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Hawthorns
Hawthorns
Hawthorns
Hawthorns
Hawthorns (Crataegus)
Also known as : Hawberry, Thornapple, Mayflower
Hawthorns produce flowers and fruit, and are important to healthy ecosystems. The edible fruits provide an important food source for mammals and birds, and the branches also offer a safe haven for many animals. The fragrant flowers beckon pollinators, which in turn attract a host of other insect-loving creatures.
Lifespan
Lifespan
Perennial
Plant Type
Plant Type
Shrub
info

Key Facts About Hawthorns

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Attributes of Hawthorns

Planting Time
Spring, Fall
Harvest Time
Summer
Plant Height
5 m
Spread
4 m
Flower Color
White
Leaf type
Deciduous
Ideal Temperature
5 - 32 ℃

Scientific Classification of Hawthorns

distribution

Distribution of Hawthorns

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Distribution Map of Hawthorns

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Native
Cultivated
Invasive
Potentially invasive
Exotic
No species reported
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care detail

How to Grow and Care for Hawthorns

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how to grow and care
Hawthorns, commonly referred to as hawthorn, thrives in full sun to part shade, and adapts well to various soil conditions, though well-draining soil is ideal. It requires moderate watering with consideration for the species, as some are resistant to drought. Common challenges include pests like aphids and scale insects, and diseases such as fire blight, leaf spot, and rust. Seasonally, spring is often the best time for planting or pruning, while winter months may necessitate additional protective measures, especially for young plants against frost.
More Info About Caring for Hawthorns
species

Exploring the Hawthorns Plants

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8 most common species:
Crataegus monogyna
Common hawthorn
Common hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) is a flowering tree that is actually part of the rose family. It is not unusual in garden settings and arranged as hedges. Examples of famous common hawthorn trees include the apocryphal oldest tree in France, and a well-known hawthorn in England that stood out for flowering three times a year.
Crataegus laevigata
Midland hawthorn
Midland hawthorn (Crataegus laevigata) is a large deciduous shrub that can grow to 8 m tall. It provides a dense thorny cover with beautiful clusters of creamy-white flowers that bloom in spring. Edible berries called haws ripen to bright red in fall and contain two seeds. Haw berries are favored by both humans and birds. Thrives in full sun with moist well-drained soil.
Crataegus douglasii
Black hawthorn
Black hawthorn (Crataegus douglasii) is a shrub species that is used for ornamental purposes and as a food source for livestock and wildlife. Livestock often graze on the foliage of this plant, while wild bird species eat the berries.
Crataegus crus-galli
Cockspur hawthorn
Cockspur hawthorn (Crataegus crus-galli) is a deciduous tree that will grow from 8 to 9 m tall. It is low-branched and dense with thorns and dark green leaves. It blooms white flowers that emit an unpleasant scent. Cockspur hawthorn foliage changes color from green to bronze to purple.
Crataegus azarolus
Azarole
Azarole is a Mediterranean small tree or shrub that produces edible red fruit, similar to the European common hawthorn. These berries have long been eaten fresh or cooked, and are often used for jams, juices, and sauces.
Crataegus pruinosa
Frosted hawthorn
Frosted hawthorn (Crataegus pruinosa) is a plant that's native to North America everywhere except for Mexico. The name its best known by is "frosted hawthorn." It flourishes in full to partial sun and in conditions that are moderately moist to somewhat dry.
Crataegus marshallii
Parsley Hawthorn
Parsley Hawthorn (Crataegus marshallii) is a deciduous tree with parsley-like foliage that gives it its name. Produces white flowers in spring followed by small bright red berries and seeds that provide food for birds and small animals. The tree offers shelter to wildlife. Native in low wet areas and can tolerate some flooding.
Crataegus chrysocarpa
Fireberry hawthorn
Fireberry hawthorn (Crataegus chrysocarpa) is named for its bright red fruit. It will grow up to 9 m tall and blooms from spring to summer. Fragrant flowers are white and bloom in clusters. Produces an apple-like fruit that ripens to red in fall as leaves change color from green to yellow. Grows in full sun in a variety of soils.

All Species of Hawthorns

Common hawthorn
Crataegus monogyna
Common hawthorn
Common hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) is a flowering tree that is actually part of the rose family. It is not unusual in garden settings and arranged as hedges. Examples of famous common hawthorn trees include the apocryphal oldest tree in France, and a well-known hawthorn in England that stood out for flowering three times a year.
Midland hawthorn
Crataegus laevigata
Midland hawthorn
Midland hawthorn (Crataegus laevigata) is a large deciduous shrub that can grow to 8 m tall. It provides a dense thorny cover with beautiful clusters of creamy-white flowers that bloom in spring. Edible berries called haws ripen to bright red in fall and contain two seeds. Haw berries are favored by both humans and birds. Thrives in full sun with moist well-drained soil.
Black hawthorn
Crataegus douglasii
Black hawthorn
Black hawthorn (Crataegus douglasii) is a shrub species that is used for ornamental purposes and as a food source for livestock and wildlife. Livestock often graze on the foliage of this plant, while wild bird species eat the berries.
Cockspur hawthorn
Crataegus crus-galli
Cockspur hawthorn
Cockspur hawthorn (Crataegus crus-galli) is a deciduous tree that will grow from 8 to 9 m tall. It is low-branched and dense with thorns and dark green leaves. It blooms white flowers that emit an unpleasant scent. Cockspur hawthorn foliage changes color from green to bronze to purple.
Azarole
Crataegus azarolus
Azarole
Azarole is a Mediterranean small tree or shrub that produces edible red fruit, similar to the European common hawthorn. These berries have long been eaten fresh or cooked, and are often used for jams, juices, and sauces.
Frosted hawthorn
Crataegus pruinosa
Frosted hawthorn
Frosted hawthorn (Crataegus pruinosa) is a plant that's native to North America everywhere except for Mexico. The name its best known by is "frosted hawthorn." It flourishes in full to partial sun and in conditions that are moderately moist to somewhat dry.
Parsley Hawthorn
Crataegus marshallii
Parsley Hawthorn
Parsley Hawthorn (Crataegus marshallii) is a deciduous tree with parsley-like foliage that gives it its name. Produces white flowers in spring followed by small bright red berries and seeds that provide food for birds and small animals. The tree offers shelter to wildlife. Native in low wet areas and can tolerate some flooding.
Fireberry hawthorn
Crataegus chrysocarpa
Fireberry hawthorn
Fireberry hawthorn (Crataegus chrysocarpa) is named for its bright red fruit. It will grow up to 9 m tall and blooms from spring to summer. Fragrant flowers are white and bloom in clusters. Produces an apple-like fruit that ripens to red in fall as leaves change color from green to yellow. Grows in full sun in a variety of soils.
Green hawthorn
Crataegus viridis
Green hawthorn
The green hawthorn is a smaller tree or a larger shrub that's often used in landscaping and ornamental gardening. It blooms with white flowers followed by red berries. The berries persist into winter, making an important food source for a number of birds.
Eastern mayhaw
Crataegus aestivalis
Eastern mayhaw
Eastern mayhaw (Crataegus aestivalis) is a deciduous shrub that will grow from 9 to 12 m tall and 8 m wide. It blooms in spring with showy clusters of white flowers. Red fruits ripen in summer. Fruit can be eaten raw or cooked. Thrives in full sun to partial shade in moist or wet soil.
Chinese haw
Crataegus pinnatifida
Chinese haw
Chinese haw is a tiny tree endemic to Eastern Asia. This variety is similar to apples, has fewer small thorns, and is more erect than other Hawthorns. Birds are enticed by its edible fruits. The flowers have an aromatic scent when first opened, but also emit a rotting, fish-like scent that attracts midges, its primary source of fertilization.
Washington hawthorn
Crataegus phaenopyrum
Washington hawthorn
Washington hawthorn is a North American native tree that, despite being named for the state of Washington, actually originates from nearby North Carolina. It was first introduced to Pennsylvania from Washington, thus earning its common name. Its dense, thorny growth and ability to withstand pruning make it a good protective hedging plant.
Barberry hawthorn
Crataegus berberifolia
Barberry hawthorn
Barberry hawthorn (*Crataegus berberifolia*) can be seen growing only in the woodlands and forests of the Southwestern USA. Interestingly, this is quite a diverse species with a number of different forms that produce fruit that varies in color from orange to dark red. This tree produces hardwood that is close-grained and useful for making small items like tool handles.
Big-fruit hawthorn
Crataegus macrosperma
Big-fruit hawthorn
Crataegus macrosperma, the bigfruit hawthorn is a species of hawthorn native to most of the eastern United States and adjacent Canada, though uncommon at lower altitudes in the south. It is sometimes misidentified as C. flabellata. It is one of the earliest hawthorns to bloom in spring.
Dotted hawthorn
Crataegus punctata
Dotted hawthorn
The plant is a bush or small tree to about 7 meters in height and very thorny, particularly on the trunk. The flower has three to five styles and approximately 20 stamens, and the fruit has three to five nutlets. Anther colour varies from deep purple through red to pink to white, and the mature fruit colour can be deep burgundy, scarlet, yellow, or yellow with a red cheek.
Tejocote
Crataegus mexicana
Tejocote
Tejocote, also known as Mexican hawthorn, is a small tree or shrub that grows up to 6 meters tall. Its fruit, resembling small apples, is used to make a traditional Christmas punch in Mexico. Its white flowers bloom in spring, attracting pollinators such as bees and butterflies. The name "tejocote" comes from the Nahuatl language and means "hard stick", referring to the tree's thorny branches.
Fleshy hawthorn
Crataegus succulenta
Fleshy hawthorn
It is "the most wide-ranging hawthorn in North America", native to much of southern Canada, and the United States as far south as Arizona, New Mexico, Kansas, Missouri, North Carolina, and Tennessee. In this wide area there are many variant forms that have received species names, but can also be considered as synonyms.
Chinese haw
Crataegus pinnatifida var. major
Chinese haw
Chinese haw, a variety of hawthorn, is recognized by its sizable, glossy, deep green leaves with sharply serrated edges. In spring, it brings forth clusters of white flowers, followed by large, bright red fruits, which persist into the winter. These hardy trees thrive in temperate climates and are often found adorning hedges and wild landscapes, providing nourishment for wildlife and an eye-catching splash of color.
Midland hawthorn 'Punicea'
Crataegus laevigata 'Punicea'
Midland hawthorn 'Punicea'
This cultivar of the Midland hawthorn is pink and white, rather than simply white. Further, instead of double blooms like the original plant, this one has single-flowered rosy-colored petals. The midland hawthorn 'Punicea' is prized for its ability to brighten up shadier garden spots. It is an award-winning cultivar.
Hawthorns 'Carrierei'
Crataegus × lavalleei 'Carrierei'
Hawthorns 'Carrierei'
The hawthorns 'Carrierei' is less densely branched and holds a more erect posture than other hawthorns. It is a cultivar of Crataegus mexicana and C. calpodendron, just like the Lavalle Hawthorn (Crataegus × lavalleei). It varies from its sibling with late-season red leaves, long-lasting orange berries, and nearly thornless stems. The hawthorns 'Carrierei' is a good choice for screening because its leaves remain on its tree for a long time. It is both durable and beautiful.
Midland hawthorn 'Rosea Flore Pleno'
Crataegus laevigata 'Rosea Flore Pleno'
Midland hawthorn 'Rosea Flore Pleno'
The midland hawthorn 'Rosea Flore Pleno' is often used as a dense defensive shrub with its many thorns and low-maintenance. Its nickname, 'Flore Pleno', means with full flowers; implying the bountiful amount of double flowers this cultivar has. Due to its large size of up to 8 m, the midland hawthorn 'Rosea Flore Pleno' is planted by gardeners as a windbreaking cultivar that can withstand salty, polluted, and exposed areas.
Midland hawthorn 'Plena'
Crataegus laevigata 'Plena'
Midland hawthorn 'Plena'
Midland hawthorn 'Plena' is a midland hawthorn that has been bred to grow abundant clusters of attractive white flowers which are far more profuse than the blooms of the parent tree. This deciduous tree is shorter than the parent too, growing to a maximum height of 8 m, 4 m less than its parent. 'Plena' translates as 'full', referring to the plenitude of flowers this tree produces.
Quebec hawthorn
Crataegus submollis
Quebec hawthorn
Quebec hawthorn produce flowers and fruit, and are important to healthy ecosystems. The edible fruits provide an important food source for mammals and birds, and the branches also offer a safe haven for many animals. The fragrant flowers beckon pollinators, which in turn attract a host of other insect-loving creatures.
Plumleaf hawthorn 'Prunifolia'
Crataegus persimilis 'Prunifolia'
Plumleaf hawthorn 'Prunifolia'
Plumleaf hawthorn 'Prunifolia' is an award-winning ornamental Hawthorn that produces bright colors throughout the year, with heavy white flowers that bloom in spring and dense clusters of bright red berries in the fall. The leaves also change from green to varying shades of red, purple, and yellow in fall, explaining the name, which means "purple-leaved." This hybrid grows up to 9 m tall and is larger than the parent tree, which reaches 6 m.
Plumleaf hawthorn 'Prunifolia Splendens'
Crataegus persimilis 'Prunifolia Splendens'
Plumleaf hawthorn 'Prunifolia Splendens'
Plumleaf hawthorn 'Prunifolia Splendens' is an all-season bloomer that carries the favorable features of the Hawthorn, the plant it was cultivated from – dark, oval leaves and pure white flowers. Since it was given the name "Prunifolia Splendens" for its brilliance and splendor, you can understand why this plant is so popular among gardeners.
Chinese hawthorn
Crataegus cuneata
Chinese hawthorn
Chinese hawthorn is a deciduous shrub or small tree with distinctively wedge-shaped leaves that turn a vibrant red in autumn. Its white spring blossoms give way to deep red berries that persist into winter, offering vital sustenance to wildlife. Adaptable to various soils, chinese hawthorn thrives in both full sunlight and partial shade, making it resilient in its native woodland edges and slopes.
Pear-fruited cockspurthorn
Crataegus pedicellata
Pear-fruited cockspurthorn
Pear-fruited cockspurthorn can be found along roadsides across Great Britain. They produce small beautiful flowers in the spring. It loves humid environments even though it can resist dry climates.
Midland hawthorn 'Paul's Scarlet'
Crataegus laevigata 'Paul's Scarlet'
Midland hawthorn 'Paul's Scarlet'
The midland hawthorn 'Paul's Scarlet' is a cultivar from the Rosaceae family. This tree is loaded with beautiful pink blossoms which look like double roses in the summer, but they also have thorns and green foliage. In the fall, it produces inedible red fruit. Its parent plant is C. laevigata var. rosea-plena. It gets its name due to the red in its coloring, and from William Paul of England who introduced it in the 1860s. It has received a merit award from the Royal Horticultural Society.
popular genus

More Popular Genus

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Dracaena
Dracaena
Dracaena are popular house plants that are easy to grow. They can tolerate low-light conditions and require little watering. Their leaves range from variegated to dark green. Their characteristic traits include woody stems that grow slowly but offer a striking appearance for small spaces such as apartments or offices.
Ficus
Fig trees
Fig trees have been cultivated in many regions for their fruits, particularly the common fig, F. carica. Most of the species have edible fruits, although the common fig is the only one of commercial value. Fig trees are also important food sources for wildlife in the tropics, including monkeys, bats, and insects.
Rubus
Brambles
Brambles are members of the rose family, and there are hundreds of different types to be found throughout the European countryside. They have been culturally significant for centuries; Christian folklore stories hold that when the devil was thrown from heaven, he landed on a bramble bush. Their vigorous growth habit can tangle into native plants and take over.
Acer
Maples
The popular tree family known as maples change the color of their leaves in the fall. Many cultural traditions encourage people to watch the colors change, such as momijigari in Japan. Maples popular options for bonsai art. Alternately, their sap is used to create maple syrup.
Prunus
Prunus
Prunus is a genus of flowering fruit trees that includes almonds, cherries, plums, peaches, nectarines, and apricots. These are often known as "stone fruits" because their pits are large seeds or "stones." When prunus trees are damaged, they exhibit "gummosis," a condition in which the tree's gum (similar to sap) is secreted to the bark to help heal external wounds.
Solanum
Nightshades
Nightshades is a large and diverse genus of plants, with more than 1500 different types worldwide. This genus incorporates both important staple food crops like tomato, potato, and eggplant, but also dangerous poisonous plants from the nightshade family. The name was coined by Pliny the Elder almost two thousand years ago.
Rosa
Roses
Most species of roses are shrubs or climbing plants that have showy flowers and sharp thorns. They are commonly cultivated for cut flowers or as ornamental plants in gardens due to their attractive appearance, pleasant fragrance, and cultural significance in many countries. The rose hips (fruits) can also be used in jams and teas.
Quercus
Oaks
Oaks are among the world's longest-lived trees, sometimes growing for over 1,000 years! The oldest known oak tree is in the southern United States and is over 1,500 years old. Oaks produce an exceedingly popular type of wood which is used to make different products, from furniture and flooring to wine barrels and even cosmetic creams.
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About
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How To Care
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More Genus
Hawthorns
Hawthorns
Hawthorns
Hawthorns
Hawthorns
Hawthorns
Hawthorns
Crataegus
Also known as: Hawberry, Thornapple, Mayflower
Hawthorns produce flowers and fruit, and are important to healthy ecosystems. The edible fruits provide an important food source for mammals and birds, and the branches also offer a safe haven for many animals. The fragrant flowers beckon pollinators, which in turn attract a host of other insect-loving creatures.
Lifespan
Lifespan
Perennial
Plant Type
Plant Type
Shrub
info

Key Facts About Hawthorns

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Feedback
feedback

Attributes of Hawthorns

Planting Time
Spring, Fall
Harvest Time
Summer
Plant Height
5 m
Spread
4 m
Flower Color
White
Leaf type
Deciduous
Ideal Temperature
5 - 32 ℃

Scientific Classification of Hawthorns

distribution

Distribution of Hawthorns

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Distribution Map of Hawthorns

distribution map
Native
Cultivated
Invasive
Potentially invasive
Exotic
No species reported
care detail

How to Grow and Care for Hawthorns

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Feedback
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Hawthorns, commonly referred to as hawthorn, thrives in full sun to part shade, and adapts well to various soil conditions, though well-draining soil is ideal. It requires moderate watering with consideration for the species, as some are resistant to drought. Common challenges include pests like aphids and scale insects, and diseases such as fire blight, leaf spot, and rust. Seasonally, spring is often the best time for planting or pruning, while winter months may necessitate additional protective measures, especially for young plants against frost.
More Info About Caring for Hawthorns
species

Exploring the Hawthorns Plants

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Feedback
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8 most common species:
Crataegus monogyna
Common hawthorn
Common hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) is a flowering tree that is actually part of the rose family. It is not unusual in garden settings and arranged as hedges. Examples of famous common hawthorn trees include the apocryphal oldest tree in France, and a well-known hawthorn in England that stood out for flowering three times a year.
Crataegus laevigata
Midland hawthorn
Midland hawthorn (Crataegus laevigata) is a large deciduous shrub that can grow to 8 m tall. It provides a dense thorny cover with beautiful clusters of creamy-white flowers that bloom in spring. Edible berries called haws ripen to bright red in fall and contain two seeds. Haw berries are favored by both humans and birds. Thrives in full sun with moist well-drained soil.
Crataegus douglasii
Black hawthorn
Black hawthorn (Crataegus douglasii) is a shrub species that is used for ornamental purposes and as a food source for livestock and wildlife. Livestock often graze on the foliage of this plant, while wild bird species eat the berries.
Crataegus crus-galli
Cockspur hawthorn
Cockspur hawthorn (Crataegus crus-galli) is a deciduous tree that will grow from 8 to 9 m tall. It is low-branched and dense with thorns and dark green leaves. It blooms white flowers that emit an unpleasant scent. Cockspur hawthorn foliage changes color from green to bronze to purple.
Show More Species

All Species of Hawthorns

popular genus

More Popular Genus

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Feedback
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Dracaena
Dracaena
Dracaena are popular house plants that are easy to grow. They can tolerate low-light conditions and require little watering. Their leaves range from variegated to dark green. Their characteristic traits include woody stems that grow slowly but offer a striking appearance for small spaces such as apartments or offices.
Ficus
Fig trees
Fig trees have been cultivated in many regions for their fruits, particularly the common fig, F. carica. Most of the species have edible fruits, although the common fig is the only one of commercial value. Fig trees are also important food sources for wildlife in the tropics, including monkeys, bats, and insects.
Rubus
Brambles
Brambles are members of the rose family, and there are hundreds of different types to be found throughout the European countryside. They have been culturally significant for centuries; Christian folklore stories hold that when the devil was thrown from heaven, he landed on a bramble bush. Their vigorous growth habit can tangle into native plants and take over.
Acer
Maples
The popular tree family known as maples change the color of their leaves in the fall. Many cultural traditions encourage people to watch the colors change, such as momijigari in Japan. Maples popular options for bonsai art. Alternately, their sap is used to create maple syrup.
Prunus
Prunus
Prunus is a genus of flowering fruit trees that includes almonds, cherries, plums, peaches, nectarines, and apricots. These are often known as "stone fruits" because their pits are large seeds or "stones." When prunus trees are damaged, they exhibit "gummosis," a condition in which the tree's gum (similar to sap) is secreted to the bark to help heal external wounds.
Solanum
Nightshades
Nightshades is a large and diverse genus of plants, with more than 1500 different types worldwide. This genus incorporates both important staple food crops like tomato, potato, and eggplant, but also dangerous poisonous plants from the nightshade family. The name was coined by Pliny the Elder almost two thousand years ago.
Rosa
Roses
Most species of roses are shrubs or climbing plants that have showy flowers and sharp thorns. They are commonly cultivated for cut flowers or as ornamental plants in gardens due to their attractive appearance, pleasant fragrance, and cultural significance in many countries. The rose hips (fruits) can also be used in jams and teas.
Quercus
Oaks
Oaks are among the world's longest-lived trees, sometimes growing for over 1,000 years! The oldest known oak tree is in the southern United States and is over 1,500 years old. Oaks produce an exceedingly popular type of wood which is used to make different products, from furniture and flooring to wine barrels and even cosmetic creams.
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