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Spurges
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Spurges
Spurges (Euphorbia)
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Distribution of Spurges

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Exploring the Spurges Plants

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8 most common species:
Euphorbia pulcherrima
Poinsettia
The poinsettia is a common sight in the United States during Christmastime. It was popularized by Albert Ecke after he emigrated to California from Germany. Today, 70 million poinsettias are sold in a 6-week period.
Euphorbia trigona
African milk tree
African milk tree (Euphorbia trigona) is a perennial species from Central Africa. African milk tree grows best in sandy soils and can root easily from cuttings. This species produces latex that can be a skin irritant. It is often planted as a houseplant and is used as a ritual plant in Gabon.
Euphorbia milii
Crown of thorns
The Euphorbia milii is commonly known as the crown of thorns or Christ thorn, as it is believed to the plant associated with the crown of thorns that was worn by Christ. It needs to stay above 10 ℃ with full sun.
Euphorbia characias
Mediterranean spurge
Mediterranean spurge (Euphorbia characias) is a flowering evergreen shrub that blooms from spring to early summer. Its nectar glands attract many pollinators, including bees and butterflies. This species grows well in dry or well-drained soil and has become a popular choice for desert gardens.
Euphorbia tirucalli
Pencil cactus
Pencil cactus (Euphorbia tirucalli) is a small tree shrub that grows best in warm arid climates and is named for its pencil-sized succulent branches. Pencil cactus is native to black clay soils in Africa and can be poisonous if ingested. It produces a latex compound that can be poisonous and cause blindness.
Euphorbia tithymaloides
Devil's-backbone
Devil's-backbone (Euphorbia tithymaloides) is a succulent species of spurge native to North and Central America. It has been planted in gardens since the 17th century and valued for its unique appearance and its habit of attracting hummingbirds. However, nearly all parts of this species are toxic and should not be consumed.
Euphorbia cyparissias
Cypress spurge
The cypress spurge is an ornamental plant native to Europe. Because of its strong tendency to overrun the habitats of other species, this plant is classified as a noxious weed in various states, including Colorado. Although this plant attracts bees and other pollinators, some sections of it are hazardous and contain irritants.
Euphorbia leucocephala
Pascuita
Pascuita (Euphorbia leucocephala) is a tropical shrub that will grow from 2.5 to 3 m tall. Like its close relative the poinsettia, its showy parts are leaf-shaped bracts with the actual flowers found in the center of the bract. It blooms in late fall to give a snowy display through winter. Emits a milky sap when cut that can irritate the skin. Gloves should be worn when pruning this plant.

All Species of Spurges

Poinsettia
Euphorbia pulcherrima
Poinsettia
The poinsettia is a common sight in the United States during Christmastime. It was popularized by Albert Ecke after he emigrated to California from Germany. Today, 70 million poinsettias are sold in a 6-week period.
African milk tree
Euphorbia trigona
African milk tree
African milk tree (Euphorbia trigona) is a perennial species from Central Africa. African milk tree grows best in sandy soils and can root easily from cuttings. This species produces latex that can be a skin irritant. It is often planted as a houseplant and is used as a ritual plant in Gabon.
Crown of thorns
Euphorbia milii
Crown of thorns
The Euphorbia milii is commonly known as the crown of thorns or Christ thorn, as it is believed to the plant associated with the crown of thorns that was worn by Christ. It needs to stay above 10 ℃ with full sun.
Mediterranean spurge
Euphorbia characias
Mediterranean spurge
Mediterranean spurge (Euphorbia characias) is a flowering evergreen shrub that blooms from spring to early summer. Its nectar glands attract many pollinators, including bees and butterflies. This species grows well in dry or well-drained soil and has become a popular choice for desert gardens.
Pencil cactus
Euphorbia tirucalli
Pencil cactus
Pencil cactus (Euphorbia tirucalli) is a small tree shrub that grows best in warm arid climates and is named for its pencil-sized succulent branches. Pencil cactus is native to black clay soils in Africa and can be poisonous if ingested. It produces a latex compound that can be poisonous and cause blindness.
Devil's-backbone
Euphorbia tithymaloides
Devil's-backbone
Devil's-backbone (Euphorbia tithymaloides) is a succulent species of spurge native to North and Central America. It has been planted in gardens since the 17th century and valued for its unique appearance and its habit of attracting hummingbirds. However, nearly all parts of this species are toxic and should not be consumed.
Cypress spurge
Euphorbia cyparissias
Cypress spurge
The cypress spurge is an ornamental plant native to Europe. Because of its strong tendency to overrun the habitats of other species, this plant is classified as a noxious weed in various states, including Colorado. Although this plant attracts bees and other pollinators, some sections of it are hazardous and contain irritants.
Pascuita
Euphorbia leucocephala
Pascuita
Pascuita (Euphorbia leucocephala) is a tropical shrub that will grow from 2.5 to 3 m tall. Like its close relative the poinsettia, its showy parts are leaf-shaped bracts with the actual flowers found in the center of the bract. It blooms in late fall to give a snowy display through winter. Emits a milky sap when cut that can irritate the skin. Gloves should be worn when pruning this plant.
Petty spurge
Euphorbia peplus
Petty spurge
Petty spurge (Euphorbia peplus) is an annual plant from Europe, Asia, and Africa. It is fast-growing and has become invasive in some countries because it outcompetes other species for resources such as moisture and sunlight. Petty spurge latex is mildly toxic, has nevertheless attracted the attention of researchers in the US and Germany who hope to isolate useful compounds from it.
Medusa plant
Euphorbia flanaganii
Medusa plant
Medusa plant (Euphorbia flanaganii) is a unique cactus with several snake-like branches extending from a central hub. It can grow to 91 cm wide. Requires bright, indirect light and well-drained soil. Avoid direct sun exposure, which can burn the plant and prevent it from getting too wet. It blooms summer through fall with small, yellow flowers.
Wood spurge
Euphorbia amygdaloides
Wood spurge
Wood spurge (Euphorbia amygdaloides) is an evergreen perennial that is native to Eurasian woodlands. The milky latex substance that the plant exudes is toxic and a potential skin irritant. In spring and summer, it produces unique green-yellow flowers and has earned the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Garden Merit.
Spotted spurge
Euphorbia maculata
Spotted spurge
Spotted spurge (Euphorbia maculata) is a low-growing summer annual that is commonly considered a weed. Spotted spurge grows in almost any open area. The stems of this species secrete a milky sap that can irritate the skin and is toxic to sheep. Spotted spurge can be controlled by digging up the plant and its roots and mulching the area to prevent regrowth. It is naturally killed by frost.
Pincushion euphorbia
Euphorbia enopla
Pincushion euphorbia
Pincushion euphorbia (Euphorbia enopla) is a succulent shrub native to South Africa. Pincushion euphorbia is often cultivated as an ornamental houseplant and is considered easy to care for by gardeners. This species grows best in well-drained soil and full sunlight. It is susceptible to root rot if subjected to standing water.
Asthma-plant
Euphorbia hirta
Asthma-plant
Asthma-plant (Euphorbia hirta) is a ground-hugging spurge weed whose branches can grow to 61 cm long. It blooms from summer through early fall, dying off after the first frost. A milky sap will seep from broken stems or leaves. It can be a nuisance weed that reproduces rapidly.
Pine-cone plant
Euphorbia bupleurifolia
Pine-cone plant
Pine-cone plant (Euphorbia bupleurifolia) is a dwarf succulent endemic to South Africa where it prefers acidic soil. This species is commonly planted as an ornamental houseplant and grows best in well-drained soil and plentiful sunlight. Wild populations are declining due to human harvesting.
Myrtle spurge
Euphorbia myrsinites
Myrtle spurge
The myrtle spurge (*Euphorbia myrsinites*) is a succulent species from Southeastern Europe into Western Asia. Its milky sap can induce irritation in the skin and eyes, and its effects are strongest in children. Extreme care should be taken when handling myrtle spurge. The effect is even such that many plants are unable to grow near the myrtle spurge.
Wild poinsettia
Euphorbia heterophylla var. cyathophora
Wild poinsettia
Wild poinsettia (*Euphorbia heterophylla* var. *cyathophora*) thrives best in open woods and floodplains in the wild. The genus name, "*Euphorbia*", comes from Euphorbus, the ancient Greek physician to King Juba II, who lived in Numidia. The variant name of "*cyathophora*" is a conglomeration of two Greek words and translates to "cup-bearer" referring to the cup-shaped base of the flower.
Mexican fireplant
Euphorbia heterophylla
Mexican fireplant
Mexican fireplant is native to tropical America, but it has been naturalized in other tropical and subtropical regions in the world. *Euphorbia heterophylla* is a poisonous plant to humans and livestock. It contains a toxic milky sap which can cause strong skin irritation.
Euphorbia
Euphorbia neriifolia var. cristata
Euphorbia
Euphorbia (Euphorbia neriifolia var. cristata) is a fast-growing succulent native to India, Sri Lanka, and Myanmar. Euphorbia is valued for its crested nature and ability to grow into unique sculptural shapes. This species is considered easy to grow when cultivated as a houseplant. It should be grown in well-drained soil in plentiful sunlight.
Hyssop-leaf sandmat
Euphorbia hyssopifolia
Hyssop-leaf sandmat
Hyssop-leaf sandmat (Euphorbia hyssopifolia) is a sandmat that’s indigenous to the southwestern part of the United States. A sandmat is a plant in the genus of Euphorbia that thrives best in deserts. Hyssop-leaf sandmat has a milk-white sap in its stem—just like the milkweed. It’s also known as hyssop spurge, eyebane, wart weed, and chicken weed.
Matted Sandmat
Euphorbia serpens
Matted Sandmat
Matted Sandmat is an annual weed that grows flat along the ground into a matted form. It has a long tap root and hardy seeds, which make it difficult to eradicate. This plant’s sap can irritate the skin and is toxic.
Serrate spurge
Euphorbia serrata
Serrate spurge
Serrate spurge (Euphorbia serrata) is used as an ornamental plant and ground cover but is regarded as a noxious weed in some places such as California. Nevertheless, it provides food and cover for a wide range of birds and mammals. As with all spurge species, serrate spurge sap can irritate the skin and is moderately toxic if eaten.
Warty spurge
Euphorbia flavicoma
Warty spurge
All plants of the Euphorbia genus, including Euphorbia flavicoma, contain toxic milky sap and have interesting and unusual flower structure. Euphorbia flavicoma naturally grows in pastures and forest edges in the Mediterranean and sub-Mediterranean region, but it's often used as a garden plant thanks to its ornamental features.
Sweet spurge
Euphorbia dulcis
Sweet spurge
The sweet spurge is a deciduous, perennial herbaceous plant that reaches a stature height of 20 to 50 cm. As a persistence organ, it forms a fleshy, horizontally growing rhizome. The stalk is stalk-round, hairy towards the top. The middle and upper leaves are 4 to 9 cm long and 1 to 2 cm wide.
Silver thicket
Euphorbia stenoclada
Silver thicket
Silver thicket (Euphorbia stenoclada) is a succulent shrub that is often planted in gardens and cultivated as a houseplant. Due to silver thicket's sharp spines, caution should be exercised when planting it in gardens so that children and pets won't be injured by it. In addition, this species produces a milky sap that can cause blindness if exposed to the eyes and irritation if exposed to the skin. It should be grown in full sunlight and well-drained soil.
Eggleaf Spurge
Euphorbia oblongata
Eggleaf Spurge
Native to Turkey and Southeast Europe, the eggleaf Spurge is an invasive weed that can grow up to three feet tall and its dense population can displace indigenous plants. This plant needs to be handled with care as the white sap from its stem can cause skin irritation and is toxic to livestock when ingested.
Eyebane
Euphorbia nutans
Eyebane
Eyebane is a weedy annual also known as nodding spurge or Euphorbia nutans. It grows small clusters of cup-shaped white flowers. Like all other species of euphorbia, this plant has a sap that is toxic.
Twisted Spurge
Euphorbia tortirama
Twisted Spurge
Twisted Spurge (Euphorbia tortirama) is a South African species ornamentally valued for its spiraling leaves. Twisted Spurge grows in the wild in woodland rocky soils. This species grows best in cultivation in pots with large draining holes. It is considered a slow-growing species that is less prone to root rot than some other species.
Little fir spurge
Euphorbia pithyusa
Little fir spurge
The little fir spurge is a popular ornamental plant, prized for its blue-gray leaves and upright growth form. This spurge, like all spurges, produces a milky sap that is poisonous to humans and can cause skin irritation.
Irish spurge
Euphorbia hyberna
Irish spurge
Irish spurge's defining feature is its yellow-green flowers that bloom between late spring and mid-summer. It is a wildflower that grows in woodlands and alongside streams and hedges. Many species within the spurge family are poisonous to eat and touch, so caution is recommended.
Candelilla
Euphorbia antisyphilitica
Candelilla
Candelilla (Euphorbia antisyphilitica) is a flowering plant native to desert areas of North America. It grows in tufts of waxy stems that look a bit like slender candles. Its leaves and flowers are tiny and appear all along the stem. The wax is of a high grade and can be used to make soap, candles, and waterproofing and lubricating products.
Red monadenium
Euphorbia neorubella
Red monadenium
Red monadenium (Euphorbia neorubella) is an indigenous Kenyan plant that thrives in the wild and in cultivation when grown among rocks. Red monadenium is drought tolerant, considered easy to grow, and requires little maintenance in cultivation. This species should be shielded from direct sunlight and given moderate amounts of water.
Sickle spurge
Euphorbia falcata
Sickle spurge
Sickle spurge is a euphorbia species that grows in disturbed ground, including roadsides, meadows, and empty fields. It is considered an agricultural weed in the United States. LIke many euphorbia, sickle spurge may be toxic when ingested so use caution when handling it.
Gulf sandmat
Euphorbia thymifolia
Gulf sandmat
Gulf sandmat is a fascinating plant with many unique qualities. This plant is not only visually appealing but also has economic value due to its use in traditional medicine. With its beautiful flowers, gulf sandmat attracts a variety of insects and birds, making it a great addition to any garden. While its small size may remind you of thyme, its medicinal properties and contribution to biodiversity set it apart from common plants.
Peking spurge
Euphorbia pekinensis
Peking spurge
Peking spurge is a flowering plant that's occasionally grown as an ornamental. Its most striking feature is its yellow-green flowers, which are actually bracts; the true flowers are tiny and inconspicuous. The plant contains milky, latex-like sap that's poisonous when ingested and causes skin irritation when touched.
Spiny spurge
Euphorbia spinosa
Spiny spurge
Spiny spurge is an evergreen herbaceous perennial shrub typically found in rocky, alpine areas. It is noted for its thorny stem. It is drought tolerant, can be used for ground cover, and is often used in rockeries for ornamental purposes. It is toxic if ingested and its sap can cause skin irritation.
Rattlesnake weed
Euphorbia albomarginata
Rattlesnake weed
Rattlesnake weed (Euphorbia albomarginata) is a flat-growing ground cover found in dry and desert regions. It can access moisture from dew, so it can survive where other plants can't. Euphorbia albomarginata's milky sap is poisonous. In urban landscaping and gardens, it is considered a weed.
Siebold's spurge
Euphorbia sieboldiana
Siebold's spurge
It is an rhizomatous perennial growing to 70 cm tall. It produces small flowers in compact pseudoumbels. These lack petal-like appendages. This species can be readily identified by the horn-like projections on the glands of the involucre.
Pincushion euphorbia
Euphorbia heptagona
Pincushion euphorbia
Pincushion euphorbia (Euphorbia heptagona) derives its unique common name from its appearance, which resembles long red needles stuck into a green pincushion. While the plant is resistant to pests and diseases, it is sensitive to excess humidity, which it dislikes. Small yellow flowers (typical of the Euphorbia genus) bloom in summer.
David's spurge
Euphorbia davidii
David's spurge
Euphorbia davidii, also known as david's spurge, is native to southwestern and central North America. It has also been introduced in many places worldwide and can survive in a wide range of habitats.
Dwarf spurge
Euphorbia exigua
Dwarf spurge
The small spurge is an annual krautige plant, which reaches a stature height of 5 to 20 cm. The sitting leaves are linear with a width of 1 to 4 millimeters, tapered and blue-green frosted.
Red-gland spurge
Euphorbia melanadenia
Red-gland spurge
Red-gland spurge (Euphorbia melanadenia) is a species that’s indigenous to the western part of the United States. This plant produces egg-shaped fruit with puckered-up white seeds in them. If there’s enough moisture, it can bloom at any time of the year. Be wary around this plant, because its milky white sap can irritate skin and eyes.
Cliff spurge
Euphorbia misera
Cliff spurge
Cliff spurge (Euphorbia misera) is a perennial, deciduous shrub that thrives in full sun and prefers sandy soil. It's commonly found growing on coastal bluffs along the southwest coast of the U.S. It blooms in spring with small white flowers that have interesting red and yellow centers. Attracts bees and butterflies. It is drought-tolerant, once established.
Seaside sandmat
Euphorbia polygonifolia
Seaside sandmat
Seaside sandmat has a fairly restricted habitat in sandy beaches and dunes along the Atlantic Ocean and Great Lakes. Its fruit and seeds are relatively large, and develop later than similar species.
Mrs. Robb's hatbox
Euphorbia amygdaloides subsp. robbiae
Mrs. Robb's hatbox
Mrs. Robb's hatbox, or Robb’s euphorbia, also has the delightful names of mrs. Robb's hatbox or Mrs. Robb's Bonnet. This subspecies of Euphorbia amygdaloides subsp. robbiae is a trailing ground cover, which is popular in gardens for its spread and for its two-toned green heart-shaped leaves. It is native to Mediterranean climates and often grows wild in woodland areas.
Honey euphorbia
Euphorbia tetragona
Honey euphorbia
Honey euphorbia is a fascinating plant with unique characteristics. This succulent species is native to South Africa and stands out with its distinctive geometric shape. Known as a candelabra plant, Euphorbia tetragona grows tall, branching stems that resemble candlesticks. It's interesting to note that this plant is highly toxic and can cause severe skin irritation and eye damage. Despite its harmful properties, Euphorbia tetragona is commonly used in landscaping due to its architectural appeal. Its unusual form adds a captivating and modern touch to any garden.
Spurges 'Blackbird'
Euphorbia 'Blackbird'
Spurges 'Blackbird'
Known for its distinctive dark green foliage and yellow flowers, the spurges 'Blackbird' has a compact bushy habit. A sport of the Euphorbia Red Wing Charam, the spurges 'Blackbird' developed its byname 'Blackbird' from its dark foliage. Animal resistant, this cultivar is versatile and can be grown in a range of gardens for its texture and form.
Devil's backbone
Euphorbia tithymaloides 'Nana'
Devil's backbone
Euphorbia tithymaloides 'Nana' is a shrubby, deciduous succulent that is popular in gardens and often cultivated as a houseplant. Euphorbia tithymaloides 'Nana' attracts hummingbirds. This species is deer-resistant and salt-tolerant when near the coastline. Euphorbia tithymaloides 'Nana' is poisonous if ingested.
Fireglow spurge 'Dixter'
Euphorbia griffithii 'Dixter'
Fireglow spurge 'Dixter'
Fireglow spurge 'Dixter' is shorter and smaller than other plants from the same genus family, but the bold orange blooms look similar. The leaves can change colors depending on the soil pH and the lighting. In some cases, the leaves will have red margins. Gardeners often use this plant in their yards to attract pollinators and hummingbirds.
Pincushion euphorbia
Euphorbia ferox
Pincushion euphorbia
Pincushion euphorbia is a fascinating succulent with striking architectural features that make it a popular addition to rock gardens and drought-tolerant landscapes. It has thick, spiky leaves that resemble cactus spines and clusters of small, greenish-yellow flowers that bloom in the summer. This plant has been used in traditional medicine. However, it's important to note that it contains toxic latex, which can cause skin irritation and even blindness if ingested. Its unique appearance and hardiness make it a standout plant in any collection.
Euphorbia loricata
Euphorbia loricata
Euphorbia loricata
Euphorbia loricata is a unique succulent with thick, fleshy leaves arranged in a rosette pattern, native to arid regions. Its robust form is adapted to store water, enabling survival in harsh climates. Characterized by its ridged, green foliage, euphorbia loricata often has a reddish tinge as a stress response to intense sunlight, which also serves as a protective mechanism against herbivores. The plant’s inconspicuous flowers are less noticeable compared to its armored leaf structure.
Euphorbia stygiana
Euphorbia stygiana
Euphorbia stygiana
Euphorbia stygiana is an endangered species of perennial evergreen shrub in the family Euphorbiaceae, endemic to several islands of the Azores. It grows to a height of 1.5 m and spread of 1 m, with dark green lanceolate leaves and yellow flowers.
Euphorbia peplus var. peplus
Euphorbia peplus var. peplus
Euphorbia peplus var. peplus
Euphorbia peplus var. peplus is a small, herbaceous annual with a milky sap that can be irritating to the skin. Its stems bear spoon-shaped leaves, and it exhibits petite, greenish-yellow flowers encased in a unique cup-like structure. Preferring semi-shaded environments, euphorbia peplus var. peplus thrives in disturbed soils often found in gardens and agricultural lands, exploiting such niches to spread quickly.
Martin's spurge
Euphorbia martini
Martin's spurge
Martin's spurge makes a real impression as a gorgeous, light green foliage plant. This dark, evergreen sub-shrub explodes into dense, chartreuse flowers that may be accentuated with purple eyes. Although it only grows between 1 and 2 ft in height, first-time growers love how easy it is to care for and its resistance to disease.
Euphorbia gottlebei
Euphorbia gottlebei
Euphorbia gottlebei
Euphorbia gottlebei features a compact, globe-shaped stem with rib-like protrusions edged with spines, mimicking its arid homeland's rocky expanses. Its adaptive structure minimizes surface area, reducing moisture loss. Tiny yellow flowers may emerge, camouflaged against its greenish body, further reflecting its mastery of survival in sparse environments.
Spurge
Euphorbia bongolavensis
Spurge
Spurge is a tropical-looking foliage plant. Its lovely leaves look their best when they receive a lot of indirect light. They flower all year and are easy to care for. They climb naturally over other plants in South America.
Euphorbia cap-saintemariensis
Euphorbia cap-saintemariensis
Euphorbia cap-saintemariensis
Euphorbia cap-saintemariensis (Euphorbia cap-saintemariensis) is a miniature, low-spreading, creeping plant, often potted and sold in wide, shallow pots for decorative purposes for houseplants, balconies, terraces, and patios. Endemic to Madagascar, this succulent plant is threatened by habitat loss.
Euphorbia stellata
Euphorbia stellata
Euphorbia stellata
Euphorbia stellata has an interesting appearance that makes it popular as a container plant. It can also grow in rock gardens in warm climates. It is not uncommon for the plant’s large tuber to be above ground with branches growing out of the side.
Fireglow spurge 'Fern Cottage'
Euphorbia griffithii 'Fern Cottage'
Fireglow spurge 'Fern Cottage'
Fireglow spurge 'Fern Cottage' is a species of Fireglow surge named for the house it was cultivated in. It has many characteristics similar to other plants in the family, with the exception of its flowers. The blooms are a brilliant orange, making this a popular choice among gardeners for adding a splash of bright color to any garden.
Euphorbia cylindrifolia
Euphorbia cylindrifolia
Euphorbia cylindrifolia
Euphorbia cylindrifolia is a visually striking succulent with tubular, green to greyish-green stems that often resemble cylindrical columns. These stems, typically clustered and erect, can reach heights of up to 30 cm, adapting euphorbia cylindrifolia well to arid habitats by minimizing water loss. The plant’s inconspicuous leaves and small, yellowish-green flowers emerge at the stem tips, underscoring its efficient use of resources in harsh conditions.
Scarlet plume
Euphorbia fulgens
Scarlet plume
A winter-blooming garden plant that only grows properly in warm environments, scarlet plume is most commonly found indoors or in heated greenhouses. The Royal Horticultural Society has given scarlet plume the Award of Garden Merit.
Euphorbia atropurpurea
Euphorbia atropurpurea
Euphorbia atropurpurea
Euphorbia atropurpurea is distinguished by its deep reddish-purple inflorescences, rising from a rosette of succulent, evergreen leaves. This hardy perennial adapts to rocky, arid environments with its thick, water-storing stems, which help ensure survival in its native Canary Island habitats. Under the right conditions, it can also produce small, inconspicuous flowers within its showy bracts.
Euphorbia neohumbertii
Euphorbia neohumbertii
Euphorbia neohumbertii
Euphorbia neohumbertii is a striking succulent with robust, upright growth. Its deeply ribbed stems are crowned with dense clusters of spiny, bright green leaves, lending it a cactus-like appearance. Adapted to arid environments, euphorbia neohumbertii's thick stems store water, enabling survival in harsh, rocky habitats. This architectural plant is a vivid specimen in xeriscapes and succulent collections, attracting attention with its sculptural form and resilience.
Euphorbia poissonii
Euphorbia poissonii
Euphorbia poissonii
Even though euphorbia poissonii is not widely cultivated globally, its unique appearance ensures the plant is noticed when it is growing in the garden. It gets its occasional common name of 'candelabra plant' from the branches that grow out of the trunk resembling a candelabra.
Miniature saguaro
Euphorbia aeruginosa
Miniature saguaro
Often cultivated as a container plant, miniature saguaro can also be found growing in warm climate rock gardens. It is prized for its attractive foliage and bright-colored summer flowers. The plant’s Latin name refers to the contrasting colored branches and spines.
Euphorbia francoisii
Euphorbia francoisii
Euphorbia francoisii
Euphorbia francoisii is characterized by its petite, clustered formation and distinctive foliage. The leaves, often a deep green with purple hues, are sleek and pointed, forming an attractive crown atop the segmented stems. In its arid native habitat, euphorbia francoisii thrives by storing moisture in its fleshy stems, enabling it to survive harsh drought conditions. Its small, inconspicuous flowers are a testament to its resilience in a minimalist survival strategy.
African candelabra
Euphorbia ammak
African candelabra
African candelabra is a striking plant with an upright, segmented growth resembling a candelabra. Its thick, fleshy columns are perfectly adapted to storing water, making this dry-climate specialist ideal for drought-prone gardens. Despite resembling cacti native to the Americas, this plant originates in the Arabian Peninsula, where it is now scarce in the wild.
Tall Slipper Flower
Euphorbia bracteata
Tall Slipper Flower
It’s hard to miss tall Slipper Flower growing in the garden. The bush-shaped succulent produces large flower spikes covered in bird-shaped blooms. It’s also why it is sometimes called the little bird plant.
Euphorbia ritchiei
Euphorbia ritchiei
Euphorbia ritchiei
Euphorbia ritchiei is a Kenyan native that thrives in steep, stony slopes, particularly large and volcanic ones. They are as popular as small succulents get due to its ease of care as well as its charming, fleshy stems that, although short, are thick and alluring.
Euphorbia abyssinica
Euphorbia abyssinica
Euphorbia abyssinica
This succulent tree is native to east and northeastern Africa. It is mostly leafless, so photosynthesis is performed by the green, cactus-like stems. Euphorbia abyssinica grows reasonably fast and will reach several meters in just 3 to 5 years in its ideal conditions. Members of the species Euphorbia have toxic sap which should not be touched or ingested.
Euphorbia knuthii
Euphorbia knuthii
Euphorbia knuthii
Euphorbia knuthii is a dwarf succulent plant with prominent spines. The plant develops a number of underground roots (rhizomes) which are often exposed above the soil and can look quite decorative. Euphorbia knuthii is a popular ornamental plant for both indoor and outdoor environments.
Devil's-backbone 'Variegata'
Euphorbia tithymaloides 'Variegata'
Devil's-backbone 'Variegata'
Devil's-backbone 'Variegata''s starry red flowers and multicolored leaves give this cultivar its beautiful look. Cultivated as a hybrid, it was named after its (usually) evergreen variegated foliage. Devil's-backbone 'Variegata' is beloved for its profuse blooms, seasonal ornamental value, and ease of care.
Euphorbia susannae
Euphorbia susannae
Euphorbia susannae
This small, clumping succulent is endemic to a small region near Cape Province in South Africa. The larger part of the plant is actually underground in the form of swollen roots. Euphorbia susannae produces tiny flowers in spring or autumn. As with all members of this species, the sap is highly toxic - do not handle without gloves.
Euphorbia 'Zig Zag'
Euphorbia 'Zig Zag'
Euphorbia 'Zig Zag'
Because of its spines and sharp edges, the euphorbia 'Zig Zag', a dwarf-stemmed succulent formed like a candelabra, resembles a cactus. It is a hybrid of Euphorbia Grandicornis and Euphorbia Pseudocactus. If consumed, all components of the plant are poisonous. Handling the plant may cause skin irritation or an allergic reaction, so take extra precautions.
Portland spurge
Euphorbia portlandica
Portland spurge
Portland spurge is a captivating plant with unique qualities. Its small size and attractive foliage make it a perfect addition to any garden. One interesting fact about this plant is its invasiveness; it can quickly spread and dominate its surroundings if not controlled properly. Additionally, portland spurge produces a toxic sap that protects it from predators. Despite its toxicity, this plant is widely used in traditional medicines for its healing properties. Its vibrant colors and unusual growth patterns make it a favorite among plant lovers.
Fireglow spurge 'Fireglow'
Euphorbia griffithii 'Fireglow'
Fireglow spurge 'Fireglow'
Fireglow spurge 'Fireglow' showcases vibrant orange-red inflorescences, a distinctive trait that resembles a fiery glow, inspiring its common name. This perennial herbaceous plant thrives in well-drained soil and full sun to partial shade, reaching up to 90cm in height. Its lance-shaped leaves and sturdy stems offer a robust backdrop, drawing pollinators to its nectar-rich bracts from spring to early summer.
Euphorbia white ghost
Euphorbia lactea 'White Ghost'
Euphorbia white ghost
Euphorbia white ghost is an Asian spurge that doesn’t produce much chlorophyll, the compound that gives plants their green color. Unsurprisingly, its scientific name Euphorbia lactea 'White Ghost' comes from its white color, an unusual feature that sets it apart from its green parent. Its inverted candelabra shape gives it great appeal as a cool climate houseplant but it can grow to 3 m if not controlled in a container.
Poinsettia 'Regina'
Euphorbia pulcherrima 'Regina'
Poinsettia 'Regina'
Poinsettia 'Regina' is an unusual Poinsettia cultivar that differs from the widely popular and classic Poinsettia by the color of its bracts. While the classic Poinsettia is famous for its vibrant red bracts, this unusual selection is noted for bracts that are creamy yellow to white.
Candelabra tree
Euphorbia candelabrum
Candelabra tree
The candelabra tree (Euphorbia candelabrum) gets its name from its many (up to 150!) upward-growing branches that make it resemble a candelabra. An unusually tall succulent, the candelabra tree can grow to 4.5 m high, helping it evade grazing animals. It is toxic thanks to the white, milky latex it seeps when damaged.
Balsam spurge
Euphorbia balsamifera
Balsam spurge
Balsam spurge is a squat, dense shrub with unusually thick branches that make it simple to identify in its native Canary Islands and West Africa. The island of Lanzarote uses balsam spurge's image as its plant symbol on maps and documents. This plant is resistant to termites, is highly wind-resistant, and can grow in exposed coastal locations.
Spurges 'Ascot Rainbow'
Euphorbia × martinii 'Ascot Rainbow'
Spurges 'Ascot Rainbow'
Spurges 'Ascot Rainbow' 'Ascot Rainbow' is a standout hybrid notable for its multicolored green, yellow, and red flowers and leaves. This showy plant is easy to care for and has excellent tolerance to disease, drought, and hot weather. Note that all parts of the plant are toxic. This dwarf hybrid grows well in containers and stands out in mixed borders.
Pencil cactus 'Sticks on Fire'
Euphorbia tirucalli 'Sticks on Fire'
Pencil cactus 'Sticks on Fire'
Pencil cactus 'Sticks on Fire' is a decorative cultivar of the Pencil cactus, cultivated to provide multi-seasonal interest. This evergreen succulent is distinguished by its long, fleshy, pencil-like leaves that are golden-red. The leaves turn yellow during the summer and the fall until they again become reddish in the winter.
Poinsettia 'Marbella'
Euphorbia pulcherrima 'Marbella'
Poinsettia 'Marbella'
With its striking pink leaves and white veins, poinsettia 'Marbella' has a distinctive look among poinsettias. A cultivar of the "Christmas Angel Marble" poinsettia, this variety was named after its parent plant and feminine appeal. Poinsettia 'Marbella''s appealing growth habit, colors, and longevity are making it increasingly popular.
Cypress spurge 'Fens Ruby'
Euphorbia cyparissias 'Fens Ruby'
Cypress spurge 'Fens Ruby'
Cypress spurge 'Fens Ruby' is a uniquely colorful Cypress spurge that is named for its reddish-purple stems and leaves that turn burgundy-red in the spring. This cultivar is much showier than its parent, with bright chartreuse flowers and foliage that is burgundy in the spring, blue-green in the summer, and golden-orange in autumn. These showy ever-changing colors make this a favorite perennial for many gardeners.
Crown of thorns 'Vulcanus'
Euphorbia milii 'Vulcanus'
Crown of thorns 'Vulcanus'
Crown of thorns 'Vulcanus' is a California hybrid of Crown of thorns that is part of the "Giant crown of thorns" series. Varieties of this series are bred for their stout stems and large, colorful bracts. Despite the name "giant," it is also bred to be shorter: while the parent species grows to 1.8 m, 'Vulcanus' only grows to about 50 cm. It gets its name from the volcanic essence evoked by its deep red flowers.
Graceful spurge 'Diamond Frost'
Euphorbia hypericifolia 'Diamond Frost'
Graceful spurge 'Diamond Frost'
Graceful spurge 'Diamond Frost' produces masses of tiny white flowers that bloom from early spring to the first autumn frosts. Though the plant looks tender and delicate, this cultivar is actually noted for its extreme heat and drought tolerance, as well as for its disease resistance.
Wood spurge 'Ruby Glow'
Euphorbia amygdaloides 'Ruby Glow'
Wood spurge 'Ruby Glow'
Wood spurge 'Ruby Glow' is set apart by its reserved spreading habit, red foliage, cherry-red foliage, and hardiness. It blooms from summer to fall. The wood spurge 'Ruby Glow' stems from the Euphorbia amygdaloides 'Purpurea.' Its name derives from its ruby-red foliage, which attracts the attention of gardeners looking for a resilient and easy-to-grow cultivar, as the wood spurge 'Ruby Glow' is resilient to drought and animal pests.
Fireglow spurge
Euphorbia griffithii
Fireglow spurge
Fireglow spurge is grown in gardens and used as a landscaping plant. The spreading plant produces a profusion of bright reddish-orange flowers in the summer. The bright-colored blooms are also why the plant is sometimes called “fire glow spurge.”
Euphorbia fischeriana
Euphorbia fischeriana
Euphorbia fischeriana
Euphorbia lathyris, the caper spurge or paper spurge, is a species of spurge native to southern Europe (France, Italy, Greece, northwest Africa, and eastward through southwest Asia to western China.
Mediterranean Spurge
Euphorbia characias subsp. wulfenii
Mediterranean Spurge
Mediterranean Spurge is found growing in gardens or hedges prized for its attractive appearance that lasts for months. The evergreen shrub is covered in small flowers that attract hummingbirds and butterflies. Avoid touching this plant without any precautions as its sap is poisonous.
African Milk Bush
Euphorbia umbellata
African Milk Bush
African Milk Bush is rarely cultivated in the United States but is found growing in tropical Africa. The slow-growing succulent produces branches from the base, each one filled with a milky sap. The sap is poisonous is ingested and is also a skin irritant.
Euphorbia jolkinii
Euphorbia jolkinii
Euphorbia jolkinii
Euphorbia jolkinii is a hardy perennial recognized for its clustered yellow-green bracts, which are often mistaken for flowers. This plant typically exhibits an upright, herbaceous growth habit with a prolific leafy presence in warmer seasons. The foliage consists of slender, lance-shaped leaves that contribute to its bushy appearance. In its native habitat, euphorbia jolkinii thrives in well-drained soils, often on slopes where it can maximize sun exposure, exhibiting drought-resistant properties that enable survival in arid conditions.
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Dracaena
Dracaena
Dracaena are popular house plants that are easy to grow. They can tolerate low-light conditions and require little watering. Their leaves range from variegated to dark green. Their characteristic traits include woody stems that grow slowly but offer a striking appearance for small spaces such as apartments or offices.
Ficus
Fig trees
Fig trees have been cultivated in many regions for their fruits, particularly the common fig, F. carica. Most of the species have edible fruits, although the common fig is the only one of commercial value. Fig trees are also important food sources for wildlife in the tropics, including monkeys, bats, and insects.
Rubus
Brambles
Brambles are members of the rose family, and there are hundreds of different types to be found throughout the European countryside. They have been culturally significant for centuries; Christian folklore stories hold that when the devil was thrown from heaven, he landed on a bramble bush. Their vigorous growth habit can tangle into native plants and take over.
Acer
Maples
The popular tree family known as maples change the color of their leaves in the fall. Many cultural traditions encourage people to watch the colors change, such as momijigari in Japan. Maples popular options for bonsai art. Alternately, their sap is used to create maple syrup.
Prunus
Prunus
Prunus is a genus of flowering fruit trees that includes almonds, cherries, plums, peaches, nectarines, and apricots. These are often known as "stone fruits" because their pits are large seeds or "stones." When prunus trees are damaged, they exhibit "gummosis," a condition in which the tree's gum (similar to sap) is secreted to the bark to help heal external wounds.
Solanum
Nightshades
Nightshades is a large and diverse genus of plants, with more than 1500 different types worldwide. This genus incorporates both important staple food crops like tomato, potato, and eggplant, but also dangerous poisonous plants from the nightshade family. The name was coined by Pliny the Elder almost two thousand years ago.
Rosa
Roses
Most species of roses are shrubs or climbing plants that have showy flowers and sharp thorns. They are commonly cultivated for cut flowers or as ornamental plants in gardens due to their attractive appearance, pleasant fragrance, and cultural significance in many countries. The rose hips (fruits) can also be used in jams and teas.
Quercus
Oaks
Oaks are among the world's longest-lived trees, sometimes growing for over 1,000 years! The oldest known oak tree is in the southern United States and is over 1,500 years old. Oaks produce an exceedingly popular type of wood which is used to make different products, from furniture and flooring to wine barrels and even cosmetic creams.
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Spurges
Spurges
Spurges
Spurges
Spurges
Spurges
Spurges
Euphorbia
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Lifespan
Perennial
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Plant Type
Herb/Vine
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Key Facts About Spurges

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Attributes of Spurges

Planting Time
Spring, Summer, Fall
Plant Height
30 cm to 46 cm
Spread
30 cm to 60 cm
Flower Size
2.5 cm
Leaf type
Semi-evergreen
Ideal Temperature
0 - 41 ℃

Scientific Classification of Spurges

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Distribution of Spurges

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Distribution Map of Spurges

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Native
Cultivated
Invasive
Potentially invasive
Exotic
No species reported
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How to Grow and Care for Spurges

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More Info About Caring for Spurges
species

Exploring the Spurges Plants

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8 most common species:
Euphorbia pulcherrima
Poinsettia
The poinsettia is a common sight in the United States during Christmastime. It was popularized by Albert Ecke after he emigrated to California from Germany. Today, 70 million poinsettias are sold in a 6-week period.
Euphorbia trigona
African milk tree
African milk tree (Euphorbia trigona) is a perennial species from Central Africa. African milk tree grows best in sandy soils and can root easily from cuttings. This species produces latex that can be a skin irritant. It is often planted as a houseplant and is used as a ritual plant in Gabon.
Euphorbia milii
Crown of thorns
The Euphorbia milii is commonly known as the crown of thorns or Christ thorn, as it is believed to the plant associated with the crown of thorns that was worn by Christ. It needs to stay above 10 ℃ with full sun.
Euphorbia characias
Mediterranean spurge
Mediterranean spurge (Euphorbia characias) is a flowering evergreen shrub that blooms from spring to early summer. Its nectar glands attract many pollinators, including bees and butterflies. This species grows well in dry or well-drained soil and has become a popular choice for desert gardens.
Show More Species

All Species of Spurges

Poinsettia
African milk tree
Crown of thorns
Mediterranean spurge
Pencil cactus
Devil's-backbone
Cypress spurge
Pascuita
Petty spurge
Medusa plant
Wood spurge
Spotted spurge
Pincushion euphorbia
Asthma-plant
Pine-cone plant
Myrtle spurge
Wild poinsettia
Mexican fireplant
Euphorbia
Hyssop-leaf sandmat
Matted Sandmat
Serrate spurge
Warty spurge
Sweet spurge
Silver thicket
Eggleaf Spurge
Eyebane
Twisted Spurge
Little fir spurge
Irish spurge
Candelilla
Red monadenium
Sickle spurge
Gulf sandmat
Peking spurge
Spiny spurge
Rattlesnake weed
Siebold's spurge
Pincushion euphorbia
David's spurge
Dwarf spurge
Red-gland spurge
Cliff spurge
Seaside sandmat
Mrs. Robb's hatbox
Honey euphorbia
Spurges 'Blackbird'
Devil's backbone
Fireglow spurge 'Dixter'
Pincushion euphorbia
Euphorbia loricata
Euphorbia stygiana
Euphorbia peplus var. peplus
Martin's spurge
Euphorbia gottlebei
Spurge
Euphorbia cap-saintemariensis
Euphorbia stellata
Fireglow spurge 'Fern Cottage'
Euphorbia cylindrifolia
Scarlet plume
Euphorbia atropurpurea
Euphorbia neohumbertii
Euphorbia poissonii
Miniature saguaro
Euphorbia francoisii
African candelabra
Tall Slipper Flower
Euphorbia ritchiei
Euphorbia abyssinica
Euphorbia knuthii
Devil's-backbone 'Variegata'
Euphorbia susannae
Euphorbia 'Zig Zag'
Portland spurge
Fireglow spurge 'Fireglow'
Euphorbia white ghost
Poinsettia 'Regina'
Candelabra tree
Balsam spurge
Spurges 'Ascot Rainbow'
Pencil cactus 'Sticks on Fire'
Poinsettia 'Marbella'
Cypress spurge 'Fens Ruby'
Crown of thorns 'Vulcanus'
Graceful spurge 'Diamond Frost'
Wood spurge 'Ruby Glow'
Fireglow spurge
Euphorbia fischeriana
Mediterranean Spurge
African Milk Bush
Euphorbia jolkinii
popular genus

More Popular Genus

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Dracaena
Dracaena
Dracaena are popular house plants that are easy to grow. They can tolerate low-light conditions and require little watering. Their leaves range from variegated to dark green. Their characteristic traits include woody stems that grow slowly but offer a striking appearance for small spaces such as apartments or offices.
Ficus
Fig trees
Fig trees have been cultivated in many regions for their fruits, particularly the common fig, F. carica. Most of the species have edible fruits, although the common fig is the only one of commercial value. Fig trees are also important food sources for wildlife in the tropics, including monkeys, bats, and insects.
Rubus
Brambles
Brambles are members of the rose family, and there are hundreds of different types to be found throughout the European countryside. They have been culturally significant for centuries; Christian folklore stories hold that when the devil was thrown from heaven, he landed on a bramble bush. Their vigorous growth habit can tangle into native plants and take over.
Acer
Maples
The popular tree family known as maples change the color of their leaves in the fall. Many cultural traditions encourage people to watch the colors change, such as momijigari in Japan. Maples popular options for bonsai art. Alternately, their sap is used to create maple syrup.
Prunus
Prunus
Prunus is a genus of flowering fruit trees that includes almonds, cherries, plums, peaches, nectarines, and apricots. These are often known as "stone fruits" because their pits are large seeds or "stones." When prunus trees are damaged, they exhibit "gummosis," a condition in which the tree's gum (similar to sap) is secreted to the bark to help heal external wounds.
Solanum
Nightshades
Nightshades is a large and diverse genus of plants, with more than 1500 different types worldwide. This genus incorporates both important staple food crops like tomato, potato, and eggplant, but also dangerous poisonous plants from the nightshade family. The name was coined by Pliny the Elder almost two thousand years ago.
Rosa
Roses
Most species of roses are shrubs or climbing plants that have showy flowers and sharp thorns. They are commonly cultivated for cut flowers or as ornamental plants in gardens due to their attractive appearance, pleasant fragrance, and cultural significance in many countries. The rose hips (fruits) can also be used in jams and teas.
Quercus
Oaks
Oaks are among the world's longest-lived trees, sometimes growing for over 1,000 years! The oldest known oak tree is in the southern United States and is over 1,500 years old. Oaks produce an exceedingly popular type of wood which is used to make different products, from furniture and flooring to wine barrels and even cosmetic creams.
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