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Maize
Maize
Maize
Maize
Maize
Maize
Maize
Zea mays
Also known as : Indian corn, Flint corn
Maize (Zea mays) is a well known domesticated cereal grain first domesticated in Mexico. In much of the world it is also called corn. Worldwide cultivation of maize surpasses other prominent grains like wheat and rice. Maize must be planted in the spring due to its intolerance for cold weather.
Water
Water
Twice per week
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Sunlight
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care guide

Care Guide for Maize

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Watering Care
Watering Care
A great way to keep the soil around maize moist is to apply a layer of mulch just after planting, then water the plants regularly using a drip method at the base of the plant to get to the roots. Around 2.5 cm or 4 cm of water per week is a good benchmark, but the best system is to water the plant as soon as the top layer of soil dries out.
Details on Watering Care Watering Care
Fertilizing Care
Fertilizing Care
Maize likes slightly acidic soil, so it is a good idea to test your soil pH to establish what chemicals to apply to achieve the correct balance. After this, all that is needed is to add a balanced slow-release N-P-K fertilizer (a ratio of 10-10-10 is ideal) before seeding. Fertilize again when the plant is 30 cm tall, but make sure the fertilizer doesn't touch the plant.
Details on Fertilizing Care Fertilizing Care
Soil Care
Soil Care
Loam, Clay, Sand, Sandy loam, Acidic, Neutral, Slightly alkaline, Moderately alkaline
Details on Soil Care Soil Care
Ideal Lighting
Ideal Lighting
Full sun, Partial sun
Details on Sunlight Requirements Ideal Lighting
Ideal Temperature
Ideal Temperature
2 to 11
Details on Temperature Ideal Temperature
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Maize
Water
Water
Twice per week
Sunlight
Sunlight
Full sun
Hardiness Zones
Hardiness Zones
2 to 11
Planting Time
Planting Time
Spring
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Questions About Maize

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Watering Watering Watering
Sunlight Sunlight Sunlight
Temperature Temperature Temperature
Fertilizing Fertilizing Fertilizing
What should I do if I water my Maize too much or too little?
Without proper watering, this beautiful ornamental grass will underperform. In the ground, watering issues can be solved, but In a container, too much or too little water will kill Maize in short order. When Maize isn't receiving the right amount of water, it may stop growing. In the case of overwatering, it will begin to display yellow leaves with brown tips. Underwatering can produce drooping leaves, weak seed head production, and browned leaves. If you suspect your Maize has been improperly watered, the first thing to do is figure out if the problem is too much or too little. If your Maize is getting too much water, stop watering it immediately. Sometimes it can take weeks for heavy soils to dry out, so be patient. At the first sign of new growth, test the soil for moisture and decide whether it needs more water or not. The solution for Maize receiving too little water is even simpler: give the grasses a nice, deep drink and see if it perks up.
Bearing all of this in mind, remember that a long, deep watering is always better than a lot of shallow, frequent waterings. The reason for this is that deep watering encourages grasses to grow deep roots, which makes them more drought resistant and less prone to problems from watering.
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How often should I water my Maize?
The watering needs of Maize will vary depending on where it is planted. Generally, you should water this grass every week. In hot climates, once or twice a week watering in the summer may be necessary. In moderate climates, watering once every seven days or more may be enough. Grass in containers almost always need more frequent watering than grasses in the ground. But with a species such as this that can thrive in full sun or part shade, the location also matters. Shaded grasses need to be watered less frequently than in-ground grasses.
Maize should only be watered when the soil is dry. If you’re unsure when to water, there are a few key signs you can use as your cue. Pressing your finger a couple of inches into the soil will tell you if the soil is dry. For a potted grass, you can weigh the grass with a portable scale to see how light it is, but you can also quickly feel when the pot is light from lack of water. Like many types of grass, the blades may appear folded along their centers and thinner than usual when the roots lack sufficient water. Despite its drought tolerance, regular, deep waterings will reward you with a beautiful color.
In the wild, Maize grows in open scrubland, where it would be subject to extreme heat, loads of bright sun, and intermittent rain. Because this grass is drought resistant, you might expect never to need to water it. But don’t let its hardiness fool you, Maize still needs care and attention. Even though this hardy grass can handle harsh, dry conditions, gardeners agree that it thrives best with consistent water.
When first planted, Maize will need more frequent water until it has established deep roots. For Maize in pots, the soil will dry out quickly, especially if the pot is in hot, direct sun for a large part of the day. Test the soil every 3 to 4 days and water only when it feels dry. Maizeed in the ground generally needs less watering, but that depends on the soil it is grown in. Heavy clay soil holds water for a long time and may feel dry at the surface while still retaining plenty of moisture below the ground. Sandy soils that drain quickly will need to be watered more often.
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What should I be careful with when I water my Maize in different seasons, climates, or during different growing?
You can often tell if you are watering enough by the rate of growth of your grasses. Maize during the hottest months of the year and has been known to double in size in a year’s time. If the weather is hot and the grass is not growing vigorously, you may need to adjust your watering schedule. In winter, you might be able to get away with watering only once a month, but you will still want to touch the soil to test for moisture.
During a growth cycle (in the warmest months), the grass will need more water than usual. But during winter and cooler months, the need for water will be dramatically reduced. The most important thing to remember about Maize is that the soil it is planted in should always be allowed to dry out completely before adding water.
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Key Facts About Maize

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Attributes of Maize

Lifespan
Annual, Biennial
Plant Type
Grass
Planting Time
Spring
Bloom Time
Summer, Fall
Harvest Time
Late summer, Early fall, Mid fall
Plant Height
1 m to 4 m
Spread
30 cm to 60 cm
Leaf Color
Green
Variegated
Flower Size
10 cm to 25 cm
Flower Color
Yellow
Gold
Fruit Color
Yellow
Gold
Stem Color
Green
Dormancy
Winter dormancy
Leaf type
Deciduous
Ideal Temperature
20 - 38 ℃
Growth Season
Summer
Pollinators
Wind
Growth Rate
Rapid

Name story

Maize
The word maize is derived from the Spanish form of the indigenous Taíno word for the plant, mahiz. However, it is known by different names based on different parts of the world.
Corn||Flint corn||Indian corn
In the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, corn primarily means maize. The usage of corn started as a shortening of "Indian corn". "Indian corn" primarily means maize which is referring to the staple grain of indigenous Americans but can refer more specifically to multicolored "flint corn" mainly for decoration.

Symbolism

Protection, Luck, Divination.

Usages

Garden Use
While maize is used almost exclusively as an agricultural food crop, some colorful varieties can be grown in a domestic garden. Gardeners who cultivate these are primarily keeping them for their attractive colors and shapes. Companion plants are often other food crops, like Pumpkin, Basil, or Dill; these can be grown among corn to repel pests and fill in spaces in the garden.

Scientific Classification of Maize

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pests

Common Pests & Diseases About Maize

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Common issues for Maize based on 10 million real cases
Brown blotch
Brown blotch Brown blotch
Brown blotch
Brown spot is a fungal disease affecting Maize, leading to yield reduction and quality loss. Its primary cause is the pathogen Bipolaris maydis, and it is most active in warm, damp conditions. Though moderately infectious, it's lethal on a smaller scale.
Leaf rot
Leaf rot Leaf rot
Leaf rot
Leaf rot is a detrimental disease affecting Maize, causing serious damage to its leaves. The disease, usually perpetrated by various fungi, interferes with photosynthesis, stunting growth, and decreasing yields.
Caterpillars
Caterpillars Caterpillars
Caterpillars
Caterpillars significantly affect Maize, causing damage leading to reduced output and hampered growth. They consume the foliage, bore into the cobs, and disrupt the plant's photosynthesis process. These insect larvae can greatly impact yield quality if left unchecked.
Brown spot
Brown spot Brown spot
Brown spot
This infection can cause brown spots or patches to appear on the plant.
Solutions: In minor cases of brown spot, there isn’t any need to treat the disease. However, if much of the foliage is affected and defoliation occurs, the plant will benefit from getting rid of the infection. It is recommended to start by applying organic treatment options, working up to the more potent synthetic, chemical fungicides if necessary. Organic options won’t kill the fungus, but will prevent it from spreading. Dissolve ½ teaspoon of baking soda and one teaspoon of liquid soap in a gallon of water. Using a spray bottle, spray on tops and bottoms of leaves until the mixture drips off. Repeat every two weeks until existing spots stop enlarging and new spots no longer appear. Spray a copper-based fungicidal soap on the leaves, coating the top and bottom leaf surfaces. Reapply as directed on the product label. Copper penetrates the leaf surface and prevents germination of spores so the fungus cannot spread. Apply an all-purpose fungicide to the entire plant, following the label instructions carefully.
Fire ants
Fire ants Fire ants
Fire ants
Fire ants gnaw on the roots of plants and are aggressive toward people.
Solutions: Caution: fire ants are venomous and cause painful bites which can be fatal in the case of a rare but significant allergy. Fire ants can be a painful pest to have around for you and your plants. Keeping them under control will ensure comfortable gardening for all. For less severe cases: Physically remove mounds. Dig out and remove entire mounds (remember, they go deeper than they seem). Use citrus oil. Pour citrus oil, which is toxic to fire ants, down their holes. For severe cases: Use ant bait. For a chemical solution, broadcast insecticide bait formulated for fire ants in the area around a mound. Apply the bait during a dry evening so the ants can forage for it at night. Look for products that contain Indoxacarb. Release phorid flies. Introduce or promote beneficial phorid flies to gardens. These parasitic flies attack invasive fire ants. Hire a professional. Some ant baits are only available to professional exterminators. For serious cases of fire ants, consider hiring a professional.
Fruit mold
Fruit mold Fruit mold
Fruit mold
Fungal infections can cause mold to grow on the surface of the fruit and may also cause decay.
Solutions: There are some relatively easy steps to stop the spread of fruit mold, but swift action must be taken. Prune away infected fruits or flowers. As soon as lesions or fuzz are seen, cut away the infected parts and dispose of them. Do not compost. Apply fungicide to plants with mild infections (those with severe infections may need to be destroyed). Increase airflow. Since spores are mainly wind born, increasing the airflow around your plants will make them less susceptible to infection. Maintain maximum space between plants and open branch structures during the pruning season.
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Brown blotch
Overview
Symptom
Causes
Treatment
Prevention
Active Period
What is Brown blotch Disease on Maize?
What is Brown blotch Disease on Maize?
Brown spot is a fungal disease affecting Maize, leading to yield reduction and quality loss. Its primary cause is the pathogen Bipolaris maydis, and it is most active in warm, damp conditions. Though moderately infectious, it's lethal on a smaller scale.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Initial symptoms include small yellowish spots on the leaves. As the disease progresses, the spots turn brown with a gray center and yellow halo. The corn's ear and stalk may also display lesions.
What Causes Brown blotch Disease on Maize?
What Causes Brown blotch Disease on Maize?
1
Pathogen
The disease is primarily caused by the fungus Bipolaris maydis (Nisikado) Shoemaker, formerly known as Cochliobolus heterostrophus (Drechsler).
2
Environmental conditions
Warm, damp conditions, especially post heavy rains or irrigation, promote fungal spores' growth and spread.
How to Treat Brown blotch Disease on Maize?
How to Treat Brown blotch Disease on Maize?
1
Non pesticide
Crop rotation: Cyclically growing different types of crops in an area helps break the lifecycle of the disease.

Sanitation: Regular removal and destruction of infected plant debris prevents disease spread.
2
Pesticide
Fungicides: Applying fungicides that contain strobilurin or triazole helps control the disease.
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Leaf rot
Overview
Symptom
Causes
Treatment
Prevention
Active Period
What is Leaf rot Disease on Maize?
What is Leaf rot Disease on Maize?
Leaf rot is a detrimental disease affecting Maize, causing serious damage to its leaves. The disease, usually perpetrated by various fungi, interferes with photosynthesis, stunting growth, and decreasing yields.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Symptoms in Maize start with yellowing of leaves, followed by browning and wilting. Infected plants exhibit stunted growth, poor root development, and crop yields markedly decrease.
What Causes Leaf rot Disease on Maize?
What Causes Leaf rot Disease on Maize?
1
Fungi
The disease is caused mainly by pathogens Ballia spp. and other similar species of fungi, thriving in both the soil and diseased plant debris.
2
Unsuitable Conditions
Damp, poorly aerated, and compacted soil increases the risk of infection.
How to Treat Leaf rot Disease on Maize?
How to Treat Leaf rot Disease on Maize?
1
Non pesticide
Rotation: Crop rotation with non-host plants can reduce the disease's prevalence.

Sanitation: Regular removal of infected plant debris, as it harbors the pathogen.
2
Pesticide
Fungicides: The application of appropriate fungicides manages the disease. Some recommended ones include Mancozeb and Ziram.
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Caterpillars
Overview
Symptom
Causes
Treatment
Prevention
Active Period
What is Caterpillars Disease on Maize?
What is Caterpillars Disease on Maize?
Caterpillars significantly affect Maize, causing damage leading to reduced output and hampered growth. They consume the foliage, bore into the cobs, and disrupt the plant's photosynthesis process. These insect larvae can greatly impact yield quality if left unchecked.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
The main symptoms include visible leaf damage with holes, observed leaf discoloration due to caterpillar feeding, and traces of frass. Stunting of Maize, loss of vigor, and death or aborted cobs due to extensive damage can also occur.
What Causes Caterpillars Disease on Maize?
What Causes Caterpillars Disease on Maize?
1
Insect Infestation
Caterpillars are not a disease; they're insect larvae species. Different types can infest Maize, including the European corn borer, corn earworm, armyworm, and fall armyworm.
2
Environmental Conditions
Damp and humid conditions attract moth species, who lay eggs that hatch into caterpillars. These conditions facilitate faster reproduction and caterpillar growth.
How to Treat Caterpillars Disease on Maize?
How to Treat Caterpillars Disease on Maize?
1
Non pesticide
Biological Control: Use natural predators like birds, beetles, or parasitic wasps to feed on caterpillars, disrupting their life cycle.

Physical Removal: Regularly inspect Maize and manually remove visible caterpillars. Make sure to destroy them to prevent further infestation.
2
Pesticide
Insecticides Use: Apply chemical insecticides specifically targeting caterpillars. Use these products according to the label instructions for effective control.

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt): Spray Bt, a naturally occurring bacteria that acts as a biological insecticide, to infect and kill caterpillars.
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Brown spot
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Brown spot
This infection can cause brown spots or patches to appear on the plant.
Overview
Overview
Discolored spots on the foliage of plants are one of the most common disease problems people observe. These spots are caused by fungal and bacterial diseases, with most infections related to a fungal pathogen.
Brown spot can occurs on all houseplants, flowering ornamentals, vegetable plants, and leaves of trees, bushes, and shrubs. No plants are resistant to it, and the problem is worse in warm, wet environments. It can occur at any point in the life stage as long as leaves are present.
Small brownish spots appear on the foliage and enlarge as the disease progresses. In severe cases, the plant or tree is weakened when the lesions interrupt photosynthesis or cause defoliation.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
In most cases, brown spot only affects a small percentage of the whole plant, appearing on a small amount of the leaves. A small infection only puts minor stress on the plant. However, if left untreated and the disease progresses over numerous seasons, it will severely impact the health and productivity of the infected specimen.
  • Sporulation begins (reproduction of the fungal spores), and tiny spots appear on leaves.
  • Placement is often random and scattered as diseases are spread through raindrops.
  • May appear on lower leaves and the interior of the plant where humidity is higher.
  • Brown spots enlarge and grow large enough to touch neighboring spots to form a more prominent blotch.
  • Leaf margins may turn yellow.
  • Tiny black dots (fruiting bodies of the fungi) appear in the dead spots.
  • Blotches grow in size until the entire leaf is brown.
  • The leaf falls off the plant.
Severe Symptoms
  • Partial or complete premature defoliation
  • Reduced growth
  • Increased susceptibility to pests and other diseases
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
Brown spot, or leaf spot, is a common descriptive term given to several diseases affecting the leaves of plants and trees. Around 85% of diseases exhibiting leaf spots are due to fungus or fungus-like organisms. Sometimes brown spot is caused by a bacterial infection, or insect activity with similar symptoms.
When conditions are warm and the leaf surfaces are wet, fungal spores being transported by wind or rain land on the surface and cling to it. They do not rupture the cell walls but grow in the space between the plant plasma membrane and the plant cell wall. As the spores reproduce, they release toxins and enzymes that cause necrotic spots (i.e., dead tissue) on the leaves, allowing the fungi to consume the products released when the cells degrade.
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Fire ants
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Fire ants
Fire ants gnaw on the roots of plants and are aggressive toward people.
Overview
Overview
Fire ants are a group of ants that are known for their aggressive behavior and painful stings. Some fire ants are native and others are invasive from other countries. Once they reach plants, they climb them and chew away at leaves and flower buds.
Fire ants also kill and eat beneficial insects such as caterpillars, ladybugs, mantis, and native ants. They can be a problem any time temperatures are above freezing, but new infestations are most likely to appear when brought in via contaminated material such as potting soil or mulch, or when insecticides have harmed populations of beneficial insects that would otherwise control populations of fire ants.
They can be difficult to control, especially once populations become large. Plant damage is typically minor, but fire ants can destroy seedlings.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
The number one symptom of fire ants is seeing the ants themselves which are red or black in color. Ant mounds in the ground are also signs. Fire ant mounds rarely exceed 46 cm in diameter. If a fire ant mound is disturbed, many fast-moving, aggressive ants will emerge. These ants will bite and then painfully sting.
Even if no ants are visible, their damage might be apparent. Chewed leaf and flower edges might indicate fire ants. Fully eaten seedlings are another sign.
Solutions
Solutions
Caution: fire ants are venomous and cause painful bites which can be fatal in the case of a rare but significant allergy.
Fire ants can be a painful pest to have around for you and your plants. Keeping them under control will ensure comfortable gardening for all.
For less severe cases:
  • Physically remove mounds. Dig out and remove entire mounds (remember, they go deeper than they seem).
  • Use citrus oil. Pour citrus oil, which is toxic to fire ants, down their holes.
For severe cases:
  • Use ant bait. For a chemical solution, broadcast insecticide bait formulated for fire ants in the area around a mound. Apply the bait during a dry evening so the ants can forage for it at night. Look for products that contain Indoxacarb.
  • Release phorid flies. Introduce or promote beneficial phorid flies to gardens. These parasitic flies attack invasive fire ants.
  • Hire a professional. Some ant baits are only available to professional exterminators. For serious cases of fire ants, consider hiring a professional.
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Fruit mold
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Fruit mold
Fungal infections can cause mold to grow on the surface of the fruit and may also cause decay.
Overview
Overview
Fruit mold is the result of fungal infection by one or more of a wide variety of fungal species. Favoring damp and cool conditions, this problem can have a devastating effect on most fruit crops as it tends to occur just when fruit are reaching maturity. Once mold establishes itself, the fruit quickly decays and becomes inedible. The fungus is capable of spreading quickly to other fruit, either or the same plant or on neighboring plants.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Symptoms tend to be obvious but are quick to develop.
  1. Brown lesions form on the fruit and occasionally the blossoms. These lesions become soft, mushy, and develop a fuzzy gray or brown coating.
  2. The infection will very quickly spread to any fruit in contact with those that are infected.
  3. Fruit may drop or remain on the plant and mummify over time.
  4. Infection may spread to leaves and new branches, eventually leading to demise of the entire plant .
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
This condition is caused by one of a number of fungal species which all follow a similar cycle. Spores remain dormant on dead plant material over the winter months and then emerge during the spring when they are carried by the wind or insect vectors to the host plant. Once they land on a plant, often facilitated by damp conditions, the spores will gain entry and breed (sporulate) rapidly. Entry to the plant is often through damage caused by sap-sucking insects.
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distribution

Distribution of Maize

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Habitat of Maize

Cultivated Beds
Northern Hemisphere
South Hemisphere

Distribution Map of Maize

Maize (Zea mays) is native to most well-drained meadows in Mexico and Guatemala, but this vital food crop has been introduced to most countries on Earth.
distribution map
Native
Cultivated
Invasive
Potentially invasive
Exotic
No species reported
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More Info on Maize Growth and Care

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Basic Care Guide
Common Pests & Diseases
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Water
Twice per week
Maize hails from Central America and is widely cultivated in many parts of the world. It is adapted to a warm and humid climate, thriving in tropical and subtropical regions. As maize is a crop plant, it requires regular watering to support optimal growth and development. In its native environment, maize benefits from consistent rainfall and high humidity levels. Mimicking these conditions by providing regular watering, especially during dry spells, is crucial to ensure healthy and productive maize plants.
Watering Techniques
Lighting
Full sun
Maize thrives on considerable amounts of sunlight. During the growth stages, this plant enjoys an abundant exposure to the sun. Originating in environments known for plentiful sunlight, it can endure limited sun exposure but may show signs of slowed growth. Excessive lack or overexposure might result in stunted or abnormal development.
Best Sunlight Practices
Temperature
0 - 43 ℃
Maize is originally accustomed to conditions where the temperature ranges from 68 to 100 °F (20 to 38 ℃). It thrives ideally in these temperatures and may require adjusting temperature according to seasonal changes for optimal growth.
Temp for Healthy Growth
Transplant
8-12 inches
Transplanting maize is best done in the early summer months when the soil temperature has warmed up. Choose a sunny location with well-draining soil to ensure success. If needed, amend the soil before transplanting for optimal results. Happy gardening!
Transplant Techniques
Pollination
Normal
Maize is a fascinating plant that relies primarily on wind for pollination, dubbed as anemophily. The plant bears both male and female flowers that are strategically arranged to take advantage of the wind's power, enhancing reproduction. It releases a bounty of pollen to increase the chances of contact. Timed to perfection, it uniquely times its flowering to coincide with midsummer breezes.
Pollination Techniques
Propagation
Spring
Maize is best propagated through sowing seeds directly in the soil during Spring. Moderate in difficulty, success is marked by germinated seeds and emerging seedlings. Ensure good seed-to-soil contact and keep the soil consistently moist during germination.
Propagation Techniques
Brown blotch
Brown spot is a fungal disease affecting Maize, leading to yield reduction and quality loss. Its primary cause is the pathogen Bipolaris maydis, and it is most active in warm, damp conditions. Though moderately infectious, it's lethal on a smaller scale.
Learn More About the Disease
Leaf rot
Leaf rot is a detrimental disease affecting Maize, causing serious damage to its leaves. The disease, usually perpetrated by various fungi, interferes with photosynthesis, stunting growth, and decreasing yields.
Learn More About the Disease
Caterpillars
Caterpillars significantly affect Maize, causing damage leading to reduced output and hampered growth. They consume the foliage, bore into the cobs, and disrupt the plant's photosynthesis process. These insect larvae can greatly impact yield quality if left unchecked.
Learn More About the Disease
Feng shui direction
Southwest
Maize is generally considered harmonious in a Southwest-facing space. Its vibrant color and tall stems are thought to enliven the area, promoting wealth and prosperity. However, individual interpretations of Feng Shui may vary, making it essential to trust your intuition when decorating your environment.
Fengshui Details
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Bleeding-heart vine
Bleeding-heart vine
Bleeding-heart vine (Clerodendrum thomsoniae) is a bushy, evergreen vine with shiny green leaves and tropical-looking flowers. It grows well on a trellis and can grow to 4.5 m long. Clusters of rich red and white blossoms bloom year-round but most prominently in summer. It prefers full sun but can tolerate partial shade.
Corn plant
Corn plant
Corn plant (Dracaena fragrans) is an evergreen, slow-growing perennial shrub native to tropical Africa. Also, it is a classic houseplant, grown in Europe since the 1800s. Its glossy green foliage that resembles corn leaves grow on top of a thick cane, which is why the plant is sometimes called “false palm tree.”
Spanish shawl
Spanish shawl
Spanish shawl is a popular ornamental plant native to Mexico and Central America. It's a shade-loving plant, beloved among gardeners because of its bright pink flowers that bloom all summer long. Spanish shawl can make a good ground cover.
Moth orchid
Moth orchid
Moth orchid (Phalaenopsis amabilis) is an orchid species that is considered aesthetically pleasing and easy to grow. Moth orchid's blossoms bloom for several months and bloom multiple times if cared for properly. When kept as a houseplant, moth orchid should be watered regularly and the roots should not be allowed to dry out. This species grows well in bright, indirect sunlight.
Kapok tree
Kapok tree
Kapok tree (Ceiba pentandra) is a rain forest plant that can shoot up to as much as 61 m. It towers over every other plant in its native habitat. The trunk can get as wide as 3 m in diameter. Its nooks and crannies are hosts to a staggering array of both plant and animal species, including birds and frogs.
Tea tree
Tea tree
Tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) is a native tree of Australia and will grow to 6 m tall. Commonly found growing along streams and waterways, it has a bushy crown and thin-white paper-like bark. Oil from the leaves of this tree is commonly known as tea tree oil. Blooms from spring to summer with fluffy white flowers. Thrives in full sun and prefers moist, well-drained soil.
Cape jasmine
Cape jasmine
Gardenia jasminoides is an evergreen shrub with unique, glossy evergreen leaves and stunning flowers. The sophisticated, matte white flowers are often used in bouquets. The exceptional beauty of this ornamental plant has made it a popular and highly appreciated plant amongst gardeners and horticulturalists.
Golden pothos
Golden pothos
The golden pothos (Epipremnum aureum) is a popular houseplant that is commonly seen in Australia, Asia, and the West Indies. It goes by many nicknames, including "devil's ivy", because it is so hard to kill and can even grow in low light conditions. Golden pothos has poisonous sap, so it should be kept away from pets and children.
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Maize
Maize
Maize
Maize
Maize
Maize
Maize
Zea mays
Also known as: Indian corn, Flint corn
Maize (Zea mays) is a well known domesticated cereal grain first domesticated in Mexico. In much of the world it is also called corn. Worldwide cultivation of maize surpasses other prominent grains like wheat and rice. Maize must be planted in the spring due to its intolerance for cold weather.
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Twice per week
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Sunlight
Sunlight
Full sun
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Questions About Maize

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Watering Watering Watering
Sunlight Sunlight Sunlight
Temperature Temperature Temperature
Fertilizing Fertilizing Fertilizing
What should I do if I water my Maize too much or too little?
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How often should I water my Maize?
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What should I be careful with when I water my Maize in different seasons, climates, or during different growing?
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Key Facts About Maize

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Attributes of Maize

Lifespan
Annual, Biennial
Plant Type
Grass
Planting Time
Spring
Bloom Time
Summer, Fall
Harvest Time
Late summer, Early fall, Mid fall
Plant Height
1 m to 4 m
Spread
30 cm to 60 cm
Leaf Color
Green
Variegated
Flower Size
10 cm to 25 cm
Flower Color
Yellow
Gold
Fruit Color
Yellow
Gold
Stem Color
Green
Dormancy
Winter dormancy
Leaf type
Deciduous
Ideal Temperature
20 - 38 ℃
Growth Season
Summer
Pollinators
Wind
Growth Rate
Rapid
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Name story

Maize
The word maize is derived from the Spanish form of the indigenous Taíno word for the plant, mahiz. However, it is known by different names based on different parts of the world.
Corn||Flint corn||Indian corn
In the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, corn primarily means maize. The usage of corn started as a shortening of "Indian corn". "Indian corn" primarily means maize which is referring to the staple grain of indigenous Americans but can refer more specifically to multicolored "flint corn" mainly for decoration.

Symbolism

Protection, Luck, Divination.

Usages

Garden Use
While maize is used almost exclusively as an agricultural food crop, some colorful varieties can be grown in a domestic garden. Gardeners who cultivate these are primarily keeping them for their attractive colors and shapes. Companion plants are often other food crops, like Pumpkin, Basil, or Dill; these can be grown among corn to repel pests and fill in spaces in the garden.

Scientific Classification of Maize

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pests

Common Pests & Diseases About Maize

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Common issues for Maize based on 10 million real cases
Brown blotch
Brown blotch Brown blotch Brown blotch
Brown spot is a fungal disease affecting Maize, leading to yield reduction and quality loss. Its primary cause is the pathogen Bipolaris maydis, and it is most active in warm, damp conditions. Though moderately infectious, it's lethal on a smaller scale.
Learn More About the Brown blotch more
Leaf rot
Leaf rot Leaf rot Leaf rot
Leaf rot is a detrimental disease affecting Maize, causing serious damage to its leaves. The disease, usually perpetrated by various fungi, interferes with photosynthesis, stunting growth, and decreasing yields.
Learn More About the Leaf rot more
Caterpillars
Caterpillars Caterpillars Caterpillars
Caterpillars significantly affect Maize, causing damage leading to reduced output and hampered growth. They consume the foliage, bore into the cobs, and disrupt the plant's photosynthesis process. These insect larvae can greatly impact yield quality if left unchecked.
Learn More About the Caterpillars more
Brown spot
Brown spot Brown spot Brown spot
This infection can cause brown spots or patches to appear on the plant.
Solutions: In minor cases of brown spot, there isn’t any need to treat the disease. However, if much of the foliage is affected and defoliation occurs, the plant will benefit from getting rid of the infection. It is recommended to start by applying organic treatment options, working up to the more potent synthetic, chemical fungicides if necessary. Organic options won’t kill the fungus, but will prevent it from spreading. Dissolve ½ teaspoon of baking soda and one teaspoon of liquid soap in a gallon of water. Using a spray bottle, spray on tops and bottoms of leaves until the mixture drips off. Repeat every two weeks until existing spots stop enlarging and new spots no longer appear. Spray a copper-based fungicidal soap on the leaves, coating the top and bottom leaf surfaces. Reapply as directed on the product label. Copper penetrates the leaf surface and prevents germination of spores so the fungus cannot spread. Apply an all-purpose fungicide to the entire plant, following the label instructions carefully.
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Fire ants
Fire ants Fire ants Fire ants
Fire ants gnaw on the roots of plants and are aggressive toward people.
Solutions: Caution: fire ants are venomous and cause painful bites which can be fatal in the case of a rare but significant allergy. Fire ants can be a painful pest to have around for you and your plants. Keeping them under control will ensure comfortable gardening for all. For less severe cases: Physically remove mounds. Dig out and remove entire mounds (remember, they go deeper than they seem). Use citrus oil. Pour citrus oil, which is toxic to fire ants, down their holes. For severe cases: Use ant bait. For a chemical solution, broadcast insecticide bait formulated for fire ants in the area around a mound. Apply the bait during a dry evening so the ants can forage for it at night. Look for products that contain Indoxacarb. Release phorid flies. Introduce or promote beneficial phorid flies to gardens. These parasitic flies attack invasive fire ants. Hire a professional. Some ant baits are only available to professional exterminators. For serious cases of fire ants, consider hiring a professional.
Learn More About the Fire ants more
Fruit mold
Fruit mold Fruit mold Fruit mold
Fungal infections can cause mold to grow on the surface of the fruit and may also cause decay.
Solutions: There are some relatively easy steps to stop the spread of fruit mold, but swift action must be taken. Prune away infected fruits or flowers. As soon as lesions or fuzz are seen, cut away the infected parts and dispose of them. Do not compost. Apply fungicide to plants with mild infections (those with severe infections may need to be destroyed). Increase airflow. Since spores are mainly wind born, increasing the airflow around your plants will make them less susceptible to infection. Maintain maximum space between plants and open branch structures during the pruning season.
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Brown blotch
Overview
Symptom
Causes
Treatment
Prevention
Active Period
What is Brown blotch Disease on Maize?
What is Brown blotch Disease on Maize?
Brown spot is a fungal disease affecting Maize, leading to yield reduction and quality loss. Its primary cause is the pathogen Bipolaris maydis, and it is most active in warm, damp conditions. Though moderately infectious, it's lethal on a smaller scale.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Initial symptoms include small yellowish spots on the leaves. As the disease progresses, the spots turn brown with a gray center and yellow halo. The corn's ear and stalk may also display lesions.
What Causes Brown blotch Disease on Maize?
What Causes Brown blotch Disease on Maize?
1
Pathogen
The disease is primarily caused by the fungus Bipolaris maydis (Nisikado) Shoemaker, formerly known as Cochliobolus heterostrophus (Drechsler).
2
Environmental conditions
Warm, damp conditions, especially post heavy rains or irrigation, promote fungal spores' growth and spread.
How to Treat Brown blotch Disease on Maize?
How to Treat Brown blotch Disease on Maize?
1
Non pesticide
Crop rotation: Cyclically growing different types of crops in an area helps break the lifecycle of the disease.

Sanitation: Regular removal and destruction of infected plant debris prevents disease spread.
2
Pesticide
Fungicides: Applying fungicides that contain strobilurin or triazole helps control the disease.
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Leaf rot
Overview
Symptom
Causes
Treatment
Prevention
Active Period
What is Leaf rot Disease on Maize?
What is Leaf rot Disease on Maize?
Leaf rot is a detrimental disease affecting Maize, causing serious damage to its leaves. The disease, usually perpetrated by various fungi, interferes with photosynthesis, stunting growth, and decreasing yields.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Symptoms in Maize start with yellowing of leaves, followed by browning and wilting. Infected plants exhibit stunted growth, poor root development, and crop yields markedly decrease.
What Causes Leaf rot Disease on Maize?
What Causes Leaf rot Disease on Maize?
1
Fungi
The disease is caused mainly by pathogens Ballia spp. and other similar species of fungi, thriving in both the soil and diseased plant debris.
2
Unsuitable Conditions
Damp, poorly aerated, and compacted soil increases the risk of infection.
How to Treat Leaf rot Disease on Maize?
How to Treat Leaf rot Disease on Maize?
1
Non pesticide
Rotation: Crop rotation with non-host plants can reduce the disease's prevalence.

Sanitation: Regular removal of infected plant debris, as it harbors the pathogen.
2
Pesticide
Fungicides: The application of appropriate fungicides manages the disease. Some recommended ones include Mancozeb and Ziram.
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Caterpillars
Overview
Symptom
Causes
Treatment
Prevention
Active Period
What is Caterpillars Disease on Maize?
What is Caterpillars Disease on Maize?
Caterpillars significantly affect Maize, causing damage leading to reduced output and hampered growth. They consume the foliage, bore into the cobs, and disrupt the plant's photosynthesis process. These insect larvae can greatly impact yield quality if left unchecked.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
The main symptoms include visible leaf damage with holes, observed leaf discoloration due to caterpillar feeding, and traces of frass. Stunting of Maize, loss of vigor, and death or aborted cobs due to extensive damage can also occur.
What Causes Caterpillars Disease on Maize?
What Causes Caterpillars Disease on Maize?
1
Insect Infestation
Caterpillars are not a disease; they're insect larvae species. Different types can infest Maize, including the European corn borer, corn earworm, armyworm, and fall armyworm.
2
Environmental Conditions
Damp and humid conditions attract moth species, who lay eggs that hatch into caterpillars. These conditions facilitate faster reproduction and caterpillar growth.
How to Treat Caterpillars Disease on Maize?
How to Treat Caterpillars Disease on Maize?
1
Non pesticide
Biological Control: Use natural predators like birds, beetles, or parasitic wasps to feed on caterpillars, disrupting their life cycle.

Physical Removal: Regularly inspect Maize and manually remove visible caterpillars. Make sure to destroy them to prevent further infestation.
2
Pesticide
Insecticides Use: Apply chemical insecticides specifically targeting caterpillars. Use these products according to the label instructions for effective control.

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt): Spray Bt, a naturally occurring bacteria that acts as a biological insecticide, to infect and kill caterpillars.
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Brown spot
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Brown spot
This infection can cause brown spots or patches to appear on the plant.
Overview
Overview
Discolored spots on the foliage of plants are one of the most common disease problems people observe. These spots are caused by fungal and bacterial diseases, with most infections related to a fungal pathogen.
Brown spot can occurs on all houseplants, flowering ornamentals, vegetable plants, and leaves of trees, bushes, and shrubs. No plants are resistant to it, and the problem is worse in warm, wet environments. It can occur at any point in the life stage as long as leaves are present.
Small brownish spots appear on the foliage and enlarge as the disease progresses. In severe cases, the plant or tree is weakened when the lesions interrupt photosynthesis or cause defoliation.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
In most cases, brown spot only affects a small percentage of the whole plant, appearing on a small amount of the leaves. A small infection only puts minor stress on the plant. However, if left untreated and the disease progresses over numerous seasons, it will severely impact the health and productivity of the infected specimen.
  • Sporulation begins (reproduction of the fungal spores), and tiny spots appear on leaves.
  • Placement is often random and scattered as diseases are spread through raindrops.
  • May appear on lower leaves and the interior of the plant where humidity is higher.
  • Brown spots enlarge and grow large enough to touch neighboring spots to form a more prominent blotch.
  • Leaf margins may turn yellow.
  • Tiny black dots (fruiting bodies of the fungi) appear in the dead spots.
  • Blotches grow in size until the entire leaf is brown.
  • The leaf falls off the plant.
Severe Symptoms
  • Partial or complete premature defoliation
  • Reduced growth
  • Increased susceptibility to pests and other diseases
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
Brown spot, or leaf spot, is a common descriptive term given to several diseases affecting the leaves of plants and trees. Around 85% of diseases exhibiting leaf spots are due to fungus or fungus-like organisms. Sometimes brown spot is caused by a bacterial infection, or insect activity with similar symptoms.
When conditions are warm and the leaf surfaces are wet, fungal spores being transported by wind or rain land on the surface and cling to it. They do not rupture the cell walls but grow in the space between the plant plasma membrane and the plant cell wall. As the spores reproduce, they release toxins and enzymes that cause necrotic spots (i.e., dead tissue) on the leaves, allowing the fungi to consume the products released when the cells degrade.
Solutions
Solutions
In minor cases of brown spot, there isn’t any need to treat the disease. However, if much of the foliage is affected and defoliation occurs, the plant will benefit from getting rid of the infection. It is recommended to start by applying organic treatment options, working up to the more potent synthetic, chemical fungicides if necessary.
Organic options won’t kill the fungus, but will prevent it from spreading.
  1. Dissolve ½ teaspoon of baking soda and one teaspoon of liquid soap in a gallon of water. Using a spray bottle, spray on tops and bottoms of leaves until the mixture drips off. Repeat every two weeks until existing spots stop enlarging and new spots no longer appear.
  2. Spray a copper-based fungicidal soap on the leaves, coating the top and bottom leaf surfaces. Reapply as directed on the product label. Copper penetrates the leaf surface and prevents germination of spores so the fungus cannot spread.
  3. Apply an all-purpose fungicide to the entire plant, following the label instructions carefully.
Prevention
Prevention
Like many other diseases, it is easier to prevent brown spot than cure it, and this is done through cultural practices.
  • Clear fall leaves from the ground before winter to minimize places where fungi and bacteria can overwinter.
  • Maintain good air movement between plants through proper plant spacing.
  • Increase air circulation through the center of plants through pruning.
  • Thoroughly clean all pruning tools after working with diseased plants.
  • Never dispose of disease plant material in a compost pile.
  • Avoid overhead watering to keep moisture off of the foliage.
  • Keep plants healthy by providing adequate sunlight, water, and fertilizer.
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Fire ants
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Fire ants
Fire ants gnaw on the roots of plants and are aggressive toward people.
Overview
Overview
Fire ants are a group of ants that are known for their aggressive behavior and painful stings. Some fire ants are native and others are invasive from other countries. Once they reach plants, they climb them and chew away at leaves and flower buds.
Fire ants also kill and eat beneficial insects such as caterpillars, ladybugs, mantis, and native ants. They can be a problem any time temperatures are above freezing, but new infestations are most likely to appear when brought in via contaminated material such as potting soil or mulch, or when insecticides have harmed populations of beneficial insects that would otherwise control populations of fire ants.
They can be difficult to control, especially once populations become large. Plant damage is typically minor, but fire ants can destroy seedlings.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
The number one symptom of fire ants is seeing the ants themselves which are red or black in color. Ant mounds in the ground are also signs. Fire ant mounds rarely exceed 46 cm in diameter. If a fire ant mound is disturbed, many fast-moving, aggressive ants will emerge. These ants will bite and then painfully sting.
Even if no ants are visible, their damage might be apparent. Chewed leaf and flower edges might indicate fire ants. Fully eaten seedlings are another sign.
Solutions
Solutions
Caution: fire ants are venomous and cause painful bites which can be fatal in the case of a rare but significant allergy.
Fire ants can be a painful pest to have around for you and your plants. Keeping them under control will ensure comfortable gardening for all.
For less severe cases:
  • Physically remove mounds. Dig out and remove entire mounds (remember, they go deeper than they seem).
  • Use citrus oil. Pour citrus oil, which is toxic to fire ants, down their holes.
For severe cases:
  • Use ant bait. For a chemical solution, broadcast insecticide bait formulated for fire ants in the area around a mound. Apply the bait during a dry evening so the ants can forage for it at night. Look for products that contain Indoxacarb.
  • Release phorid flies. Introduce or promote beneficial phorid flies to gardens. These parasitic flies attack invasive fire ants.
  • Hire a professional. Some ant baits are only available to professional exterminators. For serious cases of fire ants, consider hiring a professional.
Prevention
Prevention
Fire ants become more difficult to control as they establish themselves, so try to prevent them or treat them early.
  • Monitor new material. Do not bring in any soil or plants from known infested areas, unless if they are "Quarantine Approved." Make sure to check new material for fire ants.
  • Apply insecticide. Some warm and humid areas have high fire ants populations. In these areas, spread a granular fire ants insecticide such as Varsity in the spring near gardens to prevent these unwelcome visitors.
  • Treat early. Spot treat at the first sight of any fire ants mound, as larger mounds are more difficult to treat.
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Fruit mold
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Fruit mold
Fungal infections can cause mold to grow on the surface of the fruit and may also cause decay.
Overview
Overview
Fruit mold is the result of fungal infection by one or more of a wide variety of fungal species. Favoring damp and cool conditions, this problem can have a devastating effect on most fruit crops as it tends to occur just when fruit are reaching maturity. Once mold establishes itself, the fruit quickly decays and becomes inedible. The fungus is capable of spreading quickly to other fruit, either or the same plant or on neighboring plants.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Symptoms tend to be obvious but are quick to develop.
  1. Brown lesions form on the fruit and occasionally the blossoms. These lesions become soft, mushy, and develop a fuzzy gray or brown coating.
  2. The infection will very quickly spread to any fruit in contact with those that are infected.
  3. Fruit may drop or remain on the plant and mummify over time.
  4. Infection may spread to leaves and new branches, eventually leading to demise of the entire plant .
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
This condition is caused by one of a number of fungal species which all follow a similar cycle. Spores remain dormant on dead plant material over the winter months and then emerge during the spring when they are carried by the wind or insect vectors to the host plant. Once they land on a plant, often facilitated by damp conditions, the spores will gain entry and breed (sporulate) rapidly. Entry to the plant is often through damage caused by sap-sucking insects.
Solutions
Solutions
There are some relatively easy steps to stop the spread of fruit mold, but swift action must be taken.
  1. Prune away infected fruits or flowers. As soon as lesions or fuzz are seen, cut away the infected parts and dispose of them. Do not compost.
  2. Apply fungicide to plants with mild infections (those with severe infections may need to be destroyed).
  3. Increase airflow. Since spores are mainly wind born, increasing the airflow around your plants will make them less susceptible to infection. Maintain maximum space between plants and open branch structures during the pruning season.
Prevention
Prevention
There are easy, preventative steps the gardener can take to stop mold from attacking fruits and fruit-bearing plants:
  1. Rake up rotting debris when the growing season is over. Fungi can overwinter on rotting debris and reinfect plants the following season. Clear the ground beneath fruit trees and remove hanging mummified fruit.
  2. Prune off any infected branches.
  3. Burn all infected debris.
  4. Preemptively apply fungicide to susceptible plants, especially in the spring. This can help prevent infections from progressing to a stage where fruits are affected.
  5. Don't overcrowd when planting. Overcrowding will reduce air circulation, leaving plants wetter for longer and increasing the chance of infection.
  6. Use drip irrigation instead of overhead irrigation. This will help keep plant surfaces free of moisture, while still ensuring roots are getting enough water. Hose-watering should be performed early in the day, with the spray directed at the base of plants.
  7. Don't over-fertilize early in the spring. Added nutrients will increase leaf size. As leaves can hold moisture and provide a surface for spores to adhere to, this can increase the chance that mold grows on the plant. Fertilizing later in the season, when fruits are ripening, means additional nutrients will be directed towards those fruits, rather than leaves.
  8. Insect prevention measures will reduce wounds on plants and decrease access points for fungal spores.
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distribution

Distribution of Maize

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Habitat of Maize

Cultivated Beds
Northern Hemisphere
South Hemisphere

Distribution Map of Maize

Maize (Zea mays) is native to most well-drained meadows in Mexico and Guatemala, but this vital food crop has been introduced to most countries on Earth.
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Native
Cultivated
Invasive
Potentially invasive
Exotic
No species reported
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Maize Watering Instructions
Maize hails from Central America and is widely cultivated in many parts of the world. It is adapted to a warm and humid climate, thriving in tropical and subtropical regions. As maize is a crop plant, it requires regular watering to support optimal growth and development. In its native environment, maize benefits from consistent rainfall and high humidity levels. Mimicking these conditions by providing regular watering, especially during dry spells, is crucial to ensure healthy and productive maize plants.
When Should I Water My Maize?
Introduction
Proper and timely watering plays a crucial role in maintaining the overall health and development of the maize. It contributes to its optimal growth, vibrant flower production, and resistance against diseases. Therefore, understanding the appropriate signals indicating when the plant should be watered is essential.
Soil Moisture: Dryness
A clear sign of when maize needs water is the dryness of the soil. This can be checked by touching the soil around the plant base. If the top 1 to 2 inches of soil is dry to the touch, this means the plant most likely requires watering.
Leaf Condition: Wilting or Yellowing
The condition of the leaves of maize can also be a reliable indicator for watering necessities. If the leaves appear wilted, lackluster, or begin to lose their vibrant color tending to fade or yellow, these are indicative of the plant being under-watered.
Pre-Flowering Stage
Maize particularly requires watering during its pre-flowering or bud formation stage. A lack of water during this critical period may result in bud drop, preventing the plant from flowering fully.
Temperature And Sunlight Exposure
Maize has a high water requirement during warm temperatures and high sunlight exposure periods. Therefore, one must ensure to observe proper watering if these conditions are persistent.
Early Watering Risks
Watering maize too early, when the soil is still moist, could risk root rot, fungus infestation, and other root diseases due to over-watering.
Late Watering Risks
Watering maize too late, when it has been excessively dry for an extended period, could risk temporary wilting and might stunt the plant's growth. In extreme conditions, it can lead to plant death due to dehydration.
Conclusion
Understanding these signs is critical to effectively manage the watering schedule for the maize. Proper water management not only encourages its growth and flowering but also prolongs its lifespan and maintains plant health.
How Should I Water My Maize?
Watering Requirements
Maize, has specific watering needs and sensitivities that should be considered for optimal hydration.
Watering Technique
To water maize, it is best to use the bottom-watering method. This involves placing the plant pot in a tray filled with water and allowing the roots to absorb water from the bottom up. This prevents water from sitting on the surface of the soil and helps to avoid over-saturation of the roots.
Watering Can Type
When using a watering can, choose one with a narrow spout to direct the water flow directly to the base of the plant. This helps to avoid wetting the foliage excessively and promotes targeted hydration at the root level.
How Much Water Does Maize Really Need?
Introduction
Maize is a species of plant native to Central America. It is a staple crop in many countries and requires specific water conditions to thrive.
Optimal Watering Quantity
Maize requires regular and consistent watering to maintain its growth and yield. The water quantity needed for this plant depends on various factors such as pot size, root depth, and plant size. It is important to ensure that the soil is evenly moist but not waterlogged. The average watering volume for a mature maize plant in a large pot is around 2 to 3 liters per watering session.
Signs of Proper Hydration
Properly hydrated maize will have dark green leaves, upright stalks, and healthy tassels. The soil should feel moist to the touch but not waterlogged. Overwatering can lead to yellowing leaves, root rot, and fungal diseases. Underwatered maize may show signs of wilted leaves, dry soil, and stunted growth.
Risks of Improper Watering
Overwatering maize can lead to root rot, nutrient leaching, and fungal diseases. This can negatively impact the plant's overall health and yield. Underwatering, on the other hand, can result in stunted growth, poor pollination, and reduced yield. It is important to find the right balance to ensure optimal growth.
Additional Advice
It is important to provide maize with regular moisture during its growth stages, especially during flowering and fruiting. However, it is also important to allow the soil to dry out slightly between watering to prevent waterlogged conditions that can hinder root development and nutrient uptake.
How Often Should I Water Maize?
Smart Seasonal Watering
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Seedling
Every 3 days
Growing
Every 5 days
Flowering
Every 3 days
Fruiting
Every 4 days
Calculated based on: Chicago / March
What Kind of Water is Best for Maize?
Water Sensitivity: maize
Maize is it is known to be quite sensitive to its water type, with clean and unadulterated water sources providing the best results for its growth.
Ideal Water Types: maize
Maize benefits from rainfall, but can also handle well water, provided it is free of contaminants. It can also tolerate tap water if it is devoid of chlorine or heavy metals. Distilled water is not necessary for this plant but it could be used provided it's not the only water source as it lacks the minerals maize requires.
Chlorine and Fluoride Sensitivity: maize
Maize is sensitive to both chlorine and fluoride found in most tap water. Exposure to these can cause leaf tip burn. If using tap water, it should be left to sit out for 24 hours to allow chlorine to off-gas. Alternatively, filtering tap water to remove these elements can be beneficial.
Mineral Sensitivity: maize
Maize is sensitive to salt accumulation which might be relevant if you use softened water. It prefers water with a normal range of minerals, extreme amounts of certain minerals like magnesium and calcium can prove to be harmful.
Water Treatments: maize
Maize can benefit from the use of tap water that has been left to sit for a period of 24 hours to dechlorinate, if bottled or rainwater is not available.
Water Temperature: maize
Maize prefers water at room temperature. It is sensitive to temperatures at either extreme, so it's best to avoid using water that is very cold or hot.
How Do Maize's Watering Needs Change with the Seasons?
How to Water maize in Spring?
Spring marks the start of planting season for maize. As the seeds are sown, they require ample water to stimulate germination. Therefore, water should be applied generously, ensuring that the soil is thoroughly saturated. The newly emerging seedlings may also require extra attention to maintain soil moisture.
How to Water maize in Summer?
Summer is the prime growth season for maize. Here, it enters its active growth phase and might need more watering than usual, with a focus on deeper water penetration to promote root reach. However, care should be taken to avoid overwatering, as this can lead to root rot. Direct watering at the plant base and early morning watering practices can mitigate water losses due to evaporation.
How to Water maize in Autumn?
During autumn, maize prepares for harvesting, and its watering requirements moderately decrease. The focus here should be on maintaining the soil moisture level rather than hydration, as overwatering can affect the quality of the harvest and attract pests.
How to Water maize in Winter?
Maize's watering needs in winter are minimal as this plant completes its lifecycle before winter. After harvest, the field is typically left fallow or prepared for the next cropping cycle and hence, needs little to no watering depending on the local climate conditions.
What Expert Tips Can Enhance Maize Watering Routine?
Moisture Meter
Using a moisture meter can help assess maize's deeper soil moisture needs and prevent over or under-watering. This plant prefers its soil to be mostly dry before the next watering, and a meter can effectively measure this.
Watering Time
Watering maize early in the morning allows the water to penetrate the soil thoroughly before the high evaporation rates of mid-day. It also helps prevent fungal diseases by minimizing the plant's exposure to dampness.
Common Misconception
One common misconception is that maize requires constant watering due to its growth in wetter seasons. However, it is more drought-tolerant than perceived. Over-watering can lead to root rot and should be avoided.
Signs of Thirst
When maize is thirsty, the leaves may wilt and turn yellow. Additionally, the soil may feel dry to the touch. These are indicators that maize needs watering.
Signs of Over-watering
Over-watering maize can cause the leaves to become yellow or brown and may lead to root rot. If the soil feels consistently wet and there is poor drainage, reduce the frequency of watering.
Watering Adjustments in Heatwaves
During a heatwave, maize may require increased watering. Monitor the soil moisture levels more frequently and consider providing shade or mulching around the plant to retain moisture.
Watering Adjustments during Extended Rain
During extended periods of rain, be cautious of over-watering maize. Check the soil moisture levels regularly and reduce watering if the soil is consistently wet.
Watering Adjustments for Stressed Plants
If maize is stressed, such as during transplanting or drought, water deeply and less frequently. This promotes root growth and prevents shallow root development.
Considering Hydroponics? How to Manage a Water-Grown Maize?
Overview of Hydroponics
Maize is a plant from the grass family that can be grown hydroponically, which means it can be cultivated in a water-based environment without the use of soil. Hydroponics allows for more controlled growing conditions and efficient nutrient uptake.
Best Suited Hydroponic System
For maize, a deep water culture system is the most suitable hydroponic system. This involves suspending the plant's roots in a nutrient-rich water solution, allowing for maximum nutrient absorption and oxygenation.
Nutrient Solution Requirements
The nutrient solution for maize should have a balanced ratio of macronutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) and micronutrients (iron, manganese, zinc, etc.). The recommended concentrations for maize are: nitrogen (N) - 150-200 ppm, phosphorous (P) - 40-80 ppm, potassium (K) - 150-200 ppm. The pH level should be maintained between 5.8-6.2, and the nutrient solution should be changed every 1-2 weeks to prevent nutrient imbalances or depletion.
Challenges and Common Issues
Maize grown hydroponically may be susceptible to root rot if the water is not properly oxygenated or if the roots are constantly submerged. Maintaining proper pH and nutrient concentrations is crucial to prevent nutrient imbalances, which can cause deficiencies or toxicities.
Monitoring Plant Health
Monitor the leaves of maize for any yellowing or browning, which can indicate nutrient deficiencies or excesses. Monitor the root system for any signs of root rot, such as slimy and discolored roots. Also, monitor the pH and nutrient levels regularly to ensure they stay within the optimal range.
Adjusting the Hydroponic Environment
During the vegetative stage, maize requires a longer light period of around 16-18 hours per day. During the flowering stage, the light period should be reduced to 12 hours per day to encourage the development of ears. It is also important to provide proper air circulation and ventilation to prevent excessive humidity levels and the growth of mold or pathogens.
Watering Requirements
Water maize regularly, ensuring the roots are submerged but not constantly submerged. The water level should be maintained about half an inch below the net pots or root system to prevent root rot and allow for proper oxygenation.
Temperature Requirements
Maintain the temperature of the hydroponic system for maize between 70-85°F (21-29.5°C) during the day and slightly cooler at night. Extreme temperatures can cause stress and affect plant growth.
Lighting Requirements
Maize requires a minimum of 12-16 hours of light per day for proper growth. Use high-intensity grow lights such as LED or fluorescent lights placed about 12-18 inches above the plants for optimal growth and development.
Propagation Technique
To propagate maize, it is recommended to use seeds. Place the seeds in a rockwool cube or a germination tray with a seed-starting medium. Keep the medium moist, provide sufficient light, and maintain temperatures between 70-85°F (21-29.5°C) until the seeds germinate.
Harvesting
Harvest maize when the ears are fully developed and the kernels are plump and milky. This usually occurs 2-3 weeks after the silks appear brown and dry. Gently twist the ears and pull downward to detach them from the plant.
Pest and Disease Control
Monitor maize regularly for common pests like aphids, mites, or caterpillars. Use appropriate organic or chemical pest control methods to prevent infestations. Common diseases include smut, leaf blights, and rust. Maintaining proper hygiene, adequate air circulation, and regular inspection can help prevent disease outbreaks.
Common Varieties
There are various varieties of maize suitable for hydroponic cultivation, including sweet corn varieties like 'Honey Select' and 'Silver Queen', and field corn varieties like 'Pioneer 3751' and 'DEKALB DKC61-05'. Choose the variety that suits your preferences and growing goals.
Pollination
In hydroponic systems, maize may require artificial pollination. Gently shake the plants to allow the pollen to fall onto the silks or use a small brush to transfer the pollen from the male to female flowers for successful pollination.
Training and Support
Support maize plants as they grow taller by using stakes or trellises. This will help prevent plants from collapsing under their own weight and promote better air circulation.
Important Symptoms
Overwatering Symptoms of Maize
Maize is more susceptible to developing disease symptoms when overwatered because it prefers a soil environment with moderate humidity. Symptoms of overwatering include yellowing leaves, brown or black spots, root rot...
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Yellowing leaves
When plants receive too much water, the roots become oxygen deprived and the bottom leaves of the plant gradually turn yellow.
Brown or black spots
Excessive watering can damage the plant's root system, making it vulnerable to fungal infections. The plant may develop dark brown to black spots that spread upwards from the lower leaves which are usually the first to be affected.
Root rot
Excess water in the soil can lead to the growth of harmful fungi and bacteria, causing the roots to rot and eventually kill the plant.
Soft or mushy stems
Excess water can cause stems to become soft and mushy, as the cells become waterlogged and lose their structural integrity.
Stunted growth
Overwatering can reduce nutrient uptake and hinder plant growth, causing it to become stunted as the roots struggle to absorb the necessary nutrients.
Wilting
Overwatering can cause plants to wilt, despite the excess water, as the roots struggle to take up nutrients and oxygen due to waterlogged soil.
Increased susceptibility diseases
Overwatering plants may become more susceptible and diseases as their overall health declines, weakening their natural defenses.
Solutions
1. Adjust watering frequency based on seasons and soil dryness. Wait for soil to dry before watering.2. Increase soil aeration by loosening surface and gently stirring with a wooden stick or chopstick.3. Optimize environment with good ventilation and warmth to enhance water evaporation and prevent overwatering.
Underwatering Symptoms of Maize
Maize is more susceptible to plant health issues when lacking watering, as it can only tolerate short periods of drought. Symptoms of dehydration include wilting, yellowing leaves, loss of turgor pressure...
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Wilting
Due to the dry soil and insufficient water absorption by the roots, the leaves of the plant will appear limp, droopy, and lose vitality.
Loss of turgor pressure
When plants are underwatered, their cells lose water, causing a loss of turgor pressure. This can result in the plant appearing limp or deflated.
Root damage
Prolonged underwatering can cause root damage, making it difficult for the plant to absorb water even when it is available.
Increased susceptibility to pests and diseases
Underwatered plants may become more susceptible to pests and diseases as their overall health declines, weakening their natural defenses.
Solutions
1. Thoroughly saturate soil with slow ring watering to ensure uniform and sufficient moisture for plants. 2. Increase air humidity with water trays or misting to slow leaf water evaporation. 3. Watering according to the recommended frequency.Adjust watering frequency based on seasons and soil dryness.
Watering Troubleshooting for Maize
Why are the leaves of my maize turning yellow and wilting?
Yellow and wilted leaves on a maize, are usually a sign of overwatering. This can lead to root rot and cause the leaves to lose their color and become limp. To solve this problem, reduce the frequency of watering and allow the soil to dry out more between each watering session. Make sure the container has drainage holes to prevent water from pooling at the bottom. Additionally, check the roots for any signs of rot and trim away any damaged sections. After adjusting the watering routine, the plant should recover and produce healthy green leaves.
Why are the leaves of my maize turning brown and crispy?
If the leaves of your maize, are turning brown and becoming crispy, it is likely a sign of underwatering. Insufficient water supply can cause the leaves to dry out, lose their vitality, and ultimately turn brown. To address this issue, increase the frequency of watering sessions and ensure that the soil is thoroughly moistened. However, be cautious not to overwater the plant, as it can lead to other problems like root rot. Regularly check the moisture level of the soil by inserting your finger about an inch deep. If it feels dry at that depth, it's time to water the plant again. By maintaining adequate soil moisture, the leaves should regain their healthy green color.
Why are the tips of my maize leaves turning brown?
Browning of the tips of maize leaves is usually caused by inconsistent watering practices. This can happen when the plant goes through periods of drought followed by heavy watering. The uneven moisture levels can lead to the tips of the leaves drying out and turning brown. To prevent this issue, ensure consistent and regular watering, providing enough water to thoroughly moisten the soil without causing waterlogging or excessive dryness. Mulching the soil can also help retain moisture and reduce moisture fluctuations. Trimming off the browned tips can improve the plant's appearance, but addressing the watering consistency is key to preventing further browning.
Why are the lower leaves of my maize turning yellow and drooping?
The yellowing and drooping of the lower leaves of maize can indicate underwatering or nutrient deficiency. Insufficient water supply can cause the lower leaves to dry out and lose their vitality. Additionally, nutrient deficiencies, such as nitrogen deficiency, can also lead to yellowing of the leaves. To address this problem, ensure adequate watering, especially focusing on thorough soil saturation to reach the roots of the lower leaves. Additionally, consider applying a balanced fertilizer or a fertilizer specifically formulated for corn to provide the necessary nutrients. Follow the instructions on the fertilizer packaging for proper application. With proper watering and nutrient supply, the lower leaves should regain their green color and vitality.
Why are the leaves of my maize turning pale green or yellow while the veins remain green?
If the leaves of your maize are turning pale green or yellow while the veins remain green, it is likely a sign of nutrient deficiency, specifically iron. This condition is known as chlorosis and can occur when the plant is unable to absorb enough iron from the soil. To address this issue, you can apply a chelated iron fertilizer or iron sulfate to the soil according to the product instructions. Additionally, make sure the soil pH is within the optimal range for corn growth, which is usually between 5.8 and 7.0. Adjusting the soil pH can help improve iron availability to the plant. Regularly monitor the plant's nutrient levels and make adjustments as necessary to maintain healthy green leaves.
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Lighting
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Requirements
Full sun
Ideal
Above 6 hours sunlight
Partial sun
Tolerance
About 3-6 hours sunlight
Watch how sunlight gracefully moves through your garden, and choose spots that provide the perfect balance of light and shade for your plants, ensuring their happiness.
Essentials
Maize thrives on considerable amounts of sunlight. During the growth stages, this plant enjoys an abundant exposure to the sun. Originating in environments known for plentiful sunlight, it can endure limited sun exposure but may show signs of slowed growth. Excessive lack or overexposure might result in stunted or abnormal development.
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Artificial lighting
Indoor plants require adequate lighting for optimal growth. When natural sunlight is insufficient, particularly in winter or in less sunny spaces, artificial lights offer a vital solution, promoting faster, healthier growth.
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Indoor plants require adequate lighting for optimal growth. When natural sunlight is insufficient, particularly in winter or in less sunny spaces, artificial lights offer a vital solution, promoting faster, healthier growth.
1. Choose the right type of artificial light: LED lights are a popular choice for indoor plant lighting because they can be customized to provide the specific wavelengths of light that your plants need.
Full sun plants need 30-50W/sq ft of artificial light, partial sun plants need 20-30W/sq ft, and full shade plants need 10-20W/sq ft.
2. Determine the appropriate distance: Place the light source 12-36 inches above the plant to mimic natural sunlight.
3. Determine the duration: Mimic the length of natural daylight hours for your plant species. most plants need 8-12 hours of light per day.
Important Symptoms
Symptoms of Insufficient Light in %s
Maize thrives in full sunlight and is commonly cultivated outdoors. When grown indoors with limited light, it may exhibit subtle symptoms of light deficiency that can easily go unnoticed.
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Small leaves
New leaves may grow smaller in size compared to the previous ones once they have matured.
Leggy or sparse growth
The spaces between leaves or stems of your maize may become longer, resulting in a thin and stretched-out appearance. This can make the plant look sparse and weak, and it may easily break or lean due to its own weight.
Faster leaf drop
When plants are exposed to low light conditions, they tend to shed older leaves early to conserve resources. Within a limited time, these resources can be utilized to grow new leaves until the plant's energy reserves are depleted.
Slower or no new growth
Maize enters a survival mode when light conditions are poor, which leads to a halt in leaf production. As a result, the plant's growth becomes delayed or stops altogether.
Lighter-colored new leaves
Insufficient sunlight can cause leaves to develop irregular color patterns or appear pale. This indicates a lack of chlorophyll and essential nutrients.
Solutions
1. To ensure optimal growth, gradually move plants to a sunnier location each week, until they receive at least 6 hours of direct sunlight daily. Use a south-facing window and keep curtains open during the day for maximum sunlight exposure and nutrient accumulation.2. To provide additional light for your plant, consider using artificial light if it's large or not easily movable. Keep a desk or ceiling lamp on for at least 8 hours daily, or invest in professional plant grow lights for ample light.
Symptoms of Excessive light in %s
Maize thrives in full sun exposure and can tolerate intense sunlight. With their remarkable resilience, symptoms of sunburn may not be easily visible, as they rarely suffer from it.
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Chlorosis
Chlorosis is a condition where the plant's leaves lose their green color and turn yellow. This is due to the breakdown of chlorophyll from excessive sunlight, which negatively affects the plant's ability to photosynthesize.
Sunscald
Sunscald occurs when the plant's leaves or stems are damaged by intense sunlight exposure. It appears as pale, bleached, or necrotic areas on the plant tissue and can reduce the plant's overall health.
Leaf Curling
Leaf curling is a symptom where leaves curl or twist under extreme sunlight conditions. This is a defense mechanism used by the plant to reduce its surface area exposed to sunlight, minimizing water loss and damage.
Wilting
Wilting occurs when a plant loses turgor pressure and its leaves and stems begin to droop. Overexposure to sunlight can cause wilting by increasing the plant's water loss through transpiration, making it difficult for the plant to maintain adequate hydration.
Leaf Scorching
Leaf scorching is a symptom characterized by the appearance of brown, dry, and crispy edges or patches on leaves due to excessive sunlight. This can lead to a reduction in photosynthetic capacity and overall plant health.
Solutions
1. Move your plant to the optimal position where it can receive abundant sunlight but also have some shade. An east-facing window is an ideal choice as the morning sunlight is gentler. This way, your plant can enjoy ample sunlight while reducing the risk of sunburn.2. It is recommended to trim off any completely dehydrated or withered parts of the plant.
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Temperature
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Tolerable
Unsuitable
Just like people, each plant has its own preferences. Learn about your plants' temperature needs and create a comforting environment for them to flourish. As you care for your plants, your bond with them will deepen. Trust your intuition as you learn about their temperature needs, celebrating the journey you share. Lovingly monitor the temperature around your plants and adjust their environment as needed. A thermometer can be your ally in this heartfelt endeavor. Be patient and gentle with yourself as you explore your plants' temperature needs. Cherish your successes, learn from challenges, and nurture your garden with love, creating a haven that reflects the warmth of your care.
Essentials
Maize is originally accustomed to conditions where the temperature ranges from 68 to 100 °F (20 to 38 ℃). It thrives ideally in these temperatures and may require adjusting temperature according to seasonal changes for optimal growth.
Regional wintering strategies
Maize prefers relatively warm temperatures, so maintaining temperatures above {Suitable_growth_temperature_min} during winter cultivation is beneficial for plant growth. The minimum temperature should be kept above freezing point to prevent the plant from freezing damage. When the outdoor temperature approaches -5°C (25°F) during winter, it is advisable to bring Maize indoors or provide protection by setting up a temporary greenhouse or using materials such as plastic film or fabric to wrap the plant.
Important Symptoms
Symptoms of Low Temperature in Maize
Maize has moderate tolerance to low temperatures and thrives best when the temperature is between {Suitable_growth_temperature_min} and {Suitable_growth_temperature_max}. During winter, it should be kept above {Tolerable_growing_temperature_min}. When the temperature falls below {Limit_growth_temperature}, the leaves may darken in color. In severe cases, water-soaked necrosis, wilting, and drooping may occur, and the color of the leaves gradually turns brown.
Solutions
Trim away the frost-damaged parts. Immediately move indoors to a warm environment or set up a makeshift greenhouse for cold protection. When placing the plant indoors, choose a location near a south-facing window to ensure ample sunlight. If there is insufficient light, you can use supplemental lighting.
Symptoms of High Temperature in Maize
During summer, Maize should be kept below {Suitable_growth_temperature_max}. When the temperature exceeds {Tolerable_growing_temperature_max}, the plant's growth slows down, the color of its leaves becomes lighter, and it becomes more susceptible to sunburn.
Solutions
Trim away the sunburned and dried-up parts. Move the plant to a location that provides shade from the afternoon sun. Water the plant in the morning and evening to keep the soil moist.
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