Botanical name: Salix
Botanical name: Salix
Species of Willows
White willow 'Britzensis'
White willow 'Britzensis' is a dwarf White willow that grows to just 1.8 m rather than the 30 m its parent may reach. This tree has been hybridized for ornamental gardens largely because of its bark, which is a deep orange-red and stands out extremely well in stark winter gardens. The cultivar was developed in 1878 in Britz, Germany, and is named for this location.
Corkscrew willow is a willow tree known for its contorted and twisted branches that form stunning spiral shapes. The narrow leaves also come out twisted. It is a cultivar of Salix babylonica, named from the Italian word "tortuosa," which means winding. Gardeners plant this tree for its amazing winter ornamental appeal.
The various types of salix fulvopubescens are common deciduous trees in the northern hemisphere. Often used in religious ceremonies, they have a variety of uses. They are grown for energy production under programs in Sweden that seek to harness the salix fulvopubescens' biomass and process them as energy crops.
Bay Willow (Salix pentandra) is a deciduous shrub that can grow to be 6 to 12 m tall with a canopy of 4.5 to 8 m wide. Glossy bay Willow leaves are considered attractive and make this species a desirable ornamental tree. It blooms in early spring and summer. Its catkin flowers are green and yellow. This species attracts bees and other insects with its nectar.
Almond willow has a variety of different uses, including basket weaving. In Russia, the plant is a useful source of nectar for honeybees, and the species is also being investigated as a potential biomass source in the production of biofuel. The name Almond willow was given due to the plant's resemblance of the Almond plant.
Growing as either a shrub or a tree, the goodding's willow (Salix gooddingii) is a deciduous plant native to the watery areas in the southwestern US and northern Mexico. It is an important source of shade and cover for the wildlife and livestock of the region. The North American beaver often relies on this tree for both food and den-building materials.
Salix interior has two types of growth form. It can grow to be a tree with a single trunk, or it can form a bunch of woody stems. Like all willows, Salix interior is a favorite food of beavers and, without their assistance, this weedy willow would be difficult to control.
The leaves are up to 11 cm long, generally oval in shape, wavy along the edges, and hairy to woolly in texture with shiny upper surfaces. The inflorescence is a catkin of flowers up to 9 cm long, with the female catkins growing longer as the fruits develop.
Salix viminalis has the ability to grow in highly-polluted soils and absorb heavy metals and store them in its leaves. Therefore is a very useful plant with the potential to help clean an ecosystem. The common name basket willow comes from the use of its flexible twigs in basketry.
Red Willow (Salix laevigata) is a deciduous tree that will grow from 8 to 17 m tall with a spreading canopy of 4.5 to 11 m wide. The bark of the tree is reddish-brown. It blooms from spring to fall with inconspicuous yellow flowers. Leaves change color from green to gold in fall. It produces a brown capsuled fruit in summer that ripens in fall. Birds feast on the seeds, while bees, butterflies and other pollinators are attracted to the flowers.
Lemmon's willow (Salix lemmonii) is named after American botanist J.G. Lemmon. Native to North America From Colorado to California to Canada, it can be found growing in moist, wet environments within coniferous forests. Lemmon's willow is used for stabilizing eroded areas.
Shining willow got its name from its glossy green leaves on the upper side, while the underside is slightly hairy. This small tree or shrub (4 to 11 m tall) grows naturally in the wetlands of northern and western North America. It hosts caterpillars of various butterfly species such as Acadian hairstreak.
Prairie willow is a small shrub with bright green foliage. It is highly drought-tolerant. This shrub can be propagated by planting a cut-off stem in soil, where it will quickly grow roots.
The eared willow (Salix aurita) is a fragrant species of willow found in sunny areas throughout Europe. These plants are an important species for pollinators, especially bees. However, they have a very extensive root system that can deplete nutrients in the soil.
Scouler Willow (Salix scouleriana) is a shrub which sometimes grows as a small tree and has a deep and widespread root system. Scouler Willow is native to western North America. This species is also known as the fire willow, Nuttall willow, mountain willow, and black willow.
'Tortuosa' is Latin for 'winding or crooked' and describes the leaves of willows 'Tortuosa', which are uniquely twisted in marked contrast to the straight leaves of the parent tree. These peculiar leaves make this a popular feature tree, and its tolerance of drought furthers its appeal.
Giant pussy willow
Salix chaenomeloides is a species of willow native to Japan, Korea and China. It is a deciduous tree, reaching a height of 10–20 m.
Rose-gold pussy willow 'Melanostachys'
Rose-gold pussy willow 'Melanostachys' has a name that refers to its dark pigmentation, with purple stems and black catkins that differ dramatically from the brown branches and greeny white catkins of the parent plant. This unique color makes this a popular ornamental shrub with glossy green leaves that add to its eye-catching appeal.
Apple-leaved willow 'Wehrhahnii'
The various types of apple-leaved willow 'Wehrhahnii' are common deciduous trees in the northern hemisphere. Often used in religious ceremonies, they have a variety of uses. They are grown for energy production under programs in Sweden that seek to harness the apple-leaved willow 'Wehrhahnii'' biomass and process them as energy crops.
Salix rorida is a species of willow native to Japan, northern China, Korea and the Russian Far East. It is a deciduous tree, reaching a height of 10 m.
Large gray willow
The various types of large gray willow are common deciduous trees in the northern hemisphere. Often used in religious ceremonies, they have a variety of uses. They are grown for energy production under programs in Sweden that seek to harness the large gray willow' biomass and process them as energy crops.
The willows 'Chrysocoma' combines both the vibrant color and weeping habit of its parent plants. Its parents are the Salix x fragilis f. vitellina and S. babylonica. A large weeping willow with a curtain of golden-green foliage, the willows 'Chrysocoma' offers visual interest to wetland areas throughout the year.
Apple-leaved willow is a hardy plant that can cope with many environmental conditions, making it a popular ornamental in rock gardens. It is a very tall shrub that can reach up to 4 m in height. Many mammals and birds feed on this plant. It is known for its colonizing habit since it quickly moves into the areas that have been scoured by water or burned by fires.
Bebb's willow (Salix bebbiana) is a multi-stemmed deciduous tree that will grow to 8 m tall. The bark is reddish-brown with narrow leaves tapered at both ends. Catkin flowers bloom spring to summer and are yellowish with red tips. This tree is also called Beaked Willow because it produces capsule-shaped fruits with long beaks. This species best in partial shade but can grow in full sunlight in moist soil.
Purple willow (Salix purpurea) grows natively in parts of Europe, North America, and Asia. Its young shoots are purplish initially but turn light gray to grayish-brown with age. The twigs and stems of this variety of willow are bendable and very useful for creating baskets and furniture. A dense root system also helps in controlling bank erosion.
Weeping willow (Salix babylonica) is a willow tree that originates in China. Now, it grows widely around the globe due to being traded on the Silk Road. This tree is planted ornamentally in parks and gardens.
Goat willow (Salix caprea) is a small deciduous tree or large shrub also known as pussy willow. Goat willow is native to Europe and western and central Asia. This species is not considered a good source of timber, as its wood is brittle. Salix caprea means "goat." This species is susceptible to disease mediated by insects and microbes.
Crack willow gets its unusual name from its branches and twigs, which break very easily. This is an evolutionary adaptation since these twigs root very easily, helping the tree to propagate, crack willow is widespread as an introduced species and is considered to be invasive in countries including New Zealand, Australia, and South Africa.
Pussy willow (Salix discolor) is a deciduous shrub that will grow in full sun to partial shade in medium to wet soil. It blooms in spring with yellow greenish catkins. The blooms resemble the pads on a cat's paw which is how it gets its name. Interestingly male plants produce the more desirable silky pearl gray catkins and female plants produce smaller less attractive blooms. Due to its preference for moist soils this plant is usually found around ponds streams and lakes.
Goat willow 'Kilmarnock'
The goat willow 'Kilmarnock' is more versatile and compact than the large pussy willow plant. Formed into a domed bush that is shaped like a large mushroom, this cultivar appears like a very small tree. This cultivar was created in the 19th century by Thomas Lang of Kilmarnock, and this is how it received its name.
Netleaf willow (Salix reticulata) is a low-lying deciduous shrub that specializes in cold and alpine environments. It is found in wet, rocky regions of Europe, Asia, and North America and is regularly seen north of the Arctic Circle. Netleaf willow is very slow-growing and most examples will not climb more than 5 cm above the ground.
Arctic willow (Salix arctica) is a slow-growing perennial that can grow from 5 to 13 cm tall. It thrives in arctic conditions and prefers full sun. It blooms in summer and is either male with yellow catkins or female with red catkins. It is foraged by wildlife and is an important food source for a variety of insects.
Grey willow (Salix cinerea) is a deciduous tree that will grow from 5 to 10 m tall. It is considered invasive. Produces catkin-like flowers in spring before leaves return in spring. Seeds ripen from spring to summer and require pollination by bees. Mature fluffy seeds are dispersed by wind. Prefers moist well-drained soil.
Coastal plain willow
The coastal plain willow (Salix caroliniana) is a willow species that can grow up to 6 m tall. Small yellow flowers erupt from pliable stems en masse during spring and attract various pollinating insects like butterflies and bees. The branches are beneficial in the construction of fencing, basketry, and other crafts. Coastal plain willow thrives in boggy areas and can tolerate some salt but not full inundation.
Sand dune willow
Sand dune willow (Salix cordata) is a perennial shrub species also known as the furry willow or the heartleaf willow. Sand dune willow grows to be 91 to 366 cm tall. This species is native to North America and grows on sand dunes and riverbanks.
A small deciduous tree, peach-Leaved Willow is a species of willow native to the United States and southern Canada. The leaves are similar to those of the almond and peach trees, giving the willow its common name.
Sitka willow is a species of willow tree that is native to the northwestern United States up through the state of Alaska. It is commonly found in wetland areas and can grow in the form of a slender tree or bush.
European violet-willow 'Aglaia'
European violet-willow 'Aglaia' is a cultivated plant from the willow family bred for its color in the winter and spring. The male catkins, slim cylindrical flower spikes, boast a light grey in the winter, gradually turning yellow in the spring. The red-colored new shoots also differentiate european violet-willow 'Aglaia' from other plants in the genus.
The sharp-leaved willow is full of honey, so it attracts bees in small gardens. The specific epithet, acutifolia, from the Latin name, Salix acutifolia, means "sharp-leaved." It has been used as a medicine and food source and is cultivated in North America and Middle Asia. Its inner bark and young shoots are favored food sources for birds.
White willow 'Britzensis'
White willow 'Britzensis' (Salix alba 'Britzensis') is an attractive, fast-growing, male cultivar of white willow (Salix alba). These plants are favored for the red and orange new stem growth that comes in the winter months. Because of this, it is usually pruned regularly to showcase its best colors. It grows well along the water or in moist soils.
Dappled willow 'Hakuro'
Dappled willow 'Hakuro' is a hybrid dappled willow that is notable for its blushing pink blossoms which stand out from the white flowers of the parent plant. This popular ornamental plant is prized by gardeners for its flowers and for its striking mixed white and green mottled leaves.
White willow 'Yelverton'
The various types of white willow 'Yelverton' are common deciduous trees in the northern hemisphere. Often used in religious ceremonies, they have a variety of uses. They are grown for energy production under programs in Sweden that seek to harness the white willow 'Yelverton'' biomass and process them as energy crops.
Weeping willow (Salix babylonica var. matsudana) is a willow tree native to China. Historically, the tree was traded along the Silk Road. Weeping willow is widely cultivated ornamentally throughout China, elsewhere in Asia, and in the United States. Besides Salix babylonica var. matsudana there are many other variants of this type of willow.
Arroyo willow (Salix lasiolepis) is a willow tree native to the western coast of North America. Its pollen is a major source of allergies. Native Americans have traditionally used parts of arroyo willow to make rope and weave baskets.
Black willow (Salix nigra) is a fast-growing tree that may reach heights of 43 m. These willows are important as early spring food sources for wildlife, for erosion control, and are sometimes used for ornamental planting in particularly wet soils. The soft lumber from the black willow is used to produce wooden shipping boxes.
Narrowleaf willow (Salix exigua) is a deciduous willow shrub species native to the United States and Mexico. Narrowleaf willow is planted as an ornamental tree, and it attracts bees. Indigenous peoples of North America used its wood to make flexible poles.
Dappled willow (Salix integra) is often planted for its compact nature and luminous foliage. It makes a great unconventional privacy screen, border, and hedge. Drooping, showy branches make a great accent in landscaping for water features such as ponds, streams, and water gardens. It's also a food source for a number of bee species.
The cultivation of white willow dates back to the era of Hippocrates and Pliny the Elder. The wood of the white willow (Salix alba) is lightweight but durable, making it a popular material for products, including baskets and cricket bats. Chemicals in the bark, known as tannins, have also been used in the production of leather.