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About
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Key Facts
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Thistles
Thistles
Thistles
Thistles
Thistles (Cirsium)
Thistles are sometimes known as plume thistles, distinguishing them from plumeless thistles. The name comes from the Greek word kirsos, which means swollen vein, because of their distinctive flower head shape. Many plants in this genus are important pollinators, especially for monarch butterflies. They are the national symbol of Scotland.
Lifespan
Lifespan
Biennial
info

Key Facts About Thistles

Attributes of Thistles

Flower Size
2.5 cm to 8 cm
Leaf type
Deciduous

Scientific Classification of Thistles

distribution

Distribution of Thistles

Distribution Map of Thistles

distribution map
Native
Cultivated
Invasive
Potentially invasive
Exotic
No species reported
habit
care detail

How to Grow and Care for Thistles

how to grow and care
Thistles is a robust, hardy plant genus requiring average care. Its Basic Care Needs include full sun to partial shade exposure, well-drained soil, regular watering, with added tolerance to differing pH and temperature ranges. Common Challenges involve aphids, slugs, and fungal problems, coupled with occasional issues of over-watering. Although resilient by nature, Seasonal Considerations should include protection against intense heat in summers and reducing watering in winters. With adaptive care, thistles varieties can thrive in various locations.
More Info About Caring for Thistles
species

Exploring the Thistles Plants

8 most common species:
Cirsium vulgare
Bull thistle
Bull thistle (Cirsium vulgare) is a thistle plant native to Europe, Africa, and Asia. Bull thistle produces a large amount of nectar and attracts pollinators. Bull thistle is considered a noxious weed in areas of Europe and Australia.
Cirsium arvense
Creeping thistle
This aggressive weed spreads across grasslands and fields via underground roots that creep horizontally, some for more than 5 m. It can cause major problems to agriculture if its growth is left unchecked. Its seeds feed many birds as well as pest insects. Creeping thistle is generally considered a noxious weed even in its native territory.
Cirsium texanum
Texas thistle
Texas thistle (Cirsium texanum) is a plant species that attracts the painted lady butterfly. In addition, goldfinches love to eat texas thistle seeds and the silky material that surrounds the seeds. This plant's flowers look like miniature pom-poms and can be either pink or lavender.
Cirsium horridulum
Yellow thistle
Bull yellow thistle (*Cirsium horridulum*) is a flowering plant related to the sunflower that is native to North America. Bull yellow thistle is also referred to as the Horrible Thistle, the Spiny Thistle, and the "Big spine Thistle." Thomas Nuttall, an English botanist who worked in America, called the plant "terribly armed."
Cirsium japonicum
Japanese thistle
The stem height is 49 to 91 cm. The leaves cleave like feathers and have thorns on the edges. The base of the foliage holds the stem. Root leaves remain during the flowering season. The flowering season is from spring to summer, and some japanese thistle have the characteristics of spring blooming but rarely bloom until fall. The flower (head-like inflorescence) is composed only of cylindrical flowers, and the diameter is 4 to 5 cm. The flower is typically purple, but can rarely be white.
Cirsium palustre
Marsh thistle
Marsh thistle (Cirsium palustre) is a thorny weed native to Europe and western Asia, which has become invasive in North America. It grows in wet fields and marshlands. Archaeological evidence suggests marsh thistle has spread alongside human farmlands for thousands of years, expanding its territory as cultivation expands.
Cirsium eriophorum
Wooly thistle
Wooly thistle is a tall thistle that can grow up to 1.5 m tall. It's widely distributed across Europe, mostly in disturbed sites, along roads, and in lime, chalk, or generally rich soil. With its pink flower and bracts surrounded by wooly hairs, it attracts various insects, but mostly bees.
Cirsium muticum
Swamp thistle
Swamp thistle (Cirsium muticum) is native to the central and eastern parts of North America. It acts as a host for some species of butterflies and moths, including the threatened swamp metalmark butterfly. This is one of the few thistles planted in gardens, as it is decorative, not invasive, and attracts pollinators.

All Species of Thistles

Bull thistle
Cirsium vulgare
Bull thistle
Bull thistle (Cirsium vulgare) is a thistle plant native to Europe, Africa, and Asia. Bull thistle produces a large amount of nectar and attracts pollinators. Bull thistle is considered a noxious weed in areas of Europe and Australia.
Creeping thistle
Cirsium arvense
Creeping thistle
This aggressive weed spreads across grasslands and fields via underground roots that creep horizontally, some for more than 5 m. It can cause major problems to agriculture if its growth is left unchecked. Its seeds feed many birds as well as pest insects. Creeping thistle is generally considered a noxious weed even in its native territory.
Texas thistle
Cirsium texanum
Texas thistle
Texas thistle (Cirsium texanum) is a plant species that attracts the painted lady butterfly. In addition, goldfinches love to eat texas thistle seeds and the silky material that surrounds the seeds. This plant's flowers look like miniature pom-poms and can be either pink or lavender.
Yellow thistle
Cirsium horridulum
Yellow thistle
Bull yellow thistle (*Cirsium horridulum*) is a flowering plant related to the sunflower that is native to North America. Bull yellow thistle is also referred to as the Horrible Thistle, the Spiny Thistle, and the "Big spine Thistle." Thomas Nuttall, an English botanist who worked in America, called the plant "terribly armed."
Japanese thistle
Cirsium japonicum
Japanese thistle
The stem height is 49 to 91 cm. The leaves cleave like feathers and have thorns on the edges. The base of the foliage holds the stem. Root leaves remain during the flowering season. The flowering season is from spring to summer, and some japanese thistle have the characteristics of spring blooming but rarely bloom until fall. The flower (head-like inflorescence) is composed only of cylindrical flowers, and the diameter is 4 to 5 cm. The flower is typically purple, but can rarely be white.
Marsh thistle
Cirsium palustre
Marsh thistle
Marsh thistle (Cirsium palustre) is a thorny weed native to Europe and western Asia, which has become invasive in North America. It grows in wet fields and marshlands. Archaeological evidence suggests marsh thistle has spread alongside human farmlands for thousands of years, expanding its territory as cultivation expands.
Wooly thistle
Cirsium eriophorum
Wooly thistle
Wooly thistle is a tall thistle that can grow up to 1.5 m tall. It's widely distributed across Europe, mostly in disturbed sites, along roads, and in lime, chalk, or generally rich soil. With its pink flower and bracts surrounded by wooly hairs, it attracts various insects, but mostly bees.
Swamp thistle
Cirsium muticum
Swamp thistle
Swamp thistle (Cirsium muticum) is native to the central and eastern parts of North America. It acts as a host for some species of butterflies and moths, including the threatened swamp metalmark butterfly. This is one of the few thistles planted in gardens, as it is decorative, not invasive, and attracts pollinators.
Field thistle
Cirsium discolor
Field thistle
The Cirsium discolor is an American natives biennial or perennial herb that reaches up to 2 m tall. The field thistle's flowers are large and showy, which produce a good amount of nectar and pollens. It is an important food source of bees and butterflies. The young leaves and stems can be boiled and served as edible greens.
Brook thistle
Cirsium rivulare
Brook thistle
Brook thistle's flower heads have the characteristic thistle appearance, but the plant's petals sport a deeper shade of purple. Brook thistle is a popular ornamental, often grown in borders and alongside grasses and tall perennials. Rivulare from the Latin name translates to 'growing by a stream'. This, and 'brook' featuring in the plant's common name, represent its preferred habitat.
Cabbage thistle
Cirsium oleraceum
Cabbage thistle
Cabbage thistle is so named since it is a member of the thistle family and has wide, cabbage-like leaves. Its Latin name, oleraceum, continues this cabbage comparison, as it translates to "vegetable" or "herbal." cabbage thistle has a history of cultivation in India and Japan.
Wavyleaf thistle
Cirsium undulatum
Wavyleaf thistle
Wavyleaf thistle (Cirsium undulatum) is a perennial shrub that will grow to 1.8 m tall. It takes about 7 to 10 years to bloom and only blooms once before dying. Blooms appear in summer. It grows from seed and from deep underground running roots called rhizomes. Birds are attracted to the seeds.
Thorny thistle
Cirsium spinosissimum
Thorny thistle
Native to Europe, thorny thistle, also known as Cirsium spinosissimum, grows in dry rocky areas. Thorny thistle gets its common name because all parts of this thistle species are completely covered in spines.
Cobwebby Thistle
Cirsium occidentale
Cobwebby Thistle
Cobwebby Thistle (*Cirsium occidentale*) is a biennial plant species that forms a taproot and is related to the sunflower. Cobwebby Thistle can grow up to 3 m or in low clumps. This species is native to the western United States.
Canada thistle
Cirsium arvense var. integrifolium
Canada thistle
Canada thistle (*Cirsium arvense var. integrifolium*) is a plant species native to Europe and Western Asia. Canada thistle attracts pollinators like bees which are drawn to its nectar. This species can be distinguished from other variants by the shape of its leaves.
Queen anne's thistle
Cirsium canum
Queen anne's thistle
It is a perennial plant with four-winged stems and spiny green, lanceolate, shiny leaves with spiny edges. The violet flowers are tubular in the form of terminal bushes. The fruits are vilanos.
Tall thistle
Cirsium altissimum
Tall thistle
Tall thistle is native to the central and eastern United States and does not bloom until its second year. When it does produce flowers, they are a purplish pink, fragrant, and produce a large amount of nectar that attracts pollinators of all kinds. It dies after flowering.
Meadow thistle
Cirsium scariosum
Meadow thistle
A member of the aster family, meadow thistle is a biennial herb with a long taproot and purple disk flowers. It is generally found in western North America in a variety of habitats.
Tuberous thistle
Cirsium tuberosum
Tuberous thistle
The Knollige Kratzdistel is a perennial herbaceous plant that reaches stature heights between usually 40 and 1.5 m. The root fibers are fused into a spindle-shaped tuber. The wingless, spider web hairy stems grow upright, is one to three headed and very rarely also has a small leaf above the middle.
Arizona thistle
Cirsium arizonicum
Arizona thistle
Arizona thistle is found in higher elevations (900 to 3600 m above sea level) in the southwestern United States and Mexico. The entire Cirsium genus, including arizona thistle, is listed as a noxious weed in certain U.S. states, like Arkansas and Iowa.
New mexico thistle
Cirsium neomexicanum
New mexico thistle
The new mexico thistle (Cirsium neomexicanum) is indigenous to the southwestern United States, as well as northwestern Mexico. It is a tall plant whose gray-green stems and leaves are prickly and hairy, providing both a nesting structure and material for native bees. The large flowers may be pink, purple or white. It is not considered invasive.
Pasture thistle
Cirsium pumilum
Pasture thistle
Pasture thistle (Cirsium pumilum) is indigenous to North America. This plant loves to grow in rocky soil where there’s barely any moisture. This makes it a super hardy species. In the United States, you’ll find it proliferating across prairies. Unfortunately, it’s rapidly losing habitat due to the encroachment of civilization.
Meadow thistle
Cirsium dissectum
Meadow thistle
Meadow thistle (Cirsium dissectum) is an erect perennial with red-purple blossoms that appear each summer. Unlike many other species of thistle, it lacks spines; instead, this plant sports a series of short prickles. It can be difficult to raise in captivity if the damp, boggy areas it prefers are not perfectly replicated.
Edible thistle
Cirsium edule
Edible thistle
Cirsium edule, or edible thistle, is a native North American herbaceous perennial plant with a tall, upright growth habit that can reach up to 1.2 m. It produces large, purple flowers that are attractive to pollinators and is used in the garden for attracting wildlife. Edible thistle has economic value as a crop, with its leaves and stems used in the production of thistle oil. It is tough and hardy, resistant to pests and diseases, and can grow in various soil types and withstand drought. However, it can be toxic to pets if ingested.
Cirsium pendulum
Cirsium pendulum
Cirsium pendulum
Cirsium pendulum are sometimes known as plume thistles, distinguishing them from plumeless thistles. The name comes from the Greek word kirsos, which means swollen vein, because of their distinctive flower head shape. Many plants in this genus are important pollinators, especially for monarch butterflies. They are the national symbol of Scotland.
Cirsium lineare
Cirsium lineare
Cirsium lineare
Cirsium lineare are sometimes known as plume thistles, distinguishing them from plumeless thistles. The name comes from the Greek word kirsos, which means swollen vein, because of their distinctive flower head shape. Many plants in this genus are important pollinators, especially for monarch butterflies. They are the national symbol of Scotland.
Brook thistle 'Atropurpureum'
Cirsium rivulare 'Atropurpureum'
Brook thistle 'Atropurpureum'
This cultivar is a taller, more attractive version of the traditional thistle plant. The brook thistle 'Atropurpureum' has deeply crimson tops that grow from tall erect stems, bordered by dark green leaves with spines. It is appreciated for its height and its hardiness in the face of full frost.
Korean thistle
Cirsium maackii
Korean thistle
Korean thistle are sometimes known as plume thistles, distinguishing them from plumeless thistles. The name comes from the Greek word kirsos, which means swollen vein, because of their distinctive flower head shape. Many plants in this genus are important pollinators, especially for monarch butterflies. They are the national symbol of Scotland.
Cirsium ciliatum
Cirsium ciliatum
Cirsium ciliatum
Cirsium ciliatum are sometimes known as plume thistles, distinguishing them from plumeless thistles. The name comes from the Greek word kirsos, which means swollen vein, because of their distinctive flower head shape. Many plants in this genus are important pollinators, especially for monarch butterflies. They are the national symbol of Scotland.
Cirsium anartiolepis
Cirsium anartiolepis
Cirsium anartiolepis
Cirsium anartiolepis are sometimes known as plume thistles, distinguishing them from plumeless thistles. The name comes from the Greek word kirsos, which means swollen vein, because of their distinctive flower head shape. Many plants in this genus are important pollinators, especially for monarch butterflies. They are the national symbol of Scotland.
Dwarf thistle
Cirsium acaule
Dwarf thistle
Dwarf thistle are sometimes known as plume thistles, distinguishing them from plumeless thistles. The name comes from the Greek word kirsos, which means swollen vein, because of their distinctive flower head shape. Many plants in this genus are important pollinators, especially for monarch butterflies. They are the national symbol of Scotland.
Cirsium simplex
Cirsium simplex
Cirsium simplex
Cirsium simplex is found in alpine and rocky meadows by streams. The purple flowers mark its difference from the otherwise similar C. armenum. Cirsium simplex derives its genus name from the Greek word ‘khirsos,’ which means ‘swollen vein.’
popular genus

More Popular Genus

Dracaena
Dracaena
Dracaena are popular house plants that are easy to grow. They can tolerate low-light conditions and require little watering. Their leaves range from variegated to dark green. Their characteristic traits include woody stems that grow slowly but offer a striking appearance for small spaces such as apartments or offices.
Ficus
Fig trees
Fig trees have been cultivated in many regions for their fruits, particularly the common fig, F. carica. Most of the species have edible fruits, although the common fig is the only one of commercial value. Fig trees are also important food sources for wildlife in the tropics, including monkeys, bats, and insects.
Rubus
Brambles
Brambles are members of the rose family, and there are hundreds of different types to be found throughout the European countryside. They have been culturally significant for centuries; Christian folklore stories hold that when the devil was thrown from heaven, he landed on a bramble bush. Their vigorous growth habit can tangle into native plants and take over.
Acer
Maples
The popular tree family known as maples change the color of their leaves in the fall. Many cultural traditions encourage people to watch the colors change, such as momijigari in Japan. Maples popular options for bonsai art. Alternately, their sap is used to create maple syrup.
Prunus
Prunus
Prunus is a genus of flowering fruit trees that includes almonds, cherries, plums, peaches, nectarines, and apricots. These are often known as "stone fruits" because their pits are large seeds or "stones." When prunus trees are damaged, they exhibit "gummosis," a condition in which the tree's gum (similar to sap) is secreted to the bark to help heal external wounds.
Solanum
Nightshades
Nightshades is a large and diverse genus of plants, with more than 1500 different types worldwide. This genus incorporates both important staple food crops like tomato, potato, and eggplant, but also dangerous poisonous plants from the nightshade family. The name was coined by Pliny the Elder almost two thousand years ago.
Rosa
Roses
Most species of roses are shrubs or climbing plants that have showy flowers and sharp thorns. They are commonly cultivated for cut flowers or as ornamental plants in gardens due to their attractive appearance, pleasant fragrance, and cultural significance in many countries. The rose hips (fruits) can also be used in jams and teas.
Quercus
Oaks
Oaks are among the world's longest-lived trees, sometimes growing for over 1,000 years! The oldest known oak tree is in the southern United States and is over 1,500 years old. Oaks produce an exceedingly popular type of wood which is used to make different products, from furniture and flooring to wine barrels and even cosmetic creams.
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About
Key Facts
Distribution
How To Care
All Species
More Genus
Thistles
Thistles
Thistles
Thistles
Thistles
Thistles
Thistles
Cirsium
Thistles are sometimes known as plume thistles, distinguishing them from plumeless thistles. The name comes from the Greek word kirsos, which means swollen vein, because of their distinctive flower head shape. Many plants in this genus are important pollinators, especially for monarch butterflies. They are the national symbol of Scotland.
Lifespan
Lifespan
Biennial
info

Key Facts About Thistles

Attributes of Thistles

Flower Size
2.5 cm to 8 cm
Leaf type
Deciduous

Scientific Classification of Thistles

distribution

Distribution of Thistles

Distribution Map of Thistles

distribution map
Native
Cultivated
Invasive
Potentially invasive
Exotic
No species reported
care detail

How to Grow and Care for Thistles

Thistles is a robust, hardy plant genus requiring average care. Its Basic Care Needs include full sun to partial shade exposure, well-drained soil, regular watering, with added tolerance to differing pH and temperature ranges. Common Challenges involve aphids, slugs, and fungal problems, coupled with occasional issues of over-watering. Although resilient by nature, Seasonal Considerations should include protection against intense heat in summers and reducing watering in winters. With adaptive care, thistles varieties can thrive in various locations.
More Info About Caring for Thistles
species

Exploring the Thistles Plants

8 most common species:
Cirsium vulgare
Bull thistle
Bull thistle (Cirsium vulgare) is a thistle plant native to Europe, Africa, and Asia. Bull thistle produces a large amount of nectar and attracts pollinators. Bull thistle is considered a noxious weed in areas of Europe and Australia.
Cirsium arvense
Creeping thistle
This aggressive weed spreads across grasslands and fields via underground roots that creep horizontally, some for more than 5 m. It can cause major problems to agriculture if its growth is left unchecked. Its seeds feed many birds as well as pest insects. Creeping thistle is generally considered a noxious weed even in its native territory.
Cirsium texanum
Texas thistle
Texas thistle (Cirsium texanum) is a plant species that attracts the painted lady butterfly. In addition, goldfinches love to eat texas thistle seeds and the silky material that surrounds the seeds. This plant's flowers look like miniature pom-poms and can be either pink or lavender.
Cirsium horridulum
Yellow thistle
Bull yellow thistle (*Cirsium horridulum*) is a flowering plant related to the sunflower that is native to North America. Bull yellow thistle is also referred to as the Horrible Thistle, the Spiny Thistle, and the "Big spine Thistle." Thomas Nuttall, an English botanist who worked in America, called the plant "terribly armed."
Show More Species

All Species of Thistles

popular genus

More Popular Genus

Dracaena
Dracaena
Dracaena are popular house plants that are easy to grow. They can tolerate low-light conditions and require little watering. Their leaves range from variegated to dark green. Their characteristic traits include woody stems that grow slowly but offer a striking appearance for small spaces such as apartments or offices.
Ficus
Fig trees
Fig trees have been cultivated in many regions for their fruits, particularly the common fig, F. carica. Most of the species have edible fruits, although the common fig is the only one of commercial value. Fig trees are also important food sources for wildlife in the tropics, including monkeys, bats, and insects.
Rubus
Brambles
Brambles are members of the rose family, and there are hundreds of different types to be found throughout the European countryside. They have been culturally significant for centuries; Christian folklore stories hold that when the devil was thrown from heaven, he landed on a bramble bush. Their vigorous growth habit can tangle into native plants and take over.
Acer
Maples
The popular tree family known as maples change the color of their leaves in the fall. Many cultural traditions encourage people to watch the colors change, such as momijigari in Japan. Maples popular options for bonsai art. Alternately, their sap is used to create maple syrup.
Prunus
Prunus
Prunus is a genus of flowering fruit trees that includes almonds, cherries, plums, peaches, nectarines, and apricots. These are often known as "stone fruits" because their pits are large seeds or "stones." When prunus trees are damaged, they exhibit "gummosis," a condition in which the tree's gum (similar to sap) is secreted to the bark to help heal external wounds.
Solanum
Nightshades
Nightshades is a large and diverse genus of plants, with more than 1500 different types worldwide. This genus incorporates both important staple food crops like tomato, potato, and eggplant, but also dangerous poisonous plants from the nightshade family. The name was coined by Pliny the Elder almost two thousand years ago.
Rosa
Roses
Most species of roses are shrubs or climbing plants that have showy flowers and sharp thorns. They are commonly cultivated for cut flowers or as ornamental plants in gardens due to their attractive appearance, pleasant fragrance, and cultural significance in many countries. The rose hips (fruits) can also be used in jams and teas.
Quercus
Oaks
Oaks are among the world's longest-lived trees, sometimes growing for over 1,000 years! The oldest known oak tree is in the southern United States and is over 1,500 years old. Oaks produce an exceedingly popular type of wood which is used to make different products, from furniture and flooring to wine barrels and even cosmetic creams.
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Your Ultimate Guide to Plants
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