Botanical name: Terminalia
Botanical name: Terminalia
The terminalia are a genus of large flowering trees. Its Latin name Terminalia refers to the leaves that appear at the tops of its shoots. It has commercial uses in gums, resins, and tanning extracts. The wood has been used for carpentry purposes. The terminalia can be found throughout southern Asia, Australia, and tropical to subtropical areas of Africa.
Species of Terminalia
Madagascar almond tree
The madagascar almond tree is a uniquely layered tree commonly used in reforestation projects in tropical locations because of its fast-growing nature and wide range of acceptable rainfall totals per year. Madagascar almond tree has been traditionally used in the folk medicine of Madagascar. Researchers have also found it to be a rich source of polyphenols and antioxidants.
The silver cluster-leaf grows to a height of about 9 metres (30 ft) in woodland but isolated trees can be up to 23 metres (75 ft) tall. The bark is a reddish or greyish brown colour and peels away in strips. The bluish-green leaves tend to be clustered at the tips of the branches. They are ovate with entire margins and both the upper and lower surfaces are clothed in silvery hairs. The flowers are white and are borne in short axilliary spikes. They have an unpleasant smell and may be pollinated by flies. The fruit are winged nuts containing a single seed and turn a darker pink colour as they ripen. They may remain attached to the branch for a year and are dispersed by the wind. They sometimes become contorted and hairy as a result of the activities of parasitic insect larvae.
Terminalia chebula is a medium to large deciduous tree growing to 30 m (98 ft) tall, with a trunk up to 1 m (3 ft 3 in) in diameter. The leaves are alternate to subopposite in arrangement, oval, 7–8 cm (2.8–3.1 in) long and 4.5–10 cm (1.8–3.9 in) broad with a 1–3 cm (0.39–1.18 in) petiole. They have an acute tip, cordate at the base, margins entire, glabrous above with a yellowish pubescence below. The fruit is drupe-like, 2–4.5 cm (0.79–1.77 in) long and 1.2–2.5 cm (0.47–0.98 in) broad, blackish, with five longitudinal ridges. The dull white to yellow flowers are monoecious, and have a strong, unpleasant odour. They are borne in terminal spikes or short panicles. The fruits are smooth ellipsoid to ovoid drupes, yellow to orange-brown in colour, with a single angled stone.
Beleric myrobalan grows as a gnarled tree in Southeast Asia and the Indian Subcontinent. It has long been an important economic product: beleric myrobalan's wood is a cheap source of lumber and is even more often used to create charcoal. Other parts of the plant are employed as dyes.
Arjuna (Terminalia arjuna) is a large tree with striking buttress roots, giving it stability in poor soil conditions and along the riverbanks where it is often found. It plays an important role in silk production since a particular species of silk moth feeds on its leaves.
Tropical almond is grown commonly as an ornamental tree. It is prized for its ability to provide shade with its large leaves. These leaves are commonly used in aquariums by fish breeders for their ability to lower the pH and heavy metal content of the water. Although the fruit of the tropical almond is edible, the taste is slightly acidic.