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Osage orange
Osage orange
Osage orange
Osage orange
Osage orange
Osage orange
Osage orange
Maclura pomifera
Also known as : Hedge, Monkey Brains, Mock-Orange, Monkey ball, Hedge apple
Osage orange is generally used in dye making and pesticide manufacturing. It is also planted as a windbreaker or as a hedge plant and can provide adequate shade in gardens. The fruits produce latex secretions, and they're not typically eaten by foraging animals. The warty fruits are green at first, but they become orange-yellow afterward.
Water
Water
Every 1-2 weeks
Sunlight
Sunlight
Full sun
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care guide

Care Guide for Osage orange

Watering Care
Watering Care
Osage orange trees are tolerant to dry soils and only need light watering on an occasional basis. During drought periods, when the soil surrounding the roots becomes dry, you can water this tree more thoroughly to make sure the soil becomes moist.
Details on Watering Care Watering Care
Fertilizing Care
Fertilizing Care
Generally, the osage orange doesn't require any fertilization to produce a wealth of fruits. You only need to feed it if it's growing poorly or not receiving enough nutrients due to unbalanced soil. In this case, add a compost fertilizer at the beginning of spring that will provide the missing nutrients.
Details on Fertilizing Care Fertilizing Care
Soil Care
Soil Care
Loam, Clay, Sand, Chalky, Acidic, Neutral, Alkaline
Details on Soil Care Soil Care
What Are the Lighting Requirements for Osage orange?
What Are the Lighting Requirements for Osage orange?
Full sun, Partial sun
Details on Sunlight Requirements What Are the Lighting Requirements for Osage orange?
What is the Ideal Temperature Range for Osage orange?
What is the Ideal Temperature Range for Osage orange?
5 to 9
Details on Temperature What is the Ideal Temperature Range for Osage orange?
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Osage orange
Water
Water
Every 1-2 weeks
Sunlight
Sunlight
Full sun
Hardiness Zones
Hardiness Zones
5 to 9
Planting Time
Planting Time
Fall, Winter
question

Questions About Osage orange

Watering Watering Watering
Pruning Pruning Pruning
Sunlight Sunlight Sunlight
Temperature Temperature Temperature
Fertilizing Fertilizing Fertilizing
What's the best method to water my Osage orange?
You might want to put a garden hose at the plant base to ensure that you're promoting excellent root development. Avoid directly spraying the leaves, and know that the leaves will require more watering if they are outdoors and facing direct sunlight. You can also use bubblers that you can put on to each plant to moisten the roots. Also, use soaker hoses that can cover the entire garden or bed when adding or removing plants to push the roots deeply. Drain any excess water and wait for the soil to dry before watering. Water at ground level to prevent diseases. On a sunny day, you might want to spray the entire bush with water. Whether potted or in-ground, please remember Osage orange prefers deep watering over light sprinkling.
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What should I do if I water Osage orange too much/too little?
An overwatered Osage orange can start to have leaves that turn yellow, drop off and wilt. The plant can also look dull and unhealthy, with signs of mushy stems. When they are beginning to show these signs, it's best to adjust your schedule whenever possible.
The wilting can also be a sign of under watering as well. You might see that the leaves begin to turn crispy and dry while the overwatered ones will have soft wilted leaves. Check the soil when it is dry and watering is not enough, give it a full watering in time. Enough water will make the Osage orange recover again, but the plant will still appear dry and yellow leaves after a few days due to the damaged root system. Once it return to normal, the leave yellowing will stop .
Always check the moisture levels at the pot when you have the Osage orange indoors. Avoid overwatering indoors and see if there are signs of black spots. If these are present, let the soil dry in the pot by giving it a few days of rest from watering.
Overwatering can lead to root rot being present in your plant. If this is the case, you might want to transfer them into a different pot, especially if you see discolored and slimy roots. Always prevent root rot as much as possible, and don't let the soil become too soggy.
You should dig a little deeper when you plant your Osage orange outdoors. When you check with your fingers and notice that the soil is too dry, it could mean underwatering. Adequate watering is required to help the plant recover.
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How often should I water my Osage orange?
The Osage orange likes deep and infrequent watering. You would want to soak them in a gallon of water each time, especially when they are planted in pots. The water storage of flower pots is limited and the soil will dry out faster. Watering is required every 3 to 5 days when living in a cold region. Water it early in the morning when the soil is dry, outdoors or indoors. You can also determine if watering is needed by checking the soil inside. When the top 2-3 inches of soil is dry, it is time to give the plant a full watering. During hot days, you may need to check the moisture daily, as the heat can quickly dry out the soil in the pot.
Irrigation of the soil is also required if you have a garden. When you live in a hot climate, you might want to water once a week. Only water when you notice that about 2 to 3 inches of soil become too dry outdoors or indoors. Consider the amount of rainwater on the plant and ensure not to add to it to prevent root rot.You may not need additional watering of the plants if there is a lot of rainfall.Osage orange generally grows during spring and fall. When they are outdoors, you need to add mulch about 3 to 4 inches deep to conserve more water.
You need to water the plants more frequently in sandy soil because this type tends to drain faster. However, with the clay one, you need to water this less frequently where you could go for 2-3 days to dry the plant and not develop any root rot. You could mark the date on the calendar whenever you water and when you notice that the leaves are starting to droop. This can mean that you might be a day late.
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How much water do I need to give my Osage orange?
The Osage orange generally needs about a gallon of water each schedule,With the potted plants, you might want to water them deeply until you see that the water is dripping at the bottom of the pot. Then, wait for the soil to dry before watering them again. You can use a water calculator or a moisture meter to determine the amount you've given to your plant in a week. Provide plenty of water, especially in the flowering period, but let the moisture evaporate afterwards to prevent root rot.
If Osage orange is planted outdoor with adequate rainfall, it may not need additional watering. When Osage orange is young or newly planted, make sure it gets 1-2 inches of rain per week. As Osage orange continues to grow, it can survive entirely on rainfall. Only when the weather is too hot, or when there is no rainfall at all for 2-3 weeks, then consider giving Osage orange a full watering during the cooler moment of the day to prevent the plant from suffering from high heat damage. Additional watering will be required during persistent dry spells.
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Should I adjust the watering frequency for my Osage orange according to different seasons or climates?
The Osage orange needs outdoors come from rain, with only persistent dry weather requiring watering. Throughout the spring and fall growing seasons, the soil needs to be kept moist but not soggy, and alternating dry and moist soil conditions will allow the Osage orange to grow well. Throughout the summer, hot weather can cause water to evaporate too quickly, and if there is a lack of rainfall, you will need to water more frequently and extra to keep it moist.
Usually, the Osage orange will need less water during the winter. Since the Osage orange will drop their leaves and go dormant, you can put them into a well-draining but moisture-retentive soil mixture like the terracotta to help the water evaporate quicker. Once your Osage orange growing outdoors begins to leaf out and go dormant, you can skip watering altogether and in most cases Osage orange can rely on the fall and winter rains to survive the entire dormant period.
After the spring, you can cultivate your Osage orange and encourage it to grow and bloom when the temperature becomes warmer.This plant is not generally a fan of ponding or drought when flowering. You must ensure that the drainage is good at all times, especially during the winter.
When the plant is in a pot, the plant has limited root growth. Keep them well-watered, especially if they are planted in pots during summer. They don't like cold and wet roots, so provide adequate drainage, especially if they are still growing.
It's always best to water your Osage orange’s diligently. Get the entire root system into a deep soak at least once or twice a week, depending on the weather. It's best to avoid shallow sprinkles that reach the leaves since they generally encourage the growth of fungi and don't reach deep into the roots. Don't allow the Osage orange’s to dry out completely in the fall or winter, even if they are already dormancy.
Don't drown the plants because they generally don't like sitting in water for too long. They can die during winter if the soil does not drain well. Also, apply mulch whenever possible to reduce stress, conserve water, and encourage healthy blooms.
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What should I be careful with when I water my Osage orange in different seasons, climates, or during different growing periods?
If planting in the ground, Osage orange mostly relies on rain. However, if there is no rainfall for 2-3 weeks, you may need to give proper consideration to giving the plants a deep watering. If watering Osage orange in summer, you should try to do it in the morning. A large temperature difference between the water temperature and the root system can stress the roots. You need to avoid watering the bushes when it's too hot outside. Start mulching them during the spring when the ground is not too cold.
The age of the plants matter. Lack of water is one of the most common reasons the newly planted ones fail to grow. After they are established, you need to ease off the watering schedule.
Reduce watering them during the fall and winter, especially if they have a water-retaining material in the soil. The dry winds in winter can dry them out, and the newly planted ones can be at risk of drought during windy winter, summer, and fall. Windy seasons mean that there's more watering required. The ones planted in the pot tend to dry out faster, so they need more watering. Once you see that they bloom less, the leaves begin to dry up.
Potted plants are relatively complex to water and fluctuate in frequency. Always be careful that the pot-planted plant don't sit in the water. Avoid putting them in containers with saucers, bowls, and trays. Too much watering in the fall can make the foliage look mottled or yellowish. It's always a good idea to prevent overwatering them regardless of the current climate or season that you might have. During the months when Osage orange begins to flower, you might want to increase the watering frequency but give it a rest once they are fully grown.
Give them an adequate amount of water once every 3 to 5 days but don't give them regular schedules. Make sure the soil is dry by sticking your finger in the pot, or use a moisture meter if you're unsure if it's the right time. Too much root rot can cause them to die, so be careful not to overwater or underwater regardless of the climate or season you have in your area.
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Why is watering my Osage orange important?
Watering the Osage orange helps transport the needed nutrients from the soil to the rest of the plant. The moisture will keep this species healthy if you know how much water to give. The watering requirements will depend on the weather in your area and the plant's soil.
The Osage orange thrives on moist soil, but they can't generally tolerate waterlogging. Ensure to provide enough mulch when planted on the ground and never fall into the trap of watering too little. They enjoy a full can of watering where the water should be moist at the base when they are planted in a pot to get the best blooms.
If they are grown as foliage, you need to water them up to a depth of 10 to 20 inches so they will continue to grow. If it's raining, refrain from watering and let them get the nutrients they need from the rainwater.
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Key Facts About Osage orange

Attributes of Osage orange

Lifespan
Perennial
Plant Type
Tree
Planting Time
Fall, Winter
Bloom Time
Summer
Harvest Time
Fall
Plant Height
8 m to 20 m
Spread
12 m
Leaf Color
Green
Flower Size
2.5 cm
Flower Color
Green
Yellow
Fruit Color
Green
Yellow
Gold
Stem Color
Brown
Orange
Green
Gray
Silver
Dormancy
Winter dormancy
Leaf type
Deciduous
Growth Season
Spring, Summer
Pollinators
Wind
Benefits to Pollinating Insects
Larval food

Name story

Osage orange
Although it has orange in its name, it is actually a distant relative to orange. As for the origin of osage, just like it was recorded in Meriwether Lewis's diary in 1804, Osage comes from the Osage Native Americans. They were the earliest ones to discover this plant, so it is called Osage orange.

Symbolism

Protection, loneliness, the need to belong

Usages

Garden Use
The osage orange tree is grown for its utility as a dense, thorny privacy hedge, its ability to tolerate a wide variety of soil types, and its durability. By far its commonest use is in garden and property hedgerows, where its stout thorns are a good substitute for barbed wire. It is also sometimes used as a specimen tree.

Trivia and Interesting Facts

Osage orange is not an edible fruit and is only distantly related to oranges. However, early American settlers once used this bush as a hedge. The dense hedge would form new shoots at its base, which were woven into the hedges branches to create a thick, living fence. This would prevent animals from entering the garden.

Scientific Classification of Osage orange

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pests

Common Pests & Diseases About Osage orange

Common issues for Osage orange based on 10 million real cases
Fruit Spot
Fruit Spot Fruit Spot
Fruit Spot
Pathogenic infections can cause spots (typically black or brown) to appear on the fruit.
Solutions: Prune regularly - prune as a preventative measure as well as to remove any plants and plant parts affected by fruit Spot. Improve air circulation and drainage Fertilize as needed Spray applications - there are few programs that are effective at controlling fruit Spot for home growers, but the local cooperative extension may be able to provide information regarding potential chemical treatments if the disease is severe.
Plant dried up
Plant dried up Plant dried up
Plant dried up
The entire plant may dry out due to dieback or normal seasonal dormancy.
Solutions: The solution for a dried out plant depends on the cause, so determine the cause before selecting a treatment method. Adjust your watering: Stick your finger in the soil near the roots. If it feels bone dry or overly saturated, you need to adjust your watering frequency accordingly. Prune back dead foliage: Snip off any brown stems and leaves on the plant to make space for new growth. This encourages the roots to send up fresh stems. Move to a proper environment. This may involve decreasing or increasing sun exposure, depending on the species. Decrease fertilizer applications. If you have applied too much fertilizer, you can repot plants with fresh potting soil. Wait. If your plant has dried out as daylight is decreasing, it is entering dormancy. Decrease watering and wait until the plant resumes growth.
Aged yellow and dry
Aged yellow and dry Aged yellow and dry
Aged yellow and dry
Natural aging can cause leaves to turn yellow and dry out.
Solutions: If the yellowing and drying of leaves and flowers is a natural progression due to age, nothing can be done to slow or stop the process. Once hormones within the plant begin the process of senescence, it’s irreversible.
Sap-sucking insects
Sap-sucking insects Sap-sucking insects
Sap-sucking insects
Sap-sucking insects can create dense clusters of small yellow or white spots on the leaves.
Solutions: Sap-sucking insects can be hard to spot, as they are often small and attach to the undersides of plant leaves. If you see signs of an infestation, follow these steps to eradicate it. Hand-pick bugs and remove eggs: Inspect your plants for insects and drop any you find in a container of soapy water. Look carefully at the undersides of plant leaves and squish any egg clusters you find. Use Insecticide: Targeted spraying can take out sap-sucking insects. Small infestations can be controlled with insecticidal soap, though larger outbreaks might require a stronger spray. Introduce natural predators: Many insects, including ladybugs and praying mantises, love to feast on sap-suckers. You can purchase them at garden stores and release them near infected plants, or encourage wild ones by creating habitat space.
Underwatering
Underwatering Underwatering
Underwatering
Leaves may wilt for a variety of reasons.
Solutions: The easiest (and most obvious) way to address underwatering is to fully hydrate the plant. However, this must be done carefully. A common mistake that many gardeners make is to douse their underwatered plants with water. This can overwhelm the roots of the plant and shock its system, something that can be even more damaging than the lack of water to begin with. Instead, water thoroughly and slowly, taking breaks to let the water slowly saturate through the soil to get to the roots. Use room temperature water, as cold water might be too much of a shock. In the future, shorten the time between waterings. A good rule of thumb is to check the soil around each plant daily. If it’s dry to at least two inches down, it’s time to water. If a container plant is repeatedly drying out very quickly, repotting into a slower-draining container might be a good idea, too.
Fruit withering
Fruit withering Fruit withering
Fruit withering
Fungal infection or normal ripening can cause the fruit to dry out.
Solutions: There are a number of appropriate solutions to control fruit withering: Remove any fruit as soon as it shows any signs of infection. Do not compost. Use a fungicide prior to leaf bud and then as per manufacturers instructions throughout the season.
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Fruit Spot
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Fruit Spot
Pathogenic infections can cause spots (typically black or brown) to appear on the fruit.
Overview
Overview
If there are brown or black spots on the unripened fruits of plants, there is a good chance that fruit Spot could be to blame. This is an informal term used to describe several types of diseases that all cause these same symptoms: unattractive spots on fruits and vegetables.
There are a few different culprits behind fruit Spot, including bacterial spot, bacterial speck, and other related diseases (like early blight). Here are some symptoms and potential solutions to consider.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
The symptoms of fruit Spot vary depending on which type of plant is affected as well as by which specific pathogen is to blame. Just about every type of plant can be affected by fruit Spot, including tomatoes, pears, plums, onions, strawberries, celery, peaches, and more.
Here are some examples of potential symptoms:
Small Fruit Spot
Small spots are most commonly associated with bacterial speck.
  • Spots may appear on fruits as well as leaves and other aboveground areas of the plant
  • Small black specks appear on infected fruits (spots are less than 1/16” in diameter)
  • Spots are raised with distinct margins, developing into sunken pits as the fruit matures
  • Fruit tissue near the spot stays green longer than the rest of the fruit
  • Spots are dark brown to black in color, with nearby spots often growing together
Large Fruit Spot
Large spots are often seen on plants suffering from bacterial spot, early blight, and related diseases.
  • Spots are large, sometimes larger than 1.3 cm
  • Some spots may look like targets with a brown to greyish coloration
  • Older spots are black and raised with lobed borders
  • Spots are superficial only, not penetrating into the seed cavity
  • Spots may turn into sunken pits, turning into craters as they get older
  • The skin of the fruit can be cracked and produce a water-soaked border
  • Some spots may ooze a gelatinous substance
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
There are a few culprits behind the fruit Spot. These depend on the pathogen as well as the type of plant. Bacterial speck and bacterial spot are both common diseases that can affect tomatoes, ground cherries, and other plants.
Bacterial speck is caused by Pseudomonas syringae. First discovered in the United States in 1933, it is most common in tomatoes and nearby weeds but can affect other kinds of plants and their fruits, too. It is more prevalent in low temperatures (less than 24 ℃) and high moisture.
Bacterial spot is caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. Vesicatoria. First discovered in Texas in 1912, this disease is more common in warm weather and conditions of high moisture.
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Plant dried up
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Plant dried up
The entire plant may dry out due to dieback or normal seasonal dormancy.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Your plant has dried out and turned brown. It might be starting to wilt, with no noticeable green around the stems and leaves. Touch the leaves, and they may crinkle under your fingers.
Possible causes of a dried out plant include:
  1. Not enough water. A lack of water will lead to dry plant tissue.
  2. Too much water. Watering too much can lead to root rot which makes the plant struggle to take up water. Rotted, mushy roots are a sign of overeating.
  3. Entering dormancy. As perennial plants enter their resting period known as dormancy, their leaves dry out and may fall off. This happens during decreasing day length.
  4. Exposure to herbicides and other toxic substances. If a plant is hit with a large dose herbicide or other toxic chemical, the plant will turn brown.
  5. Too much fertility. An excess of fertilizer can prevent plants from taking up water, leading to drying.
  6. Improper sun exposure. Just like humans, plants can get sunburn by intense, direct light. Plants can also dry out if they don’t receive enough light.
To determine whether the plant is still alive and can be saved, you can:
  1. Bend a stem. If the stem is pliable, the plant is still alive. If the stem breaks, the plant is dead.
  2. Gently scratch the stem with your fingernail for signs of green inside. If your plant is dead, the stem will be brittle and brown throughout.
  3. Cut the stems back a little bit a time for visible green growth. If none of the stems have visible green growth, the plant is dead.
Solutions
Solutions
The solution for a dried out plant depends on the cause, so determine the cause before selecting a treatment method.
  1. Adjust your watering: Stick your finger in the soil near the roots. If it feels bone dry or overly saturated, you need to adjust your watering frequency accordingly.
  2. Prune back dead foliage: Snip off any brown stems and leaves on the plant to make space for new growth. This encourages the roots to send up fresh stems.
  3. Move to a proper environment. This may involve decreasing or increasing sun exposure, depending on the species.
  4. Decrease fertilizer applications. If you have applied too much fertilizer, you can repot plants with fresh potting soil.
  5. Wait. If your plant has dried out as daylight is decreasing, it is entering dormancy. Decrease watering and wait until the plant resumes growth.
Prevention
Prevention
Prevention involves providing your plant with the proper environment.
  1. Provide the proper amount of water. The amount of water depends on a plant’s size, species, and environment. A general rule is to allow soil to dry out between waterings.
  2. Place plants in the proper environment. Provide the proper hours of sun and temperature for your individual plant.
  3. Provide proper fertility. Most plants only need to be fertilized once or twice a year; don’t overapply.
  4. Keep plants free from toxic substances. Keep herbicides and toxic household chemicals away from your plants.
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Aged yellow and dry
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Aged yellow and dry
Natural aging can cause leaves to turn yellow and dry out.
Overview
Overview
Regardless of the type of plant or where it is grown, at some point, it will begin to aged yellow and dry. This is a natural, unavoidable process that happens when the plant has completed all of the steps in its life.
Annual plants go through this process at the end of a single growing season. Perennial plants live for multiple years, if not tens or hundreds of years, but will still ultimately exhibit these symptoms.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
When plants have progressed through their natural developmental stages and are nearing the end of their lifecycle, they begin showing signs of decline. Leaves will start to yellow and droop, and over time they turn papery brown and dry.
Once completely dry, the leaves begin to fall from the plant until the entire plant has dried out.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
At the end of its life, genetic coding within the plant increases the production of ethylene, a phytohormone that controls senescence or natural aging and death. Cell division stops, and the plant begins catabolizing resources to use in other parts of the plant.
As this happens, the tissues begin yellow and drying until the entire plant is desiccated and perishes.
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Sap-sucking insects
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Sap-sucking insects
Sap-sucking insects can create dense clusters of small yellow or white spots on the leaves.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Your plant has developed tiny yellowish spots scattered across the leaves that look like mold or mildew. If these marks won't wipe off, they are likely caused by sap-sucking insects like aphids, squash bugs, scale bugs, leafhoppers, whiteflies, mites, mealybugs, and more.
Each of these pests uses mouthparts to pierce leaf tissues and suck the sap. uses mouthparts to pierce leaf tissues and suck the sap. Signs of damage are difficult to spot at first, but a large infestation can quickly compromise the whole plant. You're most likely to see sap-sucking insects during the hottest months because plants make easier targets when already weakened from heat or drought.
Though sap-sucking insects are unlikely to kill your plant on their own, they can severely weaken it and make it more susceptible to disease. They may also spread viruses from one plant to another as they feed.
Solutions
Solutions
Sap-sucking insects can be hard to spot, as they are often small and attach to the undersides of plant leaves. If you see signs of an infestation, follow these steps to eradicate it.
  1. Hand-pick bugs and remove eggs: Inspect your plants for insects and drop any you find in a container of soapy water. Look carefully at the undersides of plant leaves and squish any egg clusters you find.
  2. Use Insecticide: Targeted spraying can take out sap-sucking insects. Small infestations can be controlled with insecticidal soap, though larger outbreaks might require a stronger spray.
  3. Introduce natural predators: Many insects, including ladybugs and praying mantises, love to feast on sap-suckers. You can purchase them at garden stores and release them near infected plants, or encourage wild ones by creating habitat space.
Prevention
Prevention
Healthy plants are less likely to suffer from sap-sucker attacks. Keep them fortified with fertilizer and the right amounts of water and sunlight. Plants that receive excess nitrogen are also more susceptible to attack, so don’t overfertilize. You should also remove weeds and tall grasses surrounding your outdoor plants so as not to create habitat space for the pests.
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Underwatering
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Underwatering
Leaves may wilt for a variety of reasons.
Overview
Overview
Underwatering plants is one of the quickest ways to kill them. This is something that most gardeners are well aware of. Unfortunately, knowing exactly how much water a plant needs can be tricky, especially considering that underwatering and overwatering present similar symptoms in plants.
Therefore, it’s important to be vigilant and attentive to each plants’ individual needs.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
As mentioned earlier, overwatering and underwatering present similar symptoms in plants. These symptoms include poor growth, wilted leaves, defoliation, and brown leaf tips or margins. Ultimately, both underwatering and overwatering can lead to the death of a plant.
The easiest way to determine whether a plant has too much water or too little is to look at the leaves. If underwatering is the culprit, the leaves will look brown and crunchy, while if it’s overwatering, they will appear yellow or a pale green in color.
When this issue first begins, there may be no noticeable symptoms at all, particularly in hardy or drought-tolerant plants. However, they will begin to wilt once they start suffering from a lack of water. The edges of the plant’s leaves will become brown or curled. Soil pulling away from the edges of the planter is a telltale sign, or a crispy, brittle stem.
Prolonged underwatering can cause a plant’s growth to become stunted. The leaves might drop and the plant can be more susceptible to pest infestations, too.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
Underwatering is caused by, quite simply, not watering plants often or deeply enough. There is a heightened risk of underwatering if any of these situations apply:
  • Extreme heat and dry weather (when growing outdoors)
  • Grow lights or indoor lighting that is too bright or intense for the type of plant
  • Using fast-draining growing media such as sand
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Fruit withering
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Fruit withering
Fungal infection or normal ripening can cause the fruit to dry out.
Overview
Overview
Fruit withering is common on many tree fruits, including apples, pears, peaches, cherries, and plums, as well as fruiting shrubs. It is caused by a fungal pathogen and will result in wrinkled and desiccated fruit.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Here are the most common symptoms in the order that they are likely to occur.
  1. Both leaves and blossom on the tips of branches will go brown and wither.
  2. Gray powdery patches will appear on infected leaves and flowers, and this will be most apparent after rain.
  3. Any fruit that does appear will turn wrinkled and fail to develop.
  4. Branch tips begin to die, progressing back to larger branches, causing general deterioration of the tree or plant.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
The withering is caused by one of two fungal pathogens, one called Monilina laxa and the other called M. fructigen. The spores overwinter on infected plant material and are then spread the following spring by wind, rain, or animal vectors. The problem will start to become noticeable in mid-spring, but will increase in severity as summer progresses and the fungus grows. If not addressed, the disease will intensify and spread to other plants in the vicinity.
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distribution

Distribution of Osage orange

Habitat of Osage orange

Woods, fields, thickets
Northern Hemisphere
South Hemisphere

Distribution Map of Osage orange

Osage orange is native to the woodlands, savannas and pastures of many states in the US. It has been introduced to other US states, Argentina, and some countries in Eurasia. The plant is grown ornamentally in the US where it is used for hedging.
distribution map
Native
Cultivated
Invasive
Potentially invasive
Exotic
No species reported
habit
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More Info on Osage Orange Growth and Care

Basic Care Guide
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Lighting
Full sun
Exposure to ample sunrays during the day is key to healthy growth of osage orange. The original habitats of this species naturally facilitate abundant light for much of the day. Both growth stages, juvenile and mature, require similar light conditions. Overexposure can, however, lead to photo-oxidative damage, while reduced exposure may limit growth and development.
Best Sunlight Practices
Temperature
-20 38 ℃
The osage orange prefers a moderate temperature range, thriving in temperatures between 41 to 95 ℉ (5 to 35 ℃). In its native growth environment, it requires a minimum temperature of 50℉ (10℃) and can withstand high summer temperatures. It is suggested to adjust watering amount based on temperature changes during different seasons.
Temp for Healthy Growth
Transplant
20-30 feet
The optimal season to transfer osage orange is between fall and spring (Autumn-Spring), providing a suitable environment for root growth. Ensure osage orange is set in a sunny location due to its sun-loving nature. A friendly tip: maintain consistent watering after transplanting to establish roots.
Transplant Techniques
Pollination
Normal
The intriguing 'osage orange' woos pollen travelers via its gust-adoring behavior. It's an ardent fan of the wind, relying on its far-reaching currents to shuttle pollen from male to female flowers. More so, its clever use of timely pollination plays a crucial role, synchronizing the release of its pollen to the zenith of wind activity. Truly, 'osage orange' has perfected an art form in which the wind takes the starring role!
Pollination Techniques
Pruning
Spring, Winter
A durable, dense tree known for its large, inedible fruit and thorny branches, osage orange benefits from pruning. Remove deadwood and shape young trees by cutting back the previous year's growth. Prune in late winter or early spring before new growth. Thinning out the canopy improves light penetration and air circulation, reducing disease risk. Due to its sturdy nature, osage orange tolerates heavy pruning, which can help manage size and stimulate fruit production.
Pruning techniques
Feng shui direction
East
Osage orange presents an intriguing case in Feng Shui, as it is known for its resilient nature. Its compatibility with East-facing areas may be due to its robust properties potentially reinforcing the associated energy of health and family stability. However, interpretation varies, coloring this relation with subjectivity.
Fengshui Details
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Osage orange
Osage orange
Osage orange
Osage orange
Osage orange
Osage orange
Osage orange
Maclura pomifera
Also known as: Hedge, Monkey Brains, Mock-Orange, Monkey ball, Hedge apple
Osage orange is generally used in dye making and pesticide manufacturing. It is also planted as a windbreaker or as a hedge plant and can provide adequate shade in gardens. The fruits produce latex secretions, and they're not typically eaten by foraging animals. The warty fruits are green at first, but they become orange-yellow afterward.
Water
Water
Every 1-2 weeks
Sunlight
Sunlight
Full sun
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Questions About Osage orange

Watering Watering Watering
Pruning Pruning Pruning
Sunlight Sunlight Sunlight
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Key Facts About Osage orange

Attributes of Osage orange

Lifespan
Perennial
Plant Type
Tree
Planting Time
Fall, Winter
Bloom Time
Summer
Harvest Time
Fall
Plant Height
8 m to 20 m
Spread
12 m
Leaf Color
Green
Flower Size
2.5 cm
Flower Color
Green
Yellow
Fruit Color
Green
Yellow
Gold
Stem Color
Brown
Orange
Green
Gray
Silver
Dormancy
Winter dormancy
Leaf type
Deciduous
Growth Season
Spring, Summer
Pollinators
Wind
Benefits to Pollinating Insects
Larval food
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Name story

Osage orange
Although it has orange in its name, it is actually a distant relative to orange. As for the origin of osage, just like it was recorded in Meriwether Lewis's diary in 1804, Osage comes from the Osage Native Americans. They were the earliest ones to discover this plant, so it is called Osage orange.

Symbolism

Protection, loneliness, the need to belong

Usages

Garden Use
The osage orange tree is grown for its utility as a dense, thorny privacy hedge, its ability to tolerate a wide variety of soil types, and its durability. By far its commonest use is in garden and property hedgerows, where its stout thorns are a good substitute for barbed wire. It is also sometimes used as a specimen tree.

Trivia and Interesting Facts

Osage orange is not an edible fruit and is only distantly related to oranges. However, early American settlers once used this bush as a hedge. The dense hedge would form new shoots at its base, which were woven into the hedges branches to create a thick, living fence. This would prevent animals from entering the garden.

Scientific Classification of Osage orange

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pests

Common Pests & Diseases About Osage orange

Common issues for Osage orange based on 10 million real cases
Fruit Spot
Fruit Spot Fruit Spot Fruit Spot
Pathogenic infections can cause spots (typically black or brown) to appear on the fruit.
Solutions: Prune regularly - prune as a preventative measure as well as to remove any plants and plant parts affected by fruit Spot. Improve air circulation and drainage Fertilize as needed Spray applications - there are few programs that are effective at controlling fruit Spot for home growers, but the local cooperative extension may be able to provide information regarding potential chemical treatments if the disease is severe.
Learn More About the Fruit Spot more
Plant dried up
Plant dried up Plant dried up Plant dried up
The entire plant may dry out due to dieback or normal seasonal dormancy.
Solutions: The solution for a dried out plant depends on the cause, so determine the cause before selecting a treatment method. Adjust your watering: Stick your finger in the soil near the roots. If it feels bone dry or overly saturated, you need to adjust your watering frequency accordingly. Prune back dead foliage: Snip off any brown stems and leaves on the plant to make space for new growth. This encourages the roots to send up fresh stems. Move to a proper environment. This may involve decreasing or increasing sun exposure, depending on the species. Decrease fertilizer applications. If you have applied too much fertilizer, you can repot plants with fresh potting soil. Wait. If your plant has dried out as daylight is decreasing, it is entering dormancy. Decrease watering and wait until the plant resumes growth.
Learn More About the Plant dried up more
Aged yellow and dry
Aged yellow and dry Aged yellow and dry Aged yellow and dry
Natural aging can cause leaves to turn yellow and dry out.
Solutions: If the yellowing and drying of leaves and flowers is a natural progression due to age, nothing can be done to slow or stop the process. Once hormones within the plant begin the process of senescence, it’s irreversible.
Learn More About the Aged yellow and dry more
Sap-sucking insects
Sap-sucking insects Sap-sucking insects Sap-sucking insects
Sap-sucking insects can create dense clusters of small yellow or white spots on the leaves.
Solutions: Sap-sucking insects can be hard to spot, as they are often small and attach to the undersides of plant leaves. If you see signs of an infestation, follow these steps to eradicate it. Hand-pick bugs and remove eggs: Inspect your plants for insects and drop any you find in a container of soapy water. Look carefully at the undersides of plant leaves and squish any egg clusters you find. Use Insecticide: Targeted spraying can take out sap-sucking insects. Small infestations can be controlled with insecticidal soap, though larger outbreaks might require a stronger spray. Introduce natural predators: Many insects, including ladybugs and praying mantises, love to feast on sap-suckers. You can purchase them at garden stores and release them near infected plants, or encourage wild ones by creating habitat space.
Learn More About the Sap-sucking insects more
Underwatering
Underwatering Underwatering Underwatering
Leaves may wilt for a variety of reasons.
Solutions: The easiest (and most obvious) way to address underwatering is to fully hydrate the plant. However, this must be done carefully. A common mistake that many gardeners make is to douse their underwatered plants with water. This can overwhelm the roots of the plant and shock its system, something that can be even more damaging than the lack of water to begin with. Instead, water thoroughly and slowly, taking breaks to let the water slowly saturate through the soil to get to the roots. Use room temperature water, as cold water might be too much of a shock. In the future, shorten the time between waterings. A good rule of thumb is to check the soil around each plant daily. If it’s dry to at least two inches down, it’s time to water. If a container plant is repeatedly drying out very quickly, repotting into a slower-draining container might be a good idea, too.
Learn More About the Underwatering more
Fruit withering
Fruit withering Fruit withering Fruit withering
Fungal infection or normal ripening can cause the fruit to dry out.
Solutions: There are a number of appropriate solutions to control fruit withering: Remove any fruit as soon as it shows any signs of infection. Do not compost. Use a fungicide prior to leaf bud and then as per manufacturers instructions throughout the season.
Learn More About the Fruit withering more
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Fruit Spot
plant poor
Fruit Spot
Pathogenic infections can cause spots (typically black or brown) to appear on the fruit.
Overview
Overview
If there are brown or black spots on the unripened fruits of plants, there is a good chance that fruit Spot could be to blame. This is an informal term used to describe several types of diseases that all cause these same symptoms: unattractive spots on fruits and vegetables.
There are a few different culprits behind fruit Spot, including bacterial spot, bacterial speck, and other related diseases (like early blight). Here are some symptoms and potential solutions to consider.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
The symptoms of fruit Spot vary depending on which type of plant is affected as well as by which specific pathogen is to blame. Just about every type of plant can be affected by fruit Spot, including tomatoes, pears, plums, onions, strawberries, celery, peaches, and more.
Here are some examples of potential symptoms:
Small Fruit Spot
Small spots are most commonly associated with bacterial speck.
  • Spots may appear on fruits as well as leaves and other aboveground areas of the plant
  • Small black specks appear on infected fruits (spots are less than 1/16” in diameter)
  • Spots are raised with distinct margins, developing into sunken pits as the fruit matures
  • Fruit tissue near the spot stays green longer than the rest of the fruit
  • Spots are dark brown to black in color, with nearby spots often growing together
Large Fruit Spot
Large spots are often seen on plants suffering from bacterial spot, early blight, and related diseases.
  • Spots are large, sometimes larger than 1.3 cm
  • Some spots may look like targets with a brown to greyish coloration
  • Older spots are black and raised with lobed borders
  • Spots are superficial only, not penetrating into the seed cavity
  • Spots may turn into sunken pits, turning into craters as they get older
  • The skin of the fruit can be cracked and produce a water-soaked border
  • Some spots may ooze a gelatinous substance
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
There are a few culprits behind the fruit Spot. These depend on the pathogen as well as the type of plant. Bacterial speck and bacterial spot are both common diseases that can affect tomatoes, ground cherries, and other plants.
Bacterial speck is caused by Pseudomonas syringae. First discovered in the United States in 1933, it is most common in tomatoes and nearby weeds but can affect other kinds of plants and their fruits, too. It is more prevalent in low temperatures (less than 24 ℃) and high moisture.
Bacterial spot is caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. Vesicatoria. First discovered in Texas in 1912, this disease is more common in warm weather and conditions of high moisture.
Solutions
Solutions
  • Prune regularly - prune as a preventative measure as well as to remove any plants and plant parts affected by fruit Spot.
  • Improve air circulation and drainage
  • Fertilize as needed
  • Spray applications - there are few programs that are effective at controlling fruit Spot for home growers, but the local cooperative extension may be able to provide information regarding potential chemical treatments if the disease is severe.
Prevention
Prevention
There are several ways to prevent both types of fruit Spot from affecting yields and harvests:
  • Rotate crops - do not plant the same kind of plant in the same spot each year, instead switching out locations every two to three years
  • Use disease-free seeds and transplants - using a hot water treatment to sterilize seeds before planting can also be effective
  • Irrigate early in the day to give plants time to dry off before nightfall
  • Avoid working around plants when they are wet
  • Control weeds
  • Remove debris or plow it under at the end of the growing season
  • Fertilize with higher amounts of nitrogen and use less calcium
  • Plant resistant cultivars when available
  • Do not clip plants when transplanting
  • Dispose of affected plant parts immediately (do not compost)
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Plant dried up
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Plant dried up
The entire plant may dry out due to dieback or normal seasonal dormancy.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Your plant has dried out and turned brown. It might be starting to wilt, with no noticeable green around the stems and leaves. Touch the leaves, and they may crinkle under your fingers.
Possible causes of a dried out plant include:
  1. Not enough water. A lack of water will lead to dry plant tissue.
  2. Too much water. Watering too much can lead to root rot which makes the plant struggle to take up water. Rotted, mushy roots are a sign of overeating.
  3. Entering dormancy. As perennial plants enter their resting period known as dormancy, their leaves dry out and may fall off. This happens during decreasing day length.
  4. Exposure to herbicides and other toxic substances. If a plant is hit with a large dose herbicide or other toxic chemical, the plant will turn brown.
  5. Too much fertility. An excess of fertilizer can prevent plants from taking up water, leading to drying.
  6. Improper sun exposure. Just like humans, plants can get sunburn by intense, direct light. Plants can also dry out if they don’t receive enough light.
To determine whether the plant is still alive and can be saved, you can:
  1. Bend a stem. If the stem is pliable, the plant is still alive. If the stem breaks, the plant is dead.
  2. Gently scratch the stem with your fingernail for signs of green inside. If your plant is dead, the stem will be brittle and brown throughout.
  3. Cut the stems back a little bit a time for visible green growth. If none of the stems have visible green growth, the plant is dead.
Solutions
Solutions
The solution for a dried out plant depends on the cause, so determine the cause before selecting a treatment method.
  1. Adjust your watering: Stick your finger in the soil near the roots. If it feels bone dry or overly saturated, you need to adjust your watering frequency accordingly.
  2. Prune back dead foliage: Snip off any brown stems and leaves on the plant to make space for new growth. This encourages the roots to send up fresh stems.
  3. Move to a proper environment. This may involve decreasing or increasing sun exposure, depending on the species.
  4. Decrease fertilizer applications. If you have applied too much fertilizer, you can repot plants with fresh potting soil.
  5. Wait. If your plant has dried out as daylight is decreasing, it is entering dormancy. Decrease watering and wait until the plant resumes growth.
Prevention
Prevention
Prevention involves providing your plant with the proper environment.
  1. Provide the proper amount of water. The amount of water depends on a plant’s size, species, and environment. A general rule is to allow soil to dry out between waterings.
  2. Place plants in the proper environment. Provide the proper hours of sun and temperature for your individual plant.
  3. Provide proper fertility. Most plants only need to be fertilized once or twice a year; don’t overapply.
  4. Keep plants free from toxic substances. Keep herbicides and toxic household chemicals away from your plants.
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Aged yellow and dry
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Aged yellow and dry
Natural aging can cause leaves to turn yellow and dry out.
Overview
Overview
Regardless of the type of plant or where it is grown, at some point, it will begin to aged yellow and dry. This is a natural, unavoidable process that happens when the plant has completed all of the steps in its life.
Annual plants go through this process at the end of a single growing season. Perennial plants live for multiple years, if not tens or hundreds of years, but will still ultimately exhibit these symptoms.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
When plants have progressed through their natural developmental stages and are nearing the end of their lifecycle, they begin showing signs of decline. Leaves will start to yellow and droop, and over time they turn papery brown and dry.
Once completely dry, the leaves begin to fall from the plant until the entire plant has dried out.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
At the end of its life, genetic coding within the plant increases the production of ethylene, a phytohormone that controls senescence or natural aging and death. Cell division stops, and the plant begins catabolizing resources to use in other parts of the plant.
As this happens, the tissues begin yellow and drying until the entire plant is desiccated and perishes.
Solutions
Solutions
If the yellowing and drying of leaves and flowers is a natural progression due to age, nothing can be done to slow or stop the process. Once hormones within the plant begin the process of senescence, it’s irreversible.
Prevention
Prevention
Unfortunately, there is no way to prevent plants from dying of “old age.” To help prolong their life, and put off symptoms of aged yellow and dry for as long as possible, take care of them by giving them enough water, fertilizing them appropriately, and making sure they get enough sunlight.
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Sap-sucking insects
plant poor
Sap-sucking insects
Sap-sucking insects can create dense clusters of small yellow or white spots on the leaves.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Your plant has developed tiny yellowish spots scattered across the leaves that look like mold or mildew. If these marks won't wipe off, they are likely caused by sap-sucking insects like aphids, squash bugs, scale bugs, leafhoppers, whiteflies, mites, mealybugs, and more.
Each of these pests uses mouthparts to pierce leaf tissues and suck the sap. uses mouthparts to pierce leaf tissues and suck the sap. Signs of damage are difficult to spot at first, but a large infestation can quickly compromise the whole plant. You're most likely to see sap-sucking insects during the hottest months because plants make easier targets when already weakened from heat or drought.
Though sap-sucking insects are unlikely to kill your plant on their own, they can severely weaken it and make it more susceptible to disease. They may also spread viruses from one plant to another as they feed.
Solutions
Solutions
Sap-sucking insects can be hard to spot, as they are often small and attach to the undersides of plant leaves. If you see signs of an infestation, follow these steps to eradicate it.
  1. Hand-pick bugs and remove eggs: Inspect your plants for insects and drop any you find in a container of soapy water. Look carefully at the undersides of plant leaves and squish any egg clusters you find.
  2. Use Insecticide: Targeted spraying can take out sap-sucking insects. Small infestations can be controlled with insecticidal soap, though larger outbreaks might require a stronger spray.
  3. Introduce natural predators: Many insects, including ladybugs and praying mantises, love to feast on sap-suckers. You can purchase them at garden stores and release them near infected plants, or encourage wild ones by creating habitat space.
Prevention
Prevention
Healthy plants are less likely to suffer from sap-sucker attacks. Keep them fortified with fertilizer and the right amounts of water and sunlight. Plants that receive excess nitrogen are also more susceptible to attack, so don’t overfertilize. You should also remove weeds and tall grasses surrounding your outdoor plants so as not to create habitat space for the pests.
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Underwatering
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Underwatering
Leaves may wilt for a variety of reasons.
Overview
Overview
Underwatering plants is one of the quickest ways to kill them. This is something that most gardeners are well aware of. Unfortunately, knowing exactly how much water a plant needs can be tricky, especially considering that underwatering and overwatering present similar symptoms in plants.
Therefore, it’s important to be vigilant and attentive to each plants’ individual needs.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
As mentioned earlier, overwatering and underwatering present similar symptoms in plants. These symptoms include poor growth, wilted leaves, defoliation, and brown leaf tips or margins. Ultimately, both underwatering and overwatering can lead to the death of a plant.
The easiest way to determine whether a plant has too much water or too little is to look at the leaves. If underwatering is the culprit, the leaves will look brown and crunchy, while if it’s overwatering, they will appear yellow or a pale green in color.
When this issue first begins, there may be no noticeable symptoms at all, particularly in hardy or drought-tolerant plants. However, they will begin to wilt once they start suffering from a lack of water. The edges of the plant’s leaves will become brown or curled. Soil pulling away from the edges of the planter is a telltale sign, or a crispy, brittle stem.
Prolonged underwatering can cause a plant’s growth to become stunted. The leaves might drop and the plant can be more susceptible to pest infestations, too.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
Underwatering is caused by, quite simply, not watering plants often or deeply enough. There is a heightened risk of underwatering if any of these situations apply:
  • Extreme heat and dry weather (when growing outdoors)
  • Grow lights or indoor lighting that is too bright or intense for the type of plant
  • Using fast-draining growing media such as sand
Solutions
Solutions
The easiest (and most obvious) way to address underwatering is to fully hydrate the plant. However, this must be done carefully. A common mistake that many gardeners make is to douse their underwatered plants with water. This can overwhelm the roots of the plant and shock its system, something that can be even more damaging than the lack of water to begin with.
Instead, water thoroughly and slowly, taking breaks to let the water slowly saturate through the soil to get to the roots. Use room temperature water, as cold water might be too much of a shock.
In the future, shorten the time between waterings. A good rule of thumb is to check the soil around each plant daily. If it’s dry to at least two inches down, it’s time to water. If a container plant is repeatedly drying out very quickly, repotting into a slower-draining container might be a good idea, too.
Prevention
Prevention
Always check the soil before watering. If the top inch of soil feels moist, though not wet, the watering is perfect. If it’s dry, water it immediately. If it feels soggy, you avoid watering until it dries out a bit more.
Also, make sure the lighting is sufficient for the species. Plants grow faster and need more water when there is intense light or lots of heat. Being aware of these conditions and modifying them, if possible, is a good way to prevent underwatering. Many container plants are potted in soil mixtures mean to be well-draining. Adding materials that retain moisture, like compost or peat moss, can also prevent these symptoms.
Other tips to prevent underwatering include:
  • Choose pots with adequately-sized drainage holes
  • Avoid warm temperatures
  • Use large pots with additional soil (these take longer to dry out)
  • Avoid terracotta pots, which lose water quickly
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Fruit withering
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Fruit withering
Fungal infection or normal ripening can cause the fruit to dry out.
Overview
Overview
Fruit withering is common on many tree fruits, including apples, pears, peaches, cherries, and plums, as well as fruiting shrubs. It is caused by a fungal pathogen and will result in wrinkled and desiccated fruit.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Here are the most common symptoms in the order that they are likely to occur.
  1. Both leaves and blossom on the tips of branches will go brown and wither.
  2. Gray powdery patches will appear on infected leaves and flowers, and this will be most apparent after rain.
  3. Any fruit that does appear will turn wrinkled and fail to develop.
  4. Branch tips begin to die, progressing back to larger branches, causing general deterioration of the tree or plant.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
The withering is caused by one of two fungal pathogens, one called Monilina laxa and the other called M. fructigen. The spores overwinter on infected plant material and are then spread the following spring by wind, rain, or animal vectors. The problem will start to become noticeable in mid-spring, but will increase in severity as summer progresses and the fungus grows. If not addressed, the disease will intensify and spread to other plants in the vicinity.
Solutions
Solutions
There are a number of appropriate solutions to control fruit withering:
  1. Remove any fruit as soon as it shows any signs of infection. Do not compost.
  2. Use a fungicide prior to leaf bud and then as per manufacturers instructions throughout the season.
Prevention
Prevention
Preventative measures include:
  1. Ensuring adequate spacing between plants or trees.
  2. Staking plants that are prone to tumbling to prevent moisture or humidity build up.
  3. Prune correctly so that there is adequate air movement and remove any dead or diseased branches that may carry spores.
  4. Practice good plant hygiene by removing fallen material and destroying it as soon as possible.
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distribution

Distribution of Osage orange

Habitat of Osage orange

Woods, fields, thickets
Northern Hemisphere
South Hemisphere

Distribution Map of Osage orange

Osage orange is native to the woodlands, savannas and pastures of many states in the US. It has been introduced to other US states, Argentina, and some countries in Eurasia. The plant is grown ornamentally in the US where it is used for hedging.
distribution map
Native
Cultivated
Invasive
Potentially invasive
Exotic
No species reported
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Lighting
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Indoor
Indoor
Outdoor
Choose a site here for personalized care tips.
Requirements
Full sun
Ideal
Above 6 hours sunlight
Partial sun
Tolerance
About 3-6 hours sunlight
Watch how sunlight gracefully moves through your garden, and choose spots that provide the perfect balance of light and shade for your plants, ensuring their happiness.
Essentials
Exposure to ample sunrays during the day is key to healthy growth of osage orange. The original habitats of this species naturally facilitate abundant light for much of the day. Both growth stages, juvenile and mature, require similar light conditions. Overexposure can, however, lead to photo-oxidative damage, while reduced exposure may limit growth and development.
Preferred
Tolerable
Unsuitable
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Artificial lighting
Indoor plants require adequate lighting for optimal growth. When natural sunlight is insufficient, particularly in winter or in less sunny spaces, artificial lights offer a vital solution, promoting faster, healthier growth.
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Indoor plants require adequate lighting for optimal growth. When natural sunlight is insufficient, particularly in winter or in less sunny spaces, artificial lights offer a vital solution, promoting faster, healthier growth.
1. Choose the right type of artificial light: LED lights are a popular choice for indoor plant lighting because they can be customized to provide the specific wavelengths of light that your plants need.
Full sun plants need 30-50W/sq ft of artificial light, partial sun plants need 20-30W/sq ft, and full shade plants need 10-20W/sq ft.
2. Determine the appropriate distance: Place the light source 12-36 inches above the plant to mimic natural sunlight.
3. Determine the duration: Mimic the length of natural daylight hours for your plant species. most plants need 8-12 hours of light per day.
Important Symptoms
Insufficient light
Osage orange thrives in full sunlight but is sensitive to heat. As a plant commonly grown outdoors with abundant sunlight, it may exhibit subtle symptoms of light deficiency when placed in rooms with suboptimal lighting.
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(Symptom details and solutions)
Small leaves
New leaves may grow smaller in size compared to the previous ones once they have matured.
Leggy or sparse growth
The spaces between leaves or stems of your osage orange may become longer, resulting in a thin and stretched-out appearance. This can make the plant look sparse and weak, and it may easily break or lean due to its own weight.
Faster leaf drop
When plants are exposed to low light conditions, they tend to shed older leaves early to conserve resources. Within a limited time, these resources can be utilized to grow new leaves until the plant's energy reserves are depleted.
Slower or no new growth
Osage orange enters a survival mode when light conditions are poor, which leads to a halt in leaf production. As a result, the plant's growth becomes delayed or stops altogether.
Lighter-colored new leaves
Insufficient sunlight can cause leaves to develop irregular color patterns or appear pale. This indicates a lack of chlorophyll and essential nutrients.
Solutions
1. To ensure optimal growth, gradually move plants to a sunnier location each week, until they receive at least 6 hours of direct sunlight daily. Use a south-facing window and keep curtains open during the day for maximum sunlight exposure and nutrient accumulation.2. To provide additional light for your plant, consider using artificial light if it's large or not easily movable. Keep a desk or ceiling lamp on for at least 8 hours daily, or invest in professional plant grow lights for ample light.
Excessive light
Osage orange thrives in full sun exposure but is sensitive to heat. Although sunburn symptoms occasionally occur, they are unable to withstand intense sunlight in high-temperature environments.
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(Symptom details and solutions)
Chlorosis
Chlorosis is a condition where the plant's leaves lose their green color and turn yellow. This is due to the breakdown of chlorophyll from excessive sunlight, which negatively affects the plant's ability to photosynthesize.
Sunscald
Sunscald occurs when the plant's leaves or stems are damaged by intense sunlight exposure. It appears as pale, bleached, or necrotic areas on the plant tissue and can reduce the plant's overall health.
Leaf Curling
Leaf curling is a symptom where leaves curl or twist under extreme sunlight conditions. This is a defense mechanism used by the plant to reduce its surface area exposed to sunlight, minimizing water loss and damage.
Wilting
Wilting occurs when a plant loses turgor pressure and its leaves and stems begin to droop. Overexposure to sunlight can cause wilting by increasing the plant's water loss through transpiration, making it difficult for the plant to maintain adequate hydration.
Leaf Scorching
Leaf scorching is a symptom characterized by the appearance of brown, dry, and crispy edges or patches on leaves due to excessive sunlight. This can lead to a reduction in photosynthetic capacity and overall plant health.
Solutions
1. Move your plant to the optimal position where it can receive abundant sunlight but also have some shade. An east-facing window is an ideal choice as the morning sunlight is gentler. This way, your plant can enjoy ample sunlight while reducing the risk of sunburn.2. It is recommended to trim off any completely dehydrated or withered parts of the plant.
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Temperature
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Indoor
Indoor
Outdoor
Choose a site here for personalized care tips.
Requirements
Ideal
Tolerable
Unsuitable
Just like people, each plant has its own preferences. Learn about your plants' temperature needs and create a comforting environment for them to flourish. As you care for your plants, your bond with them will deepen. Trust your intuition as you learn about their temperature needs, celebrating the journey you share. Lovingly monitor the temperature around your plants and adjust their environment as needed. A thermometer can be your ally in this heartfelt endeavor. Be patient and gentle with yourself as you explore your plants' temperature needs. Cherish your successes, learn from challenges, and nurture your garden with love, creating a haven that reflects the warmth of your care.
Essentials
The osage orange prefers a moderate temperature range, thriving in temperatures between 41 to 95 ℉ (5 to 35 ℃). In its native growth environment, it requires a minimum temperature of 50℉ (10℃) and can withstand high summer temperatures. It is suggested to adjust watering amount based on temperature changes during different seasons.
Regional wintering strategies
Osage orange has strong cold resistance, so special frost protection measures are usually not necessary during winter. However, if the winter temperatures are expected to drop below {Limit_growth_temperature}, it is still important to provide cold protection. This can be achieved by wrapping the trunk and branches with materials such as non-woven fabric or cloth. Before the first freeze in autumn, it is recommended to water the plant abundantly, ensuring the soil remains moist and enters a frozen state. This helps prevent drought and water scarcity for the plant during winter and early spring.
Important Symptoms
Low Temperature
Osage orange is cold-tolerant and thrives best when the temperature is above {Suitable_growth_temperature_min}. During winter, it should be kept above {Tolerable_growing_temperature_min}. When the temperature falls below {Limit_growth_temperature}, although there may not be any noticeable changes during winter, the branches may become brittle and dry during springtime, and no new shoots will emerge.
Solutions
In spring, prune away any dead branches that have failed to produce new leaves.
High Temperature
During summer, Osage orange should be kept below {Suitable_growth_temperature_max}. When the temperature exceeds {Tolerable_growing_temperature_max}, the leaves of the plant may become lighter in color, the tips may become dry and withered, and the plant becomes more susceptible to sunburn.
Solutions
Trim away the sunburned and dried-up parts. Move the plant to a location that provides shade from the midday and afternoon sun, or use a shade cloth to create shade. Water the plant in the morning and evening to keep the soil moist.
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Transplant
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How to Successfully Transplant Osage Orange?
The optimal season to transfer osage orange is between fall and spring (Autumn-Spring), providing a suitable environment for root growth. Ensure osage orange is set in a sunny location due to its sun-loving nature. A friendly tip: maintain consistent watering after transplanting to establish roots.
What Preparations are Needed Before Transplanting Osage Orange?
What is the Ideal Time for Transplanting Osage Orange?
Ideally transplant osage orange during early spring or late fall. These milder seasons create a nurturing environment for its growth. Transplanting during this period ensures the plant settles well before summer heat or winter freeze. It's a smart move imparting your garden increased resilience and unique beauty.
How Much Space Should You Leave Between Osage Orange Plants?
Welcome to gardening! To start with, ensure enough space for osage orange to grow. Aim for an ideal spacing of about 20-30 feet (6–9 metres) apart. This ensures the plants have ample room for growth and proper air circulation.
What is the Best Soil Mix for Osage Orange Transplanting?
For osage orange, you'll want loamy and well-drained soil. Prepare your garden bed by adding a base fertilizer, rich in phosphorus and potassium. These nutrients promote strong root development and fruit growth in osage orange.
Where Should You Relocate Your Osage Orange?
Regarding the location for your osage orange, it should get full sunlight for at least six hours a day. A south or west-facing location is generally best, as it allows the plant to enjoy as much sun as possible throughout the day.
What Equipments Should You Prepare Before Transplantation Osage Orange?
Gardening Gloves
To protect your hands while handling the dirt and maneuvering the plant.
Shovel or Spade
Useful for digging up the plant from its original location as well as making the hole at the new location.
Wheelbarrow or Bucket
To move the dug-up osage orange plant and its soil to the new location comfortably.
Garden Pruners
Useful for trimming any damaged roots during the transplant process.
Watering Can or Hose
For watering the plant before and after the transplanting process.
How Do You Remove Osage Orange from the Soil?
From Ground: Firstly, ensure to water the osage orange plant to moisten the soil which makes it easier to uproot. Use a shovel or spade to carefully dig a broad circle around the plant, taking care not to damage the roots. Once dug, gently work your way under the root ball and cautiously lift the plant out of the ground.
From Pot: Start by watering the pot until the soil is decidedly damp but not soaking wet. Tilt the pot sideways and while supporting the base of the plant, gently pull it out. Be mindful if it does not come out easily, you might want to tap the sides and bottom of the pot to loosen the roots and avoid any damage.
From Seedling Tray: Water the seedlings till the soil is moist. Using a spoon or a small gardening tool, carefully lift each seedling out of its compartment. Be gentle and avoid pulling or struggling as this can hurt the young roots.
Step-by-Step Guide for Transplanting Osage Orange
Step1 Transplant Timing
The best moment for transplanting osage orange is in the late winter or early spring while the plant is still dormant.
Step2 Digging
Dig a hole in the new location about twice as wide and just as deep as the root ball. The wider hole will provide loose soil around the osage orange plant to allow roots to easily spread.
Step3 Placement
Place the osage orange plant in the hole. The top of the root ball should be level with the ground surface. Carefully backfill the hole, press the soil firmly but gently around the plant.
Step4 Staking
Stake the newly transplanted osage orange tree, if required, to provide support and prevent damage by winds. Remember to remove these after the first year.
Step5 Watering
Water the osage orange plant thoroughly right after transplanting to settle the soil.
How Do You Care For Osage Orange After Transplanting?
Stress Monitoring
Monitor your osage orange plant closely for a few weeks. If the plant shows signs of stress, such as yellowing leaves or wilting, increase watering frequency.
Watering
The osage orange plant needs ample water until it establishes itself in the new location. Consistently moist soil is ideal, but avoid overwatering to prevent root rot.
Pruning
Resist the urge to heavily prune the osage orange plant during the first year after transplanting. Pruning can further stress the plant that needs as many leaves as possible to produce the energy required for root growth and establishment.
Mulching
Mulch the base of the osage orange plant as it helps maintain soil moisture and control weeds.
Troubleshooting Common Issues with Osage Orange Transplantation.
What is the right time of the year to transplant osage orange?
The best period to shift osage orange is during 'S1-S2', which provides optimal conditions for growth and transplantation success.
What's the perfect distance for planting osage orange seeds?
Ideally, osage orange seeds should be planted at intervals of 20-30 feet (approx 6-9 meters). This ensures proper growth and spread.
How much water does osage orange need after transplantation?
Osage orange is a sturdy plant that thrives in various conditions, but after transplanting, daily watering for a few weeks can help it settle.
Why is my transplanted osage orange showing signs of withering?
Osage orange may wither due to insufficient water, overdue transplantation or harsh weather conditions. Monitor these factors to ensure its survival.
Do I need to prune osage orange after transplanting?
Yes, after transplanting osage orange, pruning is recommended to encourage new growth and maintain the plant's aesthetic structure.
What type of soil is suitable for osage orange?
Osage orange prefers well-drained soils. It can tolerate a wide pH range, but slightly alkaline conditions are generally best for growth.
How do I ensure successful establishment of osage orange post-transplant?
Ensure osage orange get enough sun, water and nutrients, keep weeds away, and avoid transplant shock by shifting in 'S1-S2'.
How deep should I plant osage orange saplings?
For osage orange, dig a hole that is 2 times wider and as deep as the root ball (about 10-12 inches or 25-30 cm).
Do I need to fertilize osage orange after transplanting?
Fertilizing is not needed immediately after transplantation. Wait till the next growing season to promote root growth and overall health.
How long will it take for my transplanted osage orange to settle?
Osage orange generally takes a couple of weeks to establish after transplanting. Regularly monitor and care for it during this period.
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