and bottoms of leaves until the mixture drips off. Repeat every two weeks until existing spots stop enlarging and new spots no longer appear. Spray a copper-based fungicidal soap on the leaves, coating the top and bottom leaf surfaces. Reapply as directed on the product label. Copper penetrates the leaf surface and prevents germination of spores so the fungus cannot spread. Apply an all-purpose fungicide to the entire plant, following the label instructions carefully.
Learn More About the Brown spot more
Gall
Gall Gall Gall
Insects or diseases can cause strange protrusions on the leaves, sometimes manifesting in a range of colors and shapes.
Solutions: While galls may look alarming, the physical structures themselves pose little threat to the plant or tree and do not require chemical treatment. If the galls are unsightly, they can be removed using sterilized (10% bleach solution) pruners or loppers. Discard or destroy all removed plant parts. It is important to treat the underlying cause, as insects or diseases can create long-term damage if left untreated. After identifying the pest, natural or chemical may be used, depending upon individual gardening preferences. To treat pests naturally apply an insecticidal soap. Dilute 1 tablespoon of soap per quart of water in a spray bottle and mix gently. Spray the entire plant until the leaves are dripping, making sure to coat the underside and tops. Re-spray every 2 to 3 days. To treat organically apply neem oil, a naturally occurring pesticide, per label directions every 7 days until pests are eradicated. To treat chemically apply an insecticidal foliar spray. Follow the dosing instructions provided by the manufacturer on the product label. For fungal or bacterial causes, apply a bactericide or copper-based fungicide in the spring, following the dosing instructions provided on the product label.
Learn More About the Gall more
Leaf beetles
Leaf beetles Leaf beetles Leaf beetles
Leaf beetles are a class of colored insects 1 to 2 cm in size. They gnaw on leaves and petals resulting in small, round holes scattered over the surface.
Solutions: For less serious cases: Remove beetles, nymphs, and eggs. Remove all life stages of the beetles and kill them by placing them in a bucket of warm, soapy water. This can be done more easily by placing the bucket under affected leaves and shaking the plant. This method is most effective in the afternoon when leaf beetles are more active. Always dispose of insects in a sealed bag or container to avoid escape and spread. To treat more serious infestations: Apply organic insecticides. Use naturally-derived insecticides before moving on to synthetic insecticides. Neem oil and pyrethrum are naturally-derived insecticides that should be applied following label instructions. Apply synthetic insecticides. Examples of insecticides effective for leaf beetles include carbaryl, permethrin, and bifenthrin. Apply insecticides according to label instructions.
Learn More About the Leaf beetles more
Fruit withering
Fruit withering Fruit withering Fruit withering
Fungal infection or normal ripening can cause the fruit to dry out.
Solutions: There are a number of appropriate solutions to control fruit withering: Remove any fruit as soon as it shows any signs of infection. Do not compost. Use a fungicide prior to leaf bud and then as per manufacturers instructions throughout the season.
Learn More About the Fruit withering more
icon
Treat and prevent plant diseases.
AI-powered plant doctor helps you diagnose plant problems in seconds.
Download the App
close
Brown spot
plant poor
Brown spot
This infection can cause brown spots or patches to appear on the plant.
Overview
Overview
Discolored spots on the foliage of plants are one of the most common disease problems people observe. These spots are caused by fungal and bacterial diseases, with most infections related to a fungal pathogen.
Brown spot can occurs on all houseplants, flowering ornamentals, vegetable plants, and leaves of trees, bushes, and shrubs. No plants are resistant to it, and the problem is worse in warm, wet environments. It can occur at any point in the life stage as long as leaves are present.
Small brownish spots appear on the foliage and enlarge as the disease progresses. In severe cases, the plant or tree is weakened when the lesions interrupt photosynthesis or cause defoliation.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
In most cases, brown spot only affects a small percentage of the whole plant, appearing on a small amount of the leaves. A small infection only puts minor stress on the plant. However, if left untreated and the disease progresses over numerous seasons, it will severely impact the health and productivity of the infected specimen.
  • Sporulation begins (reproduction of the fungal spores), and tiny spots appear on leaves.
  • Placement is often random and scattered as diseases are spread through raindrops.
  • May appear on lower leaves and the interior of the plant where humidity is higher.
  • Brown spots enlarge and grow large enough to touch neighboring spots to form a more prominent blotch.
  • Leaf margins may turn yellow.
  • Tiny black dots (fruiting bodies of the fungi) appear in the dead spots.
  • Blotches grow in size until the entire leaf is brown.
  • The leaf falls off the plant.
Severe Symptoms
  • Partial or complete premature defoliation
  • Reduced growth
  • Increased susceptibility to pests and other diseases
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
Brown spot, or leaf spot, is a common descriptive term given to several diseases affecting the leaves of plants and trees. Around 85% of diseases exhibiting leaf spots are due to fungus or fungus-like organisms. Sometimes brown spot is caused by a bacterial infection, or insect activity with similar symptoms.
When conditions are warm and the leaf surfaces are wet, fungal spores being transported by wind or rain land on the surface and cling to it. They do not rupture the cell walls but grow in the space between the plant plasma membrane and the plant cell wall. As the spores reproduce, they release toxins and enzymes that cause necrotic spots (i.e., dead tissue) on the leaves, allowing the fungi to consume the products released when the cells degrade.
Solutions
Solutions
In minor cases of brown spot, there isn’t any need to treat the disease. However, if much of the foliage is affected and defoliation occurs, the plant will benefit from getting rid of the infection. It is recommended to start by applying organic treatment options, working up to the more potent synthetic, chemical fungicides if necessary.
Organic options won’t kill the fungus, but will prevent it from spreading.
  1. Dissolve ½ teaspoon of baking soda and one teaspoon of liquid soap in a gallon of water. Using a spray bottle, spray on tops and bottoms of leaves until the mixture drips off. Repeat every two weeks until existing spots stop enlarging and new spots no longer appear.
  2. Spray a copper-based fungicidal soap on the leaves, coating the top and bottom leaf surfaces. Reapply as directed on the product label. Copper penetrates the leaf surface and prevents germination of spores so the fungus cannot spread.
  3. Apply an all-purpose fungicide to the entire plant, following the label instructions carefully.
Prevention
Prevention
Like many other diseases, it is easier to prevent brown spot than cure it, and this is done through cultural practices.
  • Clear fall leaves from the ground before winter to minimize places where fungi and bacteria can overwinter.
  • Maintain good air movement between plants through proper plant spacing.
  • Increase air circulation through the center of plants through pruning.
  • Thoroughly clean all pruning tools after working with diseased plants.
  • Never dispose of disease plant material in a compost pile.
  • Avoid overhead watering to keep moisture off of the foliage.
  • Keep plants healthy by providing adequate sunlight, water, and fertilizer.
Continue reading in our app - it's better
A database of 400000+ plants
unlimited guides at your fingertips...
close
Gall
plant poor
Gall
Insects or diseases can cause strange protrusions on the leaves, sometimes manifesting in a range of colors and shapes.
Overview
Overview
A general symptom of plant irritation, a gall is a spherical or lumpy, tumor-like growth that appears on leaves, stems, branches and trunks of various plants, especially trees. Galls form around a potential problem or irritation, like a pearl forming around a bit of sand in an oyster shell, to separate the cause from the rest of the plant. Many form around insect damage or a localized infection.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Abnormal growths appear on leaves or other parts of the plant. The brown or brightly colored bumps may be simple or complicated structures.
  • Leaf galls appear on most herbaceous plants and trees. They are more prone to develop on new growth and following mild winters in which insects and diseases were not killed by the cold.
  • Leaf galls look like leaf curls, nipples, blisters, or erineums (hairy growths) and can occur on upper or lower leaf surfaces.
  • Bud or flower galls cause these parts to be deformed in size or shape.
  • Stem and twig galls cause deformed growth on twigs and stems, with symptom severity ranging from slight swelling to large, knot-like growth.
  • Stunted plant growth is possible, as galls steal nutrients from the plant.
  • Long-lasting damage can occur if there are many galls or galls present for a long period of time.
It's important to note that galls, especially leaf galls, are extremely common. Noticing galls is not a cause to panic – most plants will have galls from time to time. However, it is when they are widespread or long-lasting that steps will need to be taken to remove them.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
There are many different processes and organisms that produce galls. Some appear when sap-sucking insects feed on leaves; some shelter developing insect eggs; some develop as a response to fungal or bacterial infection.
The most common culprits include:
  • Feeding or egg-laying mites and insects - the saliva and other secretions cause the plants to produce more growth hormones.
  • High hormone production resulting in increased cell numbers or cell size (because of this, mature plants tend not to be affected).
  • Fungal infection
  • Galls forming on leaf blades and sheaths are more often caused by viruses or bacteria.
  • Nematodes can also cause galls to form on plants, but these tend to form in the roots.
  • Parasitic plants such as mistletoe can cause galls on their hosts.
Solutions
Solutions
While galls may look alarming, the physical structures themselves pose little threat to the plant or tree and do not require chemical treatment. If the galls are unsightly, they can be removed using sterilized (10% bleach solution) pruners or loppers. Discard or destroy all removed plant parts.
It is important to treat the underlying cause, as insects or diseases can create long-term damage if left untreated. After identifying the pest, natural or chemical may be used, depending upon individual gardening preferences.
  • To treat pests naturally apply an insecticidal soap. Dilute 1 tablespoon of soap per quart of water in a spray bottle and mix gently. Spray the entire plant until the leaves are dripping, making sure to coat the underside and tops. Re-spray every 2 to 3 days.
  • To treat organically apply neem oil, a naturally occurring pesticide, per label directions every 7 days until pests are eradicated.
  • To treat chemically apply an insecticidal foliar spray. Follow the dosing instructions provided by the manufacturer on the product label.
  • For fungal or bacterial causes, apply a bactericide or copper-based fungicide in the spring, following the dosing instructions provided on the product label.
Prevention
Prevention
To prevent the common causes of gall:
  • Rake up all fallen leaves at the end of the growing season, and dispose of the leaves and all other plant debris to get rid of sites where gall producers can overwinter.
  • Avoid over-fertilizing plants, as it induces stress, making them more susceptible to pest problems.
  • Keep plants well-watered, preventing drought stress.
  • Apply dormant oil in early spring to control leaf-eating insects.
Continue reading in our app - it's better
A database of 400000+ plants
unlimited guides at your fingertips...
close
Leaf beetles
plant poor
Leaf beetles
Leaf beetles are a class of colored insects 1 to 2 cm in size. They gnaw on leaves and petals resulting in small, round holes scattered over the surface.
Overview
Overview
Leaf beetles range in size from 1.5 mm to 2 cm. Both adult beetles and their larvae eat the leaves of many different types of plants. There are over 35,000 different species of leaf beetles, in a variety of colors including gold, green, yellow-striped, and red striped. Some of these have been mistaken for ladybirds because of their shape and coloring. They can be oval, round, or elongated in shape. These insect pests are most active in spring and summer.
If not controlled, leaf beetles can do a lot of damage to vegetable crops and ornamental plants. They feed on the leaves, flowers, stems, roots, and fruits of different plants. They can fly, which means it's easy for them to move from one plant to another. Some species of leaf beetles only target one specific crop, while others will target many different types of plants. Although a lot of the damage that they cause is cosmetic, an infestation can weaken a plant and leave it prone to other more problematic diseases.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
The first signs of a leaf beetles infestation are small visible holes in leaves. Leaves then become discolored and dark beetle droppings can be seen. As the leaves turn yellow and brown, they will drop off the plant onto the ground. Some leaves will appear skeletonized with only the veins still remaining.
Infestation begins in spring, when the adult beetles emerge from the soil and lay their eggs on the leaves of plants. When these eggs hatch, the young nymphs start munching on the leaves as they grow up. Once leaf beetles are large and mature, they'll fall to the ground and pupate in the soil over winter before starting the cycle all over again.
Leaf beetles also eat holes in fruits and vegetables. These can be seen as small round holes that sometimes have a larger brown area surrounding them.
Solutions
Solutions
For less serious cases:
  1. Remove beetles, nymphs, and eggs. Remove all life stages of the beetles and kill them by placing them in a bucket of warm, soapy water. This can be done more easily by placing the bucket under affected leaves and shaking the plant. This method is most effective in the afternoon when leaf beetles are more active. Always dispose of insects in a sealed bag or container to avoid escape and spread.
To treat more serious infestations:
  1. Apply organic insecticides. Use naturally-derived insecticides before moving on to synthetic insecticides. Neem oil and pyrethrum are naturally-derived insecticides that should be applied following label instructions.
  2. Apply synthetic insecticides. Examples of insecticides effective for leaf beetles include carbaryl, permethrin, and bifenthrin. Apply insecticides according to label instructions.
Prevention
Prevention
To prevent infestations of leaf beetles, follow these practices.
  1. Regularly check for beetles. To prevent large pest infestations, be proactive about frequently checking plants for pests and removing them quickly.
  2. Clear debris. Clear weeds and debris to remove areas where these beetles may overwinter and hide.
  3. Attract natural predators. Birds and other insects, such as wasps and ladybugs, are effective natural predators of leaf beetles. Encourage them to visit by including a diverse array of plants to provide habitat and food. Also, avoid applying broad-spectrum herbicides that can harm and kill beneficial insects.
  4. Plant aromatic herbs like mint, garlic, or rosemary, as these can repel leaf beetles.
Continue reading in our app - it's better
A database of 400000+ plants
unlimited guides at your fingertips...
close
Fruit withering
plant poor
Fruit withering
Fungal infection or normal ripening can cause the fruit to dry out.
Overview
Overview
Fruit withering is common on many tree fruits, including apples, pears, peaches, cherries, and plums, as well as fruiting shrubs. It is caused by a fungal pathogen and will result in wrinkled and desiccated fruit.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Here are the most common symptoms in the order that they are likely to occur.
  1. Both leaves and blossom on the tips of branches will go brown and wither.
  2. Gray powdery patches will appear on infected leaves and flowers, and this will be most apparent after rain.
  3. Any fruit that does appear will turn wrinkled and fail to develop.
  4. Branch tips begin to die, progressing back to larger branches, causing general deterioration of the tree or plant.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
The withering is caused by one of two fungal pathogens, one called Monilina laxa and the other called M. fructigen. The spores overwinter on infected plant material and are then spread the following spring by wind, rain, or animal vectors. The problem will start to become noticeable in mid-spring, but will increase in severity as summer progresses and the fungus grows. If not addressed, the disease will intensify and spread to other plants in the vicinity.
Solutions
Solutions
There are a number of appropriate solutions to control fruit withering:
  1. Remove any fruit as soon as it shows any signs of infection. Do not compost.
  2. Use a fungicide prior to leaf bud and then as per manufacturers instructions throughout the season.
Prevention
Prevention
Preventative measures include:
  1. Ensuring adequate spacing between plants or trees.
  2. Staking plants that are prone to tumbling to prevent moisture or humidity build up.
  3. Prune correctly so that there is adequate air movement and remove any dead or diseased branches that may carry spores.
  4. Practice good plant hygiene by removing fallen material and destroying it as soon as possible.
Continue reading in our app - it's better
A database of 400000+ plants
unlimited guides at your fingertips...
distribution

Distribution of Toyon

Habitat of Toyon

Drought-adapted chaparral and mixed oak woodland habitats
Northern Hemisphere
South Hemisphere

Distribution Map of Toyon

Toyon is native to southwestern North America. It is found on slopes in dry and woodland areas.
distribution map
Native
Cultivated
Invasive
Potentially invasive
Exotic
No species reported
care_scenes

More Info on Toyon Growth and Care

Basic Care Guide
Explore More
plant_info

Plants Related to Toyon

product icon close
Your Ultimate Guide to Plants
Identify grow and nurture the better way!
product icon
17,000 local species +400,000 global species studied
product icon
Nearly 5 years of research
product icon
80+ scholars in botany and gardening
ad
product icon close
Continue reading in our app - it's better
A database of 400000+ plants
unlimited guides at your fingertips...
Lighting
close
Indoor
Indoor
Outdoor
Choose a site here for personalized care tips.
Requirements
Full sun
Ideal
Above 6 hours sunlight
Partial sun
Tolerance
About 3-6 hours sunlight
Watch how sunlight gracefully moves through your garden, and choose spots that provide the perfect balance of light and shade for your plants, ensuring their happiness.
Essentials
Toyon flourishes under unobstructed, full-day exposure to the sun, and can also survive in locations with less sunlight, although this may hinder optimum development. Its native habitats showcase this light preference uniformly. Excessive shading may result in poor health, while excessive exposure is typically well tolerated.
Preferred
Tolerable
Unsuitable
icon
Know the light your plants really get.
Find the best spots for them to optimize their health, simply using your phone.
Download the App
Artificial lighting
Indoor plants require adequate lighting for optimal growth. When natural sunlight is insufficient, particularly in winter or in less sunny spaces, artificial lights offer a vital solution, promoting faster, healthier growth.
View more
Indoor plants require adequate lighting for optimal growth. When natural sunlight is insufficient, particularly in winter or in less sunny spaces, artificial lights offer a vital solution, promoting faster, healthier growth.
1. Choose the right type of artificial light: LED lights are a popular choice for indoor plant lighting because they can be customized to provide the specific wavelengths of light that your plants need.
Full sun plants need 30-50W/sq ft of artificial light, partial sun plants need 20-30W/sq ft, and full shade plants need 10-20W/sq ft.
2. Determine the appropriate distance: Place the light source 12-36 inches above the plant to mimic natural sunlight.
3. Determine the duration: Mimic the length of natural daylight hours for your plant species. most plants need 8-12 hours of light per day.
Important Symptoms
Insufficient light
Toyon thrives in full sunlight but can tolerate partial shade. However, when cultivated indoors during winter, it's often placed in rooms with insufficient lighting, leading to easily noticeable symptoms of light deficiency.
View more
(Symptom details and solutions)
Small leaves
New leaves may grow smaller in size compared to the previous ones once they have matured.
Leggy or sparse growth
The spaces between leaves or stems of your toyon may become longer, resulting in a thin and stretched-out appearance. This can make the plant look sparse and weak, and it may easily break or lean due to its own weight.
Faster leaf drop
When plants are exposed to low light conditions, they tend to shed older leaves early to conserve resources. Within a limited time, these resources can be utilized to grow new leaves until the plant's energy reserves are depleted.
Slower or no new growth
Toyon enters a survival mode when light conditions are poor, which leads to a halt in leaf production. As a result, the plant's growth becomes delayed or stops altogether.
Lighter-colored new leaves
Insufficient sunlight can cause leaves to develop irregular color patterns or appear pale. This indicates a lack of chlorophyll and essential nutrients.
Solutions
1. To ensure optimal growth, gradually move plants to a sunnier location each week, until they receive at least 6 hours of direct sunlight daily. Use a south-facing window and keep curtains open during the day for maximum sunlight exposure and nutrient accumulation.2. To provide additional light for your plant, consider using artificial light if it's large or not easily movable. Keep a desk or ceiling lamp on for at least 8 hours daily, or invest in professional plant grow lights for ample light.
Excessive light
Toyon thrives in full sun exposure but can also tolerate partial shade. They have a remarkable resilience to intense sunlight, and symptoms of sunburn may not be easily visible.
View more
(Symptom details and solutions)
Chlorosis
Chlorosis is a condition where the plant's leaves lose their green color and turn yellow. This is due to the breakdown of chlorophyll from excessive sunlight, which negatively affects the plant's ability to photosynthesize.
Sunscald
Sunscald occurs when the plant's leaves or stems are damaged by intense sunlight exposure. It appears as pale, bleached, or necrotic areas on the plant tissue and can reduce the plant's overall health.
Leaf Curling
Leaf curling is a symptom where leaves curl or twist under extreme sunlight conditions. This is a defense mechanism used by the plant to reduce its surface area exposed to sunlight, minimizing water loss and damage.
Wilting
Wilting occurs when a plant loses turgor pressure and its leaves and stems begin to droop. Overexposure to sunlight can cause wilting by increasing the plant's water loss through transpiration, making it difficult for the plant to maintain adequate hydration.
Leaf Scorching
Leaf scorching is a symptom characterized by the appearance of brown, dry, and crispy edges or patches on leaves due to excessive sunlight. This can lead to a reduction in photosynthetic capacity and overall plant health.
Solutions
1. Move your plant to the optimal position where it can receive abundant sunlight but also have some shade. An east-facing window is an ideal choice as the morning sunlight is gentler. This way, your plant can enjoy ample sunlight while reducing the risk of sunburn.2. It is recommended to trim off any completely dehydrated or withered parts of the plant.
Discover information about plant diseases, toxicity, weed control and more.
Temperature
close
Indoor
Indoor
Outdoor
Choose a site here for personalized care tips.
Requirements
Ideal
Tolerable
Unsuitable
Just like people, each plant has its own preferences. Learn about your plants' temperature needs and create a comforting environment for them to flourish. As you care for your plants, your bond with them will deepen. Trust your intuition as you learn about their temperature needs, celebrating the journey you share. Lovingly monitor the temperature around your plants and adjust their environment as needed. A thermometer can be your ally in this heartfelt endeavor. Be patient and gentle with yourself as you explore your plants' temperature needs. Cherish your successes, learn from challenges, and nurture your garden with love, creating a haven that reflects the warmth of your care.
Essentials
The temperature requirements of toyon are within the range of 59 to 95 ℉ (15 to 35 ℃). This plant is native to temperate regions and prefers a moderate temperature. It is suggested to adjust the temperature indoors according to different seasons to maintain its ideal temperature range.
Regional wintering strategies
Toyon has some cold tolerance and generally does not require any additional measures when the temperature is above {Tolerable_growing_temperature_min}. However, if the temperature is expected to drop below {Tolerable_growing_temperature_min}, it is necessary to take some temporary measures for cold protection, such as wrapping the plant with plastic film, fabric, or other materials. Once the temperature rises again, the protective measures should be removed promptly.
Important Symptoms
Low Temperature
Toyon has moderate tolerance to low temperatures and thrives best when the temperature is above {Suitable_growth_temperature_min}. During winter, it should be kept above {Tolerable_growing_temperature_min}. When the temperature falls below {Limit_growth_temperature}, the leaves may start to droop. In mild cases, they can recover, but in severe cases, the leaves will wilt and eventually fall off.
Solutions
Trim off the frost-damaged parts. Prior to encountering low temperatures again, wrap the plant with materials such as non-woven fabric or cloth, and construct a wind barrier to protect it from the cold wind.
High Temperature
During summer, Toyon should be kept below {Suitable_growth_temperature_max}. When the temperature exceeds {Tolerable_growing_temperature_max}, the color of the leaves becomes lighter, the leaf tips may become dry and withered, the leaves may curl, and the plant becomes more susceptible to sunburn.
Solutions
Trim away the sunburned and dried-up parts. Move the plant to a location that provides shade from the midday and afternoon sun, or use a shade cloth to create shade. Water the plant in the morning and evening to keep the soil moist.
Discover information about plant diseases, toxicity, weed control and more.
Transplant
close
How to Successfully Transplant Toyon?
For toyon, the perfect transplantation time is [S1], typically late winter or early spring, prime for root development before the growing season. Place toyon in a well-draining location with full sun to partial shade. Remember, never force the roots into the hole, gently settle them in.
What Preparations are Needed Before Transplanting Toyon?
What is the Ideal Time for Transplanting Toyon?
The opportune time for transplanting toyon is during fall (autumn), or more specifically about S1. Due to its cool, calm weather conditions, autumn is a safe sanctuary for your toyon to make a smooth transition. Transplanting at this time reduces transplant shock and allows toyon to establish roots before Winter arrives, giving it a head start for Spring growth. You won't regret it!
How Much Space Should You Leave Between Toyon Plants?
When preparing to transplant your toyon, remember to allow around 5-6 feet (1.5-1.8 meters) between each plant. This generous spacing will allow them to spread and flourish without competing for resources.
What is the Best Soil Mix for Toyon Transplanting?
For your toyon, a well-drained soil type is optimal. You can enhance your garden soil by adding compost or organic matter. Start with a basic balanced fertilizer to give your plant a good start.
Where Should You Relocate Your Toyon?
Choose a location that gets full sun to partial shade for your toyon. They're adaptable, but they do appreciate sunlight, so a spot with at least a few hours of sunlight each day would be perfect.
What Equipments Should You Prepare Before Transplantation Toyon?
Gardening Gloves
To protect your hands while working with the soil and toyon.
Shovel or Spade
To dig the hole for the new location and lift the plant out from its original location.
Pruning Shears
To trim any damaged or diseased roots during the transplant process.
A Bucket or Wheelbarrow
To transport the plant and avoid damaging it.
Watering Can or Hose
To water the toyon before and after transplanting.
Mulch
To help retain soil moisture after transplanting.
How Do You Remove Toyon from the Soil?
From Ground: Start by watering the toyon plant to dampen the soil. This will make it easier to dig and minimizes root damage. Then, dig a wide trench around the toyon plant with a shovel, ensuring that the plant's root ball remains intact. Once the trench is dug, carefully work the spade under the root ball and lift the plant from its location.
From Pot: Take the toyon plant out of its pot by carefully tipping it while supporting the main stem. Hold the pot upside down or at a suitable angle and gently squeeze or tap it to loosen the root ball. As the root ball becomes loose, continue to pull the pot while holding the plant.
From Seedling Tray: Carefully lift the toyon plant from the tray by pushing up from the bottom of each cell. Hold the plant by its leaves rather than the stem as the stem can be easily damaged. Remember to handle the roots gently when removing it from the cell.
Step-by-Step Guide for Transplanting Toyon
Step1 Preparation
Prepare the new hole before removing the toyon plant from its original location. The hole should be twice the size of the toyon plant's root ball and the same depth.
Step2 Transplant
Once the toyon is removed from its original location, place it in the new hole, ensuring that the top of the root ball is level with the surrounding soil surface. Backfill the hole with native soil, pressing it in lightly.
Step3 Watering
Thoroughly water the toyon plant after transplanting, making sure to wet the root zone.
Step4 Mulching
Apply a layer of mulch around the toyon plant to help it maintain moisture.
How Do You Care For Toyon After Transplanting?
Watering
Water the toyon plant deeply but infrequently, allowing the soil to dry slightly between watering, as toyon prefers well-drained soil.
Pruning
Trim any dead or dying leaves to direct energy towards root and new growth after its adjustment to the new location.
Monitoring
Observe the toyon for a few weeks after transplanting. Check for signs of shock like drooping or wilting. If you observe any, reduce exposure to wind and sun for a while until it recovers.
Troubleshooting Common Issues with Toyon Transplantation.
When is the best time to transplant toyon?
The most opportune season for relocating toyon is S1. It's the ideal time when plants recover swiftly from transplant shock.
What's the suitable distance between each toyon during transplantation?
Make sure you allow a gap of 5-6 feet (1.5-1.8 meters) between each toyon. This ensures ample room for growth and prevents overcrowding.
Why are my transplanted toyon wilting?
Toyon might wilt due to transplant shock, a common issue when uprooting plants. Mitigate by regular watering and shade for a few days post-transplantation.
How much should I water toyon after transplantation?
Post-transplant, toyon needs regular watering. Ensure the soil stays moist but not sodden. Adjust depending on the plant's leaf condition and weather temperature.
How deep should I plant toyon during the transplant?
During transplant, dig a hole twice as wide and as deep as the rootball. This gives the plant plenty of space to establish.
Can I use fertilizer during toyon transplantation, and if so, which kind?
Yes, you can use a slow-releasing, balanced fertilizer. However, don't apply it directly on the roots; mix it with the back-fill soil to stimulate growth.
What should I do if my toyon shows no growth after transplantation?
Patience is key when transplanting toyon. If there's no growth, ensure it's well-watered and gets necessary nutrients. Growth happens with due time.
How to handle toyon roots during transplantation?
Carefully loosen the rootball of toyon to stimulate new growth. However, avoid causing an excessive disturbance to the roots to prevent damage.
Why are the leaves of toyon yellowing after transplantation?
Yellowing might indicate overwatering or stress from transplantation. Reduce watering and ensure proper drainage. Keep toyon in a partially shaded area till it recovers.
Should I prune toyon before transplantation?
No need for extensive pruning, just remove dead, damaged, or disease-infested portions. This helps in focus growth and reduces transplant shock.
Discover information about plant diseases, toxicity, weed control and more.
Cookie Management Tool
In addition to managing cookies through your browser or device, you can change your cookie settings below.
Necessary Cookies
Necessary cookies enable core functionality. The website cannot function properly without these cookies, and can only be disabled by changing your browser preferences.
Analytical Cookies
Analytical cookies help us to improve our application/website by collecting and reporting information on its usage.
Cookie Name Source Purpose Lifespan
_ga Google Analytics These cookies are set because of our use of Google Analytics. They are used to collect information about your use of our application/website. The cookies collect specific information, such as your IP address, data related to your device and other information about your use of the application/website. Please note that the data processing is essentially carried out by Google LLC and Google may use your data collected by the cookies for own purposes, e.g. profiling and will combine it with other data such as your Google Account. For more information about how Google processes your data and Google’s approach to privacy as well as implemented safeguards for your data, please see here. 1 Year
_pta PictureThis Analytics We use these cookies to collect information about how you use our site, monitor site performance, and improve our site performance, our services, and your experience. 1 Year
Cookie Name
_ga
Source
Google Analytics
Purpose
These cookies are set because of our use of Google Analytics. They are used to collect information about your use of our application/website. The cookies collect specific information, such as your IP address, data related to your device and other information about your use of the application/website. Please note that the data processing is essentially carried out by Google LLC and Google may use your data collected by the cookies for own purposes, e.g. profiling and will combine it with other data such as your Google Account. For more information about how Google processes your data and Google’s approach to privacy as well as implemented safeguards for your data, please see here.
Lifespan
1 Year

Cookie Name
_pta
Source
PictureThis Analytics
Purpose
We use these cookies to collect information about how you use our site, monitor site performance, and improve our site performance, our services, and your experience.
Lifespan
1 Year
Marketing Cookies
Marketing cookies are used by advertising companies to serve ads that are relevant to your interests.
Cookie Name Source Purpose Lifespan
_fbp Facebook Pixel A conversion pixel tracking that we use for retargeting campaigns. Learn more here. 1 Year
_adj Adjust This cookie provides mobile analytics and attribution services that enable us to measure and analyze the effectiveness of marketing campaigns, certain events and actions within the Application. Learn more here. 1 Year
Cookie Name
_fbp
Source
Facebook Pixel
Purpose
A conversion pixel tracking that we use for retargeting campaigns. Learn more here.
Lifespan
1 Year

Cookie Name
_adj
Source
Adjust
Purpose
This cookie provides mobile analytics and attribution services that enable us to measure and analyze the effectiveness of marketing campaigns, certain events and actions within the Application. Learn more here.
Lifespan
1 Year
This page looks better in the app
Open