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Dunce's caps
Dunce's caps
Dunce's caps
Dunce's caps
Dunce's caps
Dunce's caps
Dunce's caps
Orostachys fimbriata
Planting Time
Planting Time
Early spring
care guide

Care Guide for Dunce's caps

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Watering Care
Watering Care
Details on Watering Care Watering Care
Fertilizing Care
Fertilizing Care
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Pruning
Pruning
Deadhead (or remove) withered flowers after flowering.
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Soil Care
Soil Care
Sand, Loam, Neutral
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Repotting
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Dunce's caps
Water
Water
Every 2 weeks
Sunlight
Sunlight
Full sun
Planting Time
Planting Time
Early spring
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Questions About Dunce's caps

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Watering Watering Watering
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Temperature Temperature Temperature
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What should I do if I water my Dunce's caps too much or too little?
Underwatered Dunce's caps Dunce's caps and other succulents can endure long periods without water, so it’s unusual to find one of these suffering from underwatering. But, if you somehow forgot about your plant and neglected to water it for a month or more, you’ll probably find your Dunce's caps looking thirsty or with some damage from lack of watering. It is very easy to identify an underwatered Dunce's caps. Plant look lacklustre and wrinkled. Some may have dried up completely, turned brown and crispy, or dropped off the plant. And of course, the soil will be completely dried out. If your Dunce's caps is thirsty and underwatered, give it plenty of water as soon as possible. Submerging the pot entirely in water for about 5-10 minutes is a good way to make sure the soil and plant are rehydrated properly. When you feel a sense of moisture on the surface of the soil with your finger, it means the watering is done properly. Overwatered Dunce's caps Overwatering is dangerous to Dunce's caps and can be fatal to your plant if you don’t remedy the situation. Too much moisture over time leads to root rot, which prevents the roots from being able to absorb nutrients and water from the soil. Root rot occurs when wet conditions allow fungi and bacteria to flourish in the soil and feed on roots. When you find that it's overwatered, you'd better change the growing conditions, place it somewhere with more air ventilation and adjust water frequency, for example. The symptoms of overwatering are yellow, swollen, and translucent organs that may even burst open from being over-full with water. If the problem continues without being treated, plant might turn brown or black, and fall off the plant at the slightest touch. Be sure to check the soil to determine if overwatering is the culprit, as some other issues can cause similar symptoms. It’s a bit difficult (but not impossible) to save an overwatered plant. The key is catching it early before a lot of damage has occurred. If the roots become rotten, it is likely to kill the entire plant. If you suspect you have overwatered your Dunce's caps, the first step is to remove it from its pot and check the roots and soil. After removing the plant from its pot, gently remove wet soil from around the roots and then rinse them clean in room-temperature water. This helps with removing fungus that might be lurking in the soil and allows you to get a better sense of how healthy the roots are. If your plant has already developed root rot, you will see roots that are dark brown or black, soft, mushy, or slimy. If the majority of the roots are already affected by root rot, it may not be possible to save the plant. In this case, it is best to remove any healthy stem and try to use these to propagate a new Dunce's caps. If, on the other hand, only a portion of the roots have succumbed to rot and other healthy roots still remain, there is a chance it can be saved. Use a sterilized cutting tool to remove any unhealthy-looking roots. Once you're left with only the firm, pale roots, it’s a good idea to dip them in a fungicide to kill off any remaining spores. After that you can repot your Dunce's caps in fresh, free-draining potting soil. While this does not always work to save a succulent with root rot, in most cases this plant will be able to make a full recovery and will put out new growth starting in the next growing season.
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How often should I water my Dunce's caps?
There’s not a hard-and-fast rule for how often to water Dunce's caps. The best way to determine this is to check the soil and only water when it’s bone dry. You can either stick your finger in the pot or use a moisture meter to check the soil below the surface. When you plant it in a deep pot, you can do this with a stick or chopstick. If it feels even a little bit moist, wait a few days and check it again. Most people will need to water Dunce's caps about every two weeks in summer and once a month in winter, but there are several factors that can change the frequency. The section below lists some considerations that can help you to determine how often to water.
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What should I consider when watering my Dunce's caps?
There are several environmental conditions that will affect how your Dunce's caps needs to be watered, including the container size, soil type, temperature, and humidity. First off, the container and soil you use will determine how often to water and how much water to use each time. Be sure you use a container with plenty of drainage holes in the bottom so extra water can escape the pot. A small container has less room for soil, meaning it won’t hold as much moisture, while a larger pot will stay wet longer and need to be watered less often. It’s important not to keep your Dunce's caps in an oversized pot as this can easily lead to overwatering. When repotting, move to just one size larger than the current container. A shallow container works better than a deep one, since Dunce's caps has shallow root systems. Dunce's caps will need to be watered less often in winter and more often in the active growing season in spring and autumn. During the winter, growth slows down considerably and the plant isn’t using much energy or water. There is less water lost to evaporation in cooler winter air, meaning that soil stays wet for much longer than it would in the summer. This also applies to the general climate around your home. If you live in a humid location with a lot of rain, you will need to water less often than if you live in a dry, arid climate. Remember that conditions at the same geographic location can vary significantly with the season and the use of indoor heating and air conditioning. Outdoor Planting If Dunce's caps is planted in the ground, after establishing a root system, it shouldn’t need supplemental water beyond what it receives through precipitation and dew. But if there is a long dry period, you may want to water occasionally. In other areas where Dunce's caps can only be grown in a container, this plant can be moved outside in the spring and summer when the temperature is proper and then brought back inside when temperatures start to drop. A potted Dunce's caps kept outside usually needs more water than the same plant kept indoors, because there is a lot more sun exposure even on a shaded porch.
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How to water Dunce's caps?
The best way to water Dunce's caps is to soak it thoroughly and then allow it to dry out before it gets watered again. Since this plant is somewhat drought tolerant, you can let it get quite dry before watering again. It is always better to give this type of plant too little water over too much. When you water, make sure the soil gets thoroughly soaked throughout the whole pot. Don’t pour the water in just one spot, but rather try to go around the whole rim of the planter to be sure that it has a chance to get wet on all sides of the plant. The correct amount of water will depend on the size of your container and how much water your soil absorbs. Give your Dunce's caps enough water that it drains out from the drainage holes and then (ideally) leave the drained water in the saucer for about 20-30 minutes to absorb into dry pockets of soil. After that, discard any excess water that’s still in the saucer to avoid the soil getting waterlogged. Bottom-watering is also an excellent method for Dunce's caps, as you can be sure that the soil gets thoroughly moistened. This process involves placing the pot into a saucer of water and allowing the soil to absorb moisture through the drainage holes. You will know that the soil has absorbed enough water when the top layer is moist. This takes a bit more time than top-watering, but is almost foolproof in getting an even distribution of water throughout the pot. The original habitat of Dunce's caps is relatively dry with little rain, but when it rains, the soil will be thoroughly moistened. So you can mimic this situation by bottom-watering your plant when the soil is totally dry. Deep soil bathing is better than frequent light watering for Dunce's caps.
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Key Facts About Dunce's caps

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Attributes of Dunce's caps

Lifespan
Perennial
Plant Type
Succulent
Planting Time
Early spring
Plant Height
10 cm to 40 cm
Spread
38 cm
Flower Color
Yellow
Red
Leaf type
Semi-evergreen
Ideal Temperature
5 - 35 ℃

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Scientific Classification of Dunce's caps

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Common Pests & Diseases About Dunce's caps

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Leaf tip withering
Leaf tip withering is a detrimental disease affecting Dunce's caps, characterized by the gradual browning and dying of leaf tips. It severely impedes the aesthetic and health of the plant, potentially leading to widespread damage if left untreated.
Low light
Low light Low light
Low light
A lack of sunlight will cause the stems and leaves to elongate and appear lighter in color.
Solutions: Low light can only be addressed by increasing light availability, and these measures will only stop further etoliation; current distortion cannot be reversed. Move plant to a position where it receives more light. Check the requirements for specific species, as too much sunlight can cause a plant to burn. Introduce appropriate artificial lighting. Some people choose to prune the longest stems so the plant can concentrate on healthy new growth under the improved lighting.
Aged yellow and dry
Aged yellow and dry Aged yellow and dry
Aged yellow and dry
Natural aging can cause leaves to turn yellow and dry out.
Solutions: If the yellowing and drying of leaves and flowers is a natural progression due to age, nothing can be done to slow or stop the process. Once hormones within the plant begin the process of senescence, it’s irreversible.
Flower withering
Flower withering Flower withering
Flower withering
Flowers may dry out due to a sudden change in environment or because the plant has completed its normal flowering period.
Solutions: If flower withering is a natural progression due to age, there is nothing that can be done to slow or stop the process. Once hormones within the plant begin the process of senescence, it’s irreversible. For lack of water, immediately water the plant using room temperature rainwater, bottled spring water, or filtered tap water. Water container plants until excess water drains out the bottom; water in-ground plants until the soil is soaked but there isn’t standing water on the surface. In the event of nutritional deficiencies, the best solution is to use a granular or water-soluble liquid fertilizer, and apply it to the soil at about half the recommended dosage. Keep it off the leaves and make sure granular products are watered into the soil well. If the plant is infected with a bacterial or fungal pathogen, there is no course of treatment that cures the diseased plants. The best solution is to remove the infected plants and dispose of the plant material off-site. Do not put in a compost pile.
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Leaf tip withering
Overview
Symptom
Causes
Treatment
Prevention
Active Period
What is Leaf tip withering Disease on Dunce's caps?
What is Leaf tip withering Disease on Dunce's caps?
Leaf tip withering is a detrimental disease affecting Dunce's caps, characterized by the gradual browning and dying of leaf tips. It severely impedes the aesthetic and health of the plant, potentially leading to widespread damage if left untreated.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
In Dunce's caps, the primary manifestation includes brown or black discoloration at the tips of the leaves, progressing inward if conditions worsen. Leaves often curl or deform, and growth may stunt.
What Causes Leaf tip withering Disease on Dunce's caps?
What Causes Leaf tip withering Disease on Dunce's caps?
1
Environmental stress
Factors like extreme temperatures, insufficient watering, and high salt concentrations in soil can lead to leaf tip withering.
2
Fungal pathogens
Certain fungi, particularly those thriving in moist conditions, can exacerbate the withering by infecting the weakened plant tissues.
How to Treat Leaf tip withering Disease on Dunce's caps?
How to Treat Leaf tip withering Disease on Dunce's caps?
1
Non pesticide
Proper irrigation: Ensure consistent, adequate watering, avoiding over or under-watering.

Soil management: Amend soil to ensure good drainage and appropriate nutrient levels, reducing salt buildup.
2
Pesticide
Fungicidal spray: Apply fungicidal treatments that target specific pathogens identified through testing.
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Low light
plant poor
Low light
A lack of sunlight will cause the stems and leaves to elongate and appear lighter in color.
Overview
Overview
All plants require light, and if they do not receive it in the quantities that they require this distorts their growth in a process known as etiolation. In essence, etiolated plants are diverting all of their energy to growing taller in a desperate attempt to reach a position where they can meet their light requirements. Many other growth factors are harmed by this, and so light-deprived plants can become weak and distorted until they are almost unrecognizable. Low light symptoms are most commonly seen in houseplants, but outdoor specimens can also be affected.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Although symptoms will vary in different plants, the general symptoms of low light are easy to spot.
  1. Plant stems grow tall and lanky.
  2. There are less leaves, and both leaves and stems tend to be pale and insipid looking. This is due to a shortage of chlorophyll.
  3. All plant parts become weakened and may droop, as energy is diverted toward too-fast growth as the plant stretches itself toward any source of light.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
Plants need sunlight in varying amounts for photosynthesis – a process that produces energy for growth and fruit and flower production. Low light causes a plant to divert all energy to upward (apical) growth in order to find better light. Plant hormones called auxins are transported from the actively-growing tip of the plant downwards, to suppress lateral growth. A drop in cellular pH triggers expansins, nonenzymatic cell wall proteins, to loosen cell walls and allow them to elongate. This elongation results in the abnormal lengthening of stems, especially internodes, or plant "legginess" which is observed in etoliated plants.
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Aged yellow and dry
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Aged yellow and dry
Natural aging can cause leaves to turn yellow and dry out.
Overview
Overview
Regardless of the type of plant or where it is grown, at some point, it will begin to aged yellow and dry. This is a natural, unavoidable process that happens when the plant has completed all of the steps in its life.
Annual plants go through this process at the end of a single growing season. Perennial plants live for multiple years, if not tens or hundreds of years, but will still ultimately exhibit these symptoms.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
When plants have progressed through their natural developmental stages and are nearing the end of their lifecycle, they begin showing signs of decline. Leaves will start to yellow and droop, and over time they turn papery brown and dry.
Once completely dry, the leaves begin to fall from the plant until the entire plant has dried out.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
At the end of its life, genetic coding within the plant increases the production of ethylene, a phytohormone that controls senescence or natural aging and death. Cell division stops, and the plant begins catabolizing resources to use in other parts of the plant.
As this happens, the tissues begin yellow and drying until the entire plant is desiccated and perishes.
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Flower withering
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Flower withering
Flowers may dry out due to a sudden change in environment or because the plant has completed its normal flowering period.
Overview
Overview
Flower withering occurs when flowers become weak, droopy, wilted, or faded until they can’t be revived. During withering, they begin to wrinkle and shrink until the flower becomes completely dry or dead.
Any flowers, regardless of the plant type or the climate they are grown in, are susceptible to withering. It is a worldwide problem across houseplants, herbs, flowering ornamentals, trees, shrubs, garden vegetables, and food crops.
Unlike wilting—which withering is often confused with—withering can be caused by different things and is often due to more than a lack of water. Withering can be fatal in severe cases.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Flower withering progresses from very mild cases to severe occurrences that kill the flower. The severity of the symptoms is related to the cause and how long the condition is allowed to progress before action is taken.
  • Wilted, droopy flowers
  • Petals and leaves begin to wrinkle
  • Brown papery streaks or spots appear on the petals and leaf tips
  • Flowerhead shrink in size
  • Petal color fades
  • Yellowing leaves
  • Complete death of the flower
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
The main causes of flower withering include natural age progress, lack of water, nutritional deficiencies, and bacterial or fungal diseases. It’s critical to determine the underlying cause when flower withering is noticed. This will guide the best course of action, if treatment is possible.
Check the soil for moisture and then closely examine the entire plant for signs of nutrient deficiencies. If neither of those appears to be the cause then cut open the stem below a flower. If a cross-section reveals brown or rust-colored stains it is safe to assume that this is a bacterial or fungal infection.
If the flower is nearing the end of its normal lifespan, genetic coding within the plant increases the production of ethylene, a phytohormone that controls senescence, or cell aging and death. Cell division stops and the plant begins breaking down resources within the flower to use in other parts of the plant.
In all other cases, flower withering happens when the plant seals off the stem as a defense mechanism, stopping transport within the vascular system. This prevents further water loss through the flowers but also stops bacteria and fungi from moving to healthy parts of the plant. Once water and nutrient transport stops, the flower begins to wither and ultimately die.
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weed

Weed Control About Dunce's caps

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Weeds
Dunce's caps is a quick-growing groundcover weed of home gardens, if not properly controlled. This species can form dense mats by a single plant through tons of underground offshoots. They can clone and colonize rapidly, and are able to quickly spread outside of their cultivation zone, taking over wild areas. Dunce's caps become very unsightly after flowering and during the winter. They are extremely hardy weeds that can withstand blistering cold winters and little to no water, so if left alone, they will simply continue to spread. However, hand-pulling is very effective for controlling them, as their root systems are not very deep. Transplants survive well, though, so be sure to dispose of them properly.
How to Control it
Best removal time: before fruiting Removing: In the early autumn or early spring, weeds can be removed with gloves or tools. Because it is a long-lived plant, its root system needs to be removed to prevent it from growing again. Chemical control: If weeds are in large quantities, herbicide can effectively remove them. Mowing: Weeds are mowed twice a year in the late spring, and weeds can be effectively controlled for two consecutive years. Weeds in large areas can be mowed by machines. Note: It can propagates by leaves. Please clean up the leaves that have fallen on the ground to prevent secondary growth.
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distribution

Distribution of Dunce's caps

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Habitat of Dunce's caps

Rocks on slopes, house roofs, moss-covered tree trunks
Northern Hemisphere
South Hemisphere

Distribution Map of Dunce's caps

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Native
Cultivated
Invasive
Potentially invasive
Exotic
No species reported
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More Info on Dunce's Caps Growth and Care

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Basic Care Guide
Common Pests & Diseases
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Lighting
Full sun
Dunce's caps thrives under a full day's exposure to sunlight, although it manages to grow well even in areas with lesser sunlight. Originating from environments with abundant sunlight, it requires ample light for healthy growth. Overexposure or insufficient light could potentially hinder its development.
Best Sunlight Practices
Transplant
6-12 inches
The best time to transplant dunce's caps is during the vivacity of early to mid-spring, when their growth cycle begins anew. They thrive in well-draining sites with ample sunshine. Gently aclimatize dunce's caps to their new location, ensuring minimal root disturbance.
Transplant Techniques
Temperature
-20 - 38 ℃
Dunce's caps is native to environments with moderate temperatures, ideally between 41 to 95 °F (5 to 35 ℃). As seasonal temperatures vary, scrutinize your dunce's caps's response and adjust positioning, or provide temperature control if necessary.
Temp for Healthy Growth
Propagation
Spring,Autumn
Dunce's caps thrives when propagated through cuttings, offering a reliable method for garden enthusiasts to expand their collections. The key is selecting healthy plant parts; prefer semi-hardened segments for optimal rooting. Cuttings should include a segment of stem and several leaves to ensure sufficient photosynthesis. Plant them in a moist, well-draining soil mix, ensuring ambient humidity to support growth without promoting rot.
Propagation Techniques
Leaf tip withering
Leaf tip withering is a detrimental disease affecting Dunce's caps, characterized by the gradual browning and dying of leaf tips. It severely impedes the aesthetic and health of the plant, potentially leading to widespread damage if left untreated.
Read More
Whole leaf withering
Whole leaf withering is a disease affecting Dunce's caps, characterized by rapid desiccation and loss of turgidity in leaves, ultimately impacting the plant's overall health and aesthetic value.
Read More
Etiolated stem
Etiolated stem is a condition affecting Dunce's caps primarily due to inadequate light exposure, leading to weakened and elongated stems. This stress response negatively impacts the plant's overall health and aesthetics.
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Leaf yellowing
Leaf yellowing in Dunce's caps primarily obstructs photosynthesis, leading to reduced vitality and slowed growth. This condition can result from nutritional deficiencies, water stress, or disease, which impairs the plant's overall health and aesthetic value.
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leaf discolorations
Leaf discolorations on Dunce's caps commonly manifest as varied color changes, affecting the plant's photosynthetic ability and overall vigor. This disease is significant as it can lead to reduced growth and compromised plant health.
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Feng shui direction
West
Dunce's caps manifests a sublime sense of tranquility, which lightly resonates with the Metal element in Feng Shui. Positioned West, it may tranquilize over-dynamic energies, given the West's ties with Metal, and the plant's potential to bring about a serene balance, albeit in a subtle, undemanding manner.
Fengshui Details
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Plants Related to Dunce's caps

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Cape jasmine
Cape jasmine
Gardenia jasminoides is an evergreen shrub with unique, glossy evergreen leaves and stunning flowers. The sophisticated, matte white flowers are often used in bouquets. The exceptional beauty of this ornamental plant has made it a popular and highly appreciated plant amongst gardeners and horticulturalists.
Golden pothos
Golden pothos
The golden pothos (Epipremnum aureum) is a popular houseplant that is commonly seen in Australia, Asia, and the West Indies. It goes by many nicknames, including "devil's ivy", because it is so hard to kill and can even grow in low light conditions. Golden pothos has poisonous sap, so it should be kept away from pets and children.
Pepper
Pepper
The pepper are commonly used for cooking in places such as the Southern U.S. and Central America. Most are moderately spicy, though because there are so many variants, the spice level can vary dramatically. Cayenne powder is also a popular seasoning product made from pepper plants.
Swiss cheese plant
Swiss cheese plant
The swiss cheese plant (Monstera deliciosa) produces bright, glossy leaves and makes a popular houseplant. It is originally native to tropical forest regions in Central America. The nickname swiss cheese plant refers to the small holes that develop in the plant's leaves. The long fruits resemble corncobs and smell sweet and fragrant when ripe.
Snake plant
Snake plant
Snake plant can be considered a houseplant and an architectural display due to its sword-like leaves with bold striping patterns, which are distinctive and eye-catching. However, use caution with this plant because it is poisonous when ingested and can cause nausea, vomiting, and even swelling of the throat and tongue.
Bigleaf hydrangea
Bigleaf hydrangea
The bigleaf hydrangea is a deciduous shrub native to Japan, and is known for its lush, oval, colorful inflorescence. The two types of Hydrangea macrophylla are mopheads - with large, ball-shaped, sterile flower clusters, and lace capes - with small round fertile flowers in the center, and sterile flowers on the outer side of each inflorescence. Depending on soil pH, blooms can change color from pink to blue.
Corn plant
Corn plant
Corn plant (Dracaena fragrans) is an evergreen, slow-growing perennial shrub native to tropical Africa. Also, it is a classic houseplant, grown in Europe since the 1800s. Its glossy green foliage that resembles corn leaves grow on top of a thick cane, which is why the plant is sometimes called “false palm tree.”
Peace lily
Peace lily
The peace lily gets its scientific name Spathiphyllum wallisii from a combination of the two Greek words ‘spath’ and ‘phyl’, which means spoon and leaves, respectively. The large graceful white spathe of the peace lily resembles a white flag, which is an international symbol of truce or peace.
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Dunce's caps
Dunce's caps
Dunce's caps
Dunce's caps
Dunce's caps
Dunce's caps
Dunce's caps
Orostachys fimbriata
Planting Time
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Early spring
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Care Guide for Dunce's caps

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Questions About Dunce's caps

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Watering Watering Watering
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What should I do if I water my Dunce's caps too much or too little?
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What should I consider when watering my Dunce's caps?
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Key Facts About Dunce's caps

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Attributes of Dunce's caps

Lifespan
Perennial
Plant Type
Succulent
Planting Time
Early spring
Plant Height
10 cm to 40 cm
Spread
38 cm
Flower Color
Yellow
Red
Leaf type
Semi-evergreen
Ideal Temperature
5 - 35 ℃
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Usages

Garden Use

Scientific Classification of Dunce's caps

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Common Pests & Diseases About Dunce's caps

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Leaf tip withering
Leaf tip withering is a detrimental disease affecting Dunce's caps, characterized by the gradual browning and dying of leaf tips. It severely impedes the aesthetic and health of the plant, potentially leading to widespread damage if left untreated.
Learn More About the Leaf tip withering more
Low light
Low light Low light Low light
A lack of sunlight will cause the stems and leaves to elongate and appear lighter in color.
Solutions: Low light can only be addressed by increasing light availability, and these measures will only stop further etoliation; current distortion cannot be reversed. Move plant to a position where it receives more light. Check the requirements for specific species, as too much sunlight can cause a plant to burn. Introduce appropriate artificial lighting. Some people choose to prune the longest stems so the plant can concentrate on healthy new growth under the improved lighting.
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Aged yellow and dry
Aged yellow and dry Aged yellow and dry Aged yellow and dry
Natural aging can cause leaves to turn yellow and dry out.
Solutions: If the yellowing and drying of leaves and flowers is a natural progression due to age, nothing can be done to slow or stop the process. Once hormones within the plant begin the process of senescence, it’s irreversible.
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Flower withering
Flower withering Flower withering Flower withering
Flowers may dry out due to a sudden change in environment or because the plant has completed its normal flowering period.
Solutions: If flower withering is a natural progression due to age, there is nothing that can be done to slow or stop the process. Once hormones within the plant begin the process of senescence, it’s irreversible. For lack of water, immediately water the plant using room temperature rainwater, bottled spring water, or filtered tap water. Water container plants until excess water drains out the bottom; water in-ground plants until the soil is soaked but there isn’t standing water on the surface. In the event of nutritional deficiencies, the best solution is to use a granular or water-soluble liquid fertilizer, and apply it to the soil at about half the recommended dosage. Keep it off the leaves and make sure granular products are watered into the soil well. If the plant is infected with a bacterial or fungal pathogen, there is no course of treatment that cures the diseased plants. The best solution is to remove the infected plants and dispose of the plant material off-site. Do not put in a compost pile.
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plant poor
Leaf tip withering
Overview
Symptom
Causes
Treatment
Prevention
Active Period
What is Leaf tip withering Disease on Dunce's caps?
What is Leaf tip withering Disease on Dunce's caps?
Leaf tip withering is a detrimental disease affecting Dunce's caps, characterized by the gradual browning and dying of leaf tips. It severely impedes the aesthetic and health of the plant, potentially leading to widespread damage if left untreated.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
In Dunce's caps, the primary manifestation includes brown or black discoloration at the tips of the leaves, progressing inward if conditions worsen. Leaves often curl or deform, and growth may stunt.
What Causes Leaf tip withering Disease on Dunce's caps?
What Causes Leaf tip withering Disease on Dunce's caps?
1
Environmental stress
Factors like extreme temperatures, insufficient watering, and high salt concentrations in soil can lead to leaf tip withering.
2
Fungal pathogens
Certain fungi, particularly those thriving in moist conditions, can exacerbate the withering by infecting the weakened plant tissues.
How to Treat Leaf tip withering Disease on Dunce's caps?
How to Treat Leaf tip withering Disease on Dunce's caps?
1
Non pesticide
Proper irrigation: Ensure consistent, adequate watering, avoiding over or under-watering.

Soil management: Amend soil to ensure good drainage and appropriate nutrient levels, reducing salt buildup.
2
Pesticide
Fungicidal spray: Apply fungicidal treatments that target specific pathogens identified through testing.
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Low light
plant poor
Low light
A lack of sunlight will cause the stems and leaves to elongate and appear lighter in color.
Overview
Overview
All plants require light, and if they do not receive it in the quantities that they require this distorts their growth in a process known as etiolation. In essence, etiolated plants are diverting all of their energy to growing taller in a desperate attempt to reach a position where they can meet their light requirements. Many other growth factors are harmed by this, and so light-deprived plants can become weak and distorted until they are almost unrecognizable. Low light symptoms are most commonly seen in houseplants, but outdoor specimens can also be affected.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Although symptoms will vary in different plants, the general symptoms of low light are easy to spot.
  1. Plant stems grow tall and lanky.
  2. There are less leaves, and both leaves and stems tend to be pale and insipid looking. This is due to a shortage of chlorophyll.
  3. All plant parts become weakened and may droop, as energy is diverted toward too-fast growth as the plant stretches itself toward any source of light.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
Plants need sunlight in varying amounts for photosynthesis – a process that produces energy for growth and fruit and flower production. Low light causes a plant to divert all energy to upward (apical) growth in order to find better light. Plant hormones called auxins are transported from the actively-growing tip of the plant downwards, to suppress lateral growth. A drop in cellular pH triggers expansins, nonenzymatic cell wall proteins, to loosen cell walls and allow them to elongate. This elongation results in the abnormal lengthening of stems, especially internodes, or plant "legginess" which is observed in etoliated plants.
Solutions
Solutions
Low light can only be addressed by increasing light availability, and these measures will only stop further etoliation; current distortion cannot be reversed.
  • Move plant to a position where it receives more light. Check the requirements for specific species, as too much sunlight can cause a plant to burn.
  • Introduce appropriate artificial lighting.
  • Some people choose to prune the longest stems so the plant can concentrate on healthy new growth under the improved lighting.
Prevention
Prevention
To avoid etiolation, provide an adequate amount of light from the beginning.
  1. Choose a location that matches each plant's ideal light needs. Many indoor plants do best in or near a south-facing window, which will provide the longest hours of sunlight. Flowering plants and those with colored leaves typically need more light than purely-green plants, as photosynthesis occurs in the green portions of leaves.
  2. Select plants with light needs that match a location's conditions. Some cultivars and varieties require less light than others.
  3. Use a grow light. Darker locations may require artificial illumination. A grow light may also become more necessary during winter, when sunlit hours are at their shortest.
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Aged yellow and dry
plant poor
Aged yellow and dry
Natural aging can cause leaves to turn yellow and dry out.
Overview
Overview
Regardless of the type of plant or where it is grown, at some point, it will begin to aged yellow and dry. This is a natural, unavoidable process that happens when the plant has completed all of the steps in its life.
Annual plants go through this process at the end of a single growing season. Perennial plants live for multiple years, if not tens or hundreds of years, but will still ultimately exhibit these symptoms.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
When plants have progressed through their natural developmental stages and are nearing the end of their lifecycle, they begin showing signs of decline. Leaves will start to yellow and droop, and over time they turn papery brown and dry.
Once completely dry, the leaves begin to fall from the plant until the entire plant has dried out.
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
At the end of its life, genetic coding within the plant increases the production of ethylene, a phytohormone that controls senescence or natural aging and death. Cell division stops, and the plant begins catabolizing resources to use in other parts of the plant.
As this happens, the tissues begin yellow and drying until the entire plant is desiccated and perishes.
Solutions
Solutions
If the yellowing and drying of leaves and flowers is a natural progression due to age, nothing can be done to slow or stop the process. Once hormones within the plant begin the process of senescence, it’s irreversible.
Prevention
Prevention
Unfortunately, there is no way to prevent plants from dying of “old age.” To help prolong their life, and put off symptoms of aged yellow and dry for as long as possible, take care of them by giving them enough water, fertilizing them appropriately, and making sure they get enough sunlight.
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Flower withering
plant poor
Flower withering
Flowers may dry out due to a sudden change in environment or because the plant has completed its normal flowering period.
Overview
Overview
Flower withering occurs when flowers become weak, droopy, wilted, or faded until they can’t be revived. During withering, they begin to wrinkle and shrink until the flower becomes completely dry or dead.
Any flowers, regardless of the plant type or the climate they are grown in, are susceptible to withering. It is a worldwide problem across houseplants, herbs, flowering ornamentals, trees, shrubs, garden vegetables, and food crops.
Unlike wilting—which withering is often confused with—withering can be caused by different things and is often due to more than a lack of water. Withering can be fatal in severe cases.
Symptom Analysis
Symptom Analysis
Flower withering progresses from very mild cases to severe occurrences that kill the flower. The severity of the symptoms is related to the cause and how long the condition is allowed to progress before action is taken.
  • Wilted, droopy flowers
  • Petals and leaves begin to wrinkle
  • Brown papery streaks or spots appear on the petals and leaf tips
  • Flowerhead shrink in size
  • Petal color fades
  • Yellowing leaves
  • Complete death of the flower
Disease Cause
Disease Cause
The main causes of flower withering include natural age progress, lack of water, nutritional deficiencies, and bacterial or fungal diseases. It’s critical to determine the underlying cause when flower withering is noticed. This will guide the best course of action, if treatment is possible.
Check the soil for moisture and then closely examine the entire plant for signs of nutrient deficiencies. If neither of those appears to be the cause then cut open the stem below a flower. If a cross-section reveals brown or rust-colored stains it is safe to assume that this is a bacterial or fungal infection.
If the flower is nearing the end of its normal lifespan, genetic coding within the plant increases the production of ethylene, a phytohormone that controls senescence, or cell aging and death. Cell division stops and the plant begins breaking down resources within the flower to use in other parts of the plant.
In all other cases, flower withering happens when the plant seals off the stem as a defense mechanism, stopping transport within the vascular system. This prevents further water loss through the flowers but also stops bacteria and fungi from moving to healthy parts of the plant. Once water and nutrient transport stops, the flower begins to wither and ultimately die.
Solutions
Solutions
If flower withering is a natural progression due to age, there is nothing that can be done to slow or stop the process. Once hormones within the plant begin the process of senescence, it’s irreversible.
For lack of water, immediately water the plant using room temperature rainwater, bottled spring water, or filtered tap water. Water container plants until excess water drains out the bottom; water in-ground plants until the soil is soaked but there isn’t standing water on the surface.
In the event of nutritional deficiencies, the best solution is to use a granular or water-soluble liquid fertilizer, and apply it to the soil at about half the recommended dosage. Keep it off the leaves and make sure granular products are watered into the soil well.
If the plant is infected with a bacterial or fungal pathogen, there is no course of treatment that cures the diseased plants. The best solution is to remove the infected plants and dispose of the plant material off-site. Do not put in a compost pile.
Prevention
Prevention
This is definitely one of those instances where prevention is more effective than cure. Here are some preventative measures for avoiding premature flower withering.
  • Water plants according to their needs -- either keep the soil slightly moist or allow the top inch or two to dry out before watering again.
  • Fertilize lightly on a consistent basis, depending upon the plant’s growth. Quick-growing plants and those that flower or develop fruit will need more frequent fertilizing than slow-growing plants.
  • Purchase plants that are certified disease- or pathogen-free.
  • Look for disease-resistant cultivars.
  • Isolate plants showing disease symptoms to prevent the spread to neighboring plants.
  • Practice good plant hygiene by removing any fallen plant material as soon as possible.
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weed

Weed Control About Dunce's caps

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weed
Weeds
Dunce's caps is a quick-growing groundcover weed of home gardens, if not properly controlled. This species can form dense mats by a single plant through tons of underground offshoots. They can clone and colonize rapidly, and are able to quickly spread outside of their cultivation zone, taking over wild areas. Dunce's caps become very unsightly after flowering and during the winter. They are extremely hardy weeds that can withstand blistering cold winters and little to no water, so if left alone, they will simply continue to spread. However, hand-pulling is very effective for controlling them, as their root systems are not very deep. Transplants survive well, though, so be sure to dispose of them properly.
How to Control it
Best removal time: before fruiting Removing: In the early autumn or early spring, weeds can be removed with gloves or tools. Because it is a long-lived plant, its root system needs to be removed to prevent it from growing again. Chemical control: If weeds are in large quantities, herbicide can effectively remove them. Mowing: Weeds are mowed twice a year in the late spring, and weeds can be effectively controlled for two consecutive years. Weeds in large areas can be mowed by machines. Note: It can propagates by leaves. Please clean up the leaves that have fallen on the ground to prevent secondary growth.
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distribution

Distribution of Dunce's caps

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Habitat of Dunce's caps

Rocks on slopes, house roofs, moss-covered tree trunks
Northern Hemisphere
South Hemisphere

Distribution Map of Dunce's caps

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Native
Cultivated
Invasive
Potentially invasive
Exotic
No species reported
plant_info

Plants Related to Dunce's caps

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Lighting
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Indoor
Indoor
Outdoor
Choose a site here for personalized care tips.
Requirements
Full sun
Ideal
Above 6 hours sunlight
Partial sun
Tolerance
About 3-6 hours sunlight
Watch how sunlight gracefully moves through your garden, and choose spots that provide the perfect balance of light and shade for your plants, ensuring their happiness.
Essentials
Dunce's caps thrives under a full day's exposure to sunlight, although it manages to grow well even in areas with lesser sunlight. Originating from environments with abundant sunlight, it requires ample light for healthy growth. Overexposure or insufficient light could potentially hinder its development.
Preferred
Tolerable
Unsuitable
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Artificial lighting
Indoor plants require adequate lighting for optimal growth. When natural sunlight is insufficient, particularly in winter or in less sunny spaces, artificial lights offer a vital solution, promoting faster, healthier growth.
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Indoor plants require adequate lighting for optimal growth. When natural sunlight is insufficient, particularly in winter or in less sunny spaces, artificial lights offer a vital solution, promoting faster, healthier growth.
1. Choose the right type of artificial light: LED lights are a popular choice for indoor plant lighting because they can be customized to provide the specific wavelengths of light that your plants need.
Full sun plants need 30-50W/sq ft of artificial light, partial sun plants need 20-30W/sq ft, and full shade plants need 10-20W/sq ft.
2. Determine the appropriate distance: Place the light source 12-36 inches above the plant to mimic natural sunlight.
3. Determine the duration: Mimic the length of natural daylight hours for your plant species. most plants need 8-12 hours of light per day.
Important Symptoms
Symptoms of Insufficient Light in %s
Dunce's caps is a beloved choice for indoor gardening, and they require strong light to thrive. However, when placed in rooms with suboptimal lighting, they may develop symptoms of light deficiency.
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(Symptom details and solutions)
Small leaves
New leaves may grow smaller in size compared to the previous ones once they have matured.
Leggy or sparse growth
The spaces between leaves or stems of your Dunce's caps may become longer, resulting in a thin and stretched-out appearance. This can make the plant look sparse and weak, and it may easily break or lean due to its own weight.
Faster leaf drop
When plants are exposed to low light conditions, they tend to shed older leaves early to conserve resources. Within a limited time, these resources can be utilized to grow new leaves until the plant's energy reserves are depleted.
Slower or no new growth
Dunce's caps enters a survival mode when light conditions are poor, which leads to a halt in leaf production. As a result, the plant's growth becomes delayed or stops altogether.
Lighter-colored new leaves
Insufficient sunlight can cause leaves to develop irregular color patterns or appear pale. This indicates a lack of chlorophyll and essential nutrients.
Solutions
1. To ensure optimal growth, gradually move plants to a sunnier location each week, until they receive at least 6 hours of direct sunlight daily. Use a south-facing window and keep curtains open during the day for maximum sunlight exposure and nutrient accumulation.2. To provide additional light for your plant, consider using artificial light if it's large or not easily movable. Keep a desk or ceiling lamp on for at least 8 hours daily, or invest in professional plant grow lights for ample light.
Symptoms of Excessive light in %s
Dunce's caps require strong light to thrive, and some are remarkably resilient to sun exposure, rarely suffering from sunburn.
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(Symptom details and solutions)
Chlorosis
Chlorosis is a condition where the plant's leaves lose their green color and turn yellow. This is due to the breakdown of chlorophyll from excessive sunlight, which negatively affects the plant's ability to photosynthesize.
Sunscald
Sunscald occurs when the plant's leaves or stems are damaged by intense sunlight exposure. It appears as pale, bleached, or necrotic areas on the plant tissue and can reduce the plant's overall health.
Leaf Curling
Leaf curling is a symptom where leaves curl or twist under extreme sunlight conditions. This is a defense mechanism used by the plant to reduce its surface area exposed to sunlight, minimizing water loss and damage.
Wilting
Wilting occurs when a plant loses turgor pressure and its leaves and stems begin to droop. Overexposure to sunlight can cause wilting by increasing the plant's water loss through transpiration, making it difficult for the plant to maintain adequate hydration.
Leaf Scorching
Leaf scorching is a symptom characterized by the appearance of brown, dry, and crispy edges or patches on leaves due to excessive sunlight. This can lead to a reduction in photosynthetic capacity and overall plant health.
Solutions
1. Move your plant to the optimal position where it can receive abundant sunlight but also have some shade. An east-facing window is an ideal choice as the morning sunlight is gentler. This way, your plant can enjoy ample sunlight while reducing the risk of sunburn.2. It is recommended to trim off any completely dehydrated or withered parts of the plant.
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Temperature
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Indoor
Outdoor
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Requirements
Ideal
Tolerable
Unsuitable
Just like people, each plant has its own preferences. Learn about your plants' temperature needs and create a comforting environment for them to flourish. As you care for your plants, your bond with them will deepen. Trust your intuition as you learn about their temperature needs, celebrating the journey you share. Lovingly monitor the temperature around your plants and adjust their environment as needed. A thermometer can be your ally in this heartfelt endeavor. Be patient and gentle with yourself as you explore your plants' temperature needs. Cherish your successes, learn from challenges, and nurture your garden with love, creating a haven that reflects the warmth of your care.
Essentials
Dunce's caps is native to environments with moderate temperatures, ideally between 41 to 95 °F (5 to 35 ℃). As seasonal temperatures vary, scrutinize your dunce's caps's response and adjust positioning, or provide temperature control if necessary.
Regional wintering strategies
Dunce's caps is a heat-loving plant that gradually stops growing and enters a dormant state during the winter. When the outdoor temperature drops below {Tolerable_growing_temperature_min}, it should be moved indoors for cultivation. Choose a location near a south-facing window to provide as much sunlight as possible. If there is insufficient natural light, supplemental lighting can be used. When the temperature falls below {Suitable_growth_temperature_min}, the plant's growth slows down, and watering should be reduced or stopped to prevent root rot. For Dunce's caps grown outdoors, watering should be completely halted during low temperatures. If feasible, you can set up a temporary greenhouse for insulation or use materials such as plastic film or fabric to wrap the plant during cold temperatures.
Important Symptoms
Symptoms of Low Temperature in Dunce's caps
Dunce's caps thrives in high temperatures and is not tolerant of low temperatures. It grows best when the temperature is above {Suitable_growth_temperature_min}. During winter, it should be kept above {Tolerable_growing_temperature_min}. When the temperature falls below {Limit_growth_temperature}, the plant may become weak, wilt, and be prone to root rot. In cases of mild frost damage, there may not be any initial symptoms, but after a week, the plant will gradually wither.
Solutions
Trim off the frostbitten areas, paying attention to whether the roots have rotted. If the roots have rotted, they need to be cut off, and the plant can be propagated through cuttings. Immediately move indoors to a warm environment and place the plant near a south-facing window to ensure ample sunlight. If there is insufficient light, you can use supplemental lighting.
Symptoms of High Temperature in Dunce's caps
During summer, Dunce's caps should be kept below {Suitable_growth_temperature_max}. When the temperature exceeds {Tolerable_growing_temperature_max}, the plant's growth will cease, it will experience water loss, wilting, and becomes more susceptible to sunburn.
Solutions
Remove the sunburned and rotten parts. Shield the plant from afternoon sunlight until it recovers and starts growing again. For plants with root rot, stop watering until new roots begin to emerge.
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